B7 2


Gene Symbol: B7 2
Description: CD86 antigen
Alias: B7-2, B7.2, B70, CLS1, Cd28l2, ETC-1, Ly-58, Ly58, MB7, MB7-2, TS/A-2, T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD86, activation B7-2 antigen, early T cell costimulatory molecule-1
Species: mouse
Products:     B7 2

Top Publications

  1. Mukherjee S, Ahmed A, Nandi D. CTLA4-CD80/CD86 interactions on primary mouse CD4+ T cells integrate signal-strength information to modulate activation with Concanavalin A. J Leukoc Biol. 2005;78:144-57 pubmed
    ..In summary, CTLA4-CD80/CD86 interactions on T cells integrate signal strength, based on the dose of Con A, to enhance or inhibit primary mouse CD4(+) T cell cycling and survival. ..
  2. Bai X, Li O, Zhou Q, Zhang H, Joshi P, Zheng X, et al. CD24 controls expansion and persistence of autoreactive T cells in the central nervous system during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Exp Med. 2004;200:447-58 pubmed
  3. Hosiawa K, Wang H, DeVries M, Garcia B, Liu W, Zhou D, et al. CD80/CD86 costimulation regulates acute vascular rejection. J Immunol. 2005;175:6197-204 pubmed
    ..Most strikingly, indefinite xenograft survival can be achieved by suppressing AVR with CD86 neutralization in combination of CsA therapy, which inhibits CMR. ..
  4. Buhlmann J, Elkin S, Sharpe A. A role for the B7-1/B7-2:CD28/CTLA-4 pathway during negative selection. J Immunol. 2003;170:5421-8 pubmed
    ..Finally, CTLA-4 delivers signals that inhibit selection, suggesting that CTLA-4 and CD28 have opposing functions in thymic development. Combined, the data demonstrate that B7-1/B7-2-dependent signals help shape the T cell repertoire. ..
  5. Ray A, Karmakar P, Biswas T. Up-regulation of CD80-CD86 and IgA on mouse peritoneal B-1 cells by porin of Shigella dysenteriae is Toll-like receptors 2 and 6 dependent. Mol Immunol. 2004;41:1167-75 pubmed
    ..4- and 2.6-fold, respectively. The IgA expressed on both B-1a and B-1b cell surfaces after 72 h of culture was found to bind to the 38 kDa monomer of porin confirming it to be anti-porin IgA antibody...
  6. Chikuma S, Abbas A, Bluestone J. B7-independent inhibition of T cells by CTLA-4. J Immunol. 2005;175:177-81 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ligand binding is not essential for the CTLA-4 function and supports an essential role for CTLA-4 signaling during T cell activation. ..
  7. Kim H, Jung C, Jensen M, Dukala D, Soliven B. Targeting of myelin protein zero in a spontaneous autoimmune polyneuropathy. J Immunol. 2008;181:8753-60 pubmed
    ..The expression of P0 by peri-islet Schwann cells provides a potential mechanism linking islet autoimmunity and inflammatory neuropathy. ..
  8. Chang T, Jabs C, Sobel R, Kuchroo V, Sharpe A. Studies in B7-deficient mice reveal a critical role for B7 costimulation in both induction and effector phases of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Exp Med. 1999;190:733-40 pubmed
  9. Suvas S, Singh V, Sahdev S, Vohra H, Agrewala J. Distinct role of CD80 and CD86 in the regulation of the activation of B cell and B cell lymphoma. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:7766-75 pubmed
    ..Finally, the significance of the finding is that CD80 provided negative signal for the proliferation and IgG secretion of normal B cells and B cell lymphomas. In contrast, CD86 encouraged the activity of B cells. ..

More Information


  1. Reeves R, Patch D, Sharpe A, Borriello F, Freeman G, Edelhoff S, et al. The costimulatory genes Cd80 and Cd86 are linked on mouse chromosome 16 and human chromosome 3. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:581-2 pubmed
  2. Kasprowicz D, Kohm A, Berton M, Chruscinski A, Sharpe A, Sanders V. Stimulation of the B cell receptor, CD86 (B7-2), and the beta 2-adrenergic receptor intrinsically modulates the level of IgG1 and IgE produced per B cell. J Immunol. 2000;165:680-90 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the BCR, the beta 2AR, and CD86 are involved in regulating IL-4-dependent IgG1 and IgE production. ..
  3. Mandelbrot D, McAdam A, Sharpe A. B7-1 or B7-2 is required to produce the lymphoproliferative phenotype in mice lacking cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4). J Exp Med. 1999;189:435-40 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the inhibitory function of CTLA-4 can overcome strong CD28-mediated signaling in vivo. ..
  4. Vinh A, Chen W, Blinder Y, Weiss D, Taylor W, Goronzy J, et al. Inhibition and genetic ablation of the B7/CD28 T-cell costimulation axis prevents experimental hypertension. Circulation. 2010;122:2529-37 pubmed publisher
    ..T-cell costimulation via B7 ligands is essential for development of experimental hypertension, and inhibition of this process could have therapeutic benefit in the treatment of this disease. ..
  5. Borriello F, Sethna M, Boyd S, Schweitzer A, Tivol E, Jacoby D, et al. B7-1 and B7-2 have overlapping, critical roles in immunoglobulin class switching and germinal center formation. Immunity. 1997;6:303-13 pubmed
    ..Thus, B7-2 has an important role in initiating antibody responses in the absence of adjuvant, but the induction of B7-1 by adjuvant in B7-2-deficient mice can compensate for the absence of B7-2. ..
  6. Hancock W, Sayegh M, Zheng X, Peach R, Linsley P, Turka L. Costimulatory function and expression of CD40 ligand, CD80, and CD86 in vascularized murine cardiac allograft rejection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:13967-72 pubmed
    ..These data also suggest that long-term graft survival can be achieved without blockade of either T cell receptor-mediated signals or CD28-CD86 engagement. ..
  7. Nolan A, Weiden M, Kelly A, Hoshino Y, Hoshino S, Mehta N, et al. CD40 and CD80/86 act synergistically to regulate inflammation and mortality in polymicrobial sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177:301-8 pubmed
    ..Expression of costimulatory molecules may serve as biomarkers for outcome in septic patients. ..
  8. Mandelbrot D, Oosterwegel M, Shimizu K, Yamada A, Freeman G, Mitchell R, et al. B7-dependent T-cell costimulation in mice lacking CD28 and CTLA4. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:881-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, administration of CTLA4-Ig to CD28/CTLA4(-/-) cardiac allograft recipients significantly prolongs graft survival. These data support the existence of an additional receptor for B7 molecules that is neither CD28 nor CTLA4. ..
  9. Qureshi O, Zheng Y, Nakamura K, Attridge K, Manzotti C, Schmidt E, et al. Trans-endocytosis of CD80 and CD86: a molecular basis for the cell-extrinsic function of CTLA-4. Science. 2011;332:600-3 pubmed publisher
  10. Podojil J, Sanders V. Selective regulation of mature IgG1 transcription by CD86 and beta 2-adrenergic receptor stimulation. J Immunol. 2003;170:5143-51 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first evidence that CD86 and/or beta(2)AR stimulation on a CD40 ligand/IL-4-activated B cell increases the level of IgG1 protein produced per cell by increasing the rate of mature IgG1 transcription. ..
  11. Friedline R, Brown D, Nguyen H, Kornfeld H, Lee J, Zhang Y, et al. CD4+ regulatory T cells require CTLA-4 for the maintenance of systemic tolerance. J Exp Med. 2009;206:421-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that CTLA-4 is absolutely required for FOXP3(+) regulatory T cell function in vivo. ..
  12. Rau F, Dieter J, Luo Z, Priest S, Baumgarth N. B7-1/2 (CD80/CD86) direct signaling to B cells enhances IgG secretion. J Immunol. 2009;183:7661-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results identify direct signaling through B7-1/2 as a potent regulator of IgG secretion by previously activated B cells. ..
  13. Freeman G, Long A, Iwai Y, Bourque K, Chernova T, Nishimura H, et al. Engagement of the PD-1 immunoinhibitory receptor by a novel B7 family member leads to negative regulation of lymphocyte activation. J Exp Med. 2000;192:1027-34 pubmed
    ..PD-L1 expression on nonlymphoid tissues and its potential interaction with PD-1 may subsequently determine the extent of immune responses at sites of inflammation. ..
  14. Bour Jordan H, Salomon B, Thompson H, Szot G, Bernhard M, Bluestone J. Costimulation controls diabetes by altering the balance of pathogenic and regulatory T cells. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:979-87 pubmed
    ..Thus, elimination of Treg's results in diabetes even in the absence of costimulation, which suggests a need for alternative strategies for immunotherapeutic approaches. ..
  15. Girvin A, Dal Canto M, Rhee L, Salomon B, Sharpe A, Bluestone J, et al. A critical role for B7/CD28 costimulation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: a comparative study using costimulatory molecule-deficient mice and monoclonal antibody blockade. J Immunol. 2000;164:136-43 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results support a critical role for CD28 costimulation in EAE induction. ..
  16. Taylor P, Lees C, Fournier S, Allison J, Sharpe A, Blazar B. B7 expression on T cells down-regulates immune responses through CTLA-4 ligation via T-T interactions [corrections]. J Immunol. 2004;172:34-9 pubmed
    ..The up-regulation of B7 on T cells may be an important component of normal immune homeostasis. ..
  17. Gao J, Zhang H, Bai X, Wen J, Zheng X, Liu J, et al. Perinatal blockade of b7-1 and b7-2 inhibits clonal deletion of highly pathogenic autoreactive T cells. J Exp Med. 2002;195:959-71 pubmed
    ..The strong pathogenicity of the self-reactive T cells supports a central hypothesis in immunology, which is that clonal deletion plays an important role in preventing autoimmune diseases. ..
  18. Louvet C, Kabre B, Davini D, Martinier N, Su M, DeVoss J, et al. A novel myelin P0-specific T cell receptor transgenic mouse develops a fulminant autoimmune peripheral neuropathy. J Exp Med. 2009;206:507-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that myelin P0 is a major autoantigen in autoimmune peripheral neuropathy. ..
  19. Bour Jordan H, Thompson H, Bluestone J. Distinct effector mechanisms in the development of autoimmune neuropathy versus diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol. 2005;175:5649-55 pubmed
    ..Thus, there are sharp contrasts in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases targeting different tissues in the same NOD background. ..
  20. Kin N, Sanders V. CD86 regulates IgG1 production via a CD19-dependent mechanism. J Immunol. 2007;179:1516-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings suggest that CD86 plays a key role in regulating the level of IgG(1) produced in vitro and in vivo, and that Lyn and CD19 may be the signaling intermediates activated by CD86 proximal to PI3K. ..
  21. O Neill S, Cao Y, Hamel K, Doodes P, Hutas G, Finnegan A. Expression of CD80/86 on B cells is essential for autoreactive T cell activation and the development of arthritis. J Immunol. 2007;179:5109-16 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that a CD80/86:CD28 costimulatory interaction between B cells and T cells is required for autoreactive T cell activation and the induction of arthritis but not for B cell autoantibody production...
  22. Salomon B, Lenschow D, Rhee L, Ashourian N, Singh B, Sharpe A, et al. B7/CD28 costimulation is essential for the homeostasis of the CD4+CD25+ immunoregulatory T cells that control autoimmune diabetes. Immunity. 2000;12:431-40 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the CD28/ B7 costimulatory pathway is essential for the development and homeostasis of regulatory T cells that control spontaneous autoimmune diseases. ..
  23. Salomon B, Rhee L, Bour Jordan H, Hsin H, Montag A, Soliven B, et al. Development of spontaneous autoimmune peripheral polyneuropathy in B7-2-deficient NOD mice. J Exp Med. 2001;194:677-84 pubmed
    ..This model demonstrates that NOD mice have "cryptic" autoimmune defects that can polarize toward the nervous tissue after the selective disruption of CD28/B7-2 costimulatory pathway...
  24. Zeng X, Nagavalli A, Smith C, Howard J, Su M. Divergent effects of T cell costimulation and inflammatory cytokine production on autoimmune peripheral neuropathy provoked by Aire deficiency. J Immunol. 2013;190:3895-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Aire(GW/+) mice. Together, these findings reveal distinct and opposing effects of the T cell costimulatory pathway and IFN-? production on the pathogenesis of autoimmune peripheral neuropathy. ..
  25. Yu X, Fournier S, Allison J, Sharpe A, Hodes R. The role of B7 costimulation in CD4/CD8 T cell homeostasis. J Immunol. 2000;164:3543-53 pubmed
    ..These reciprocal effects of genetically engineered increase or decrease in B7 expression indicate that B7 costimulation plays a physiological role in the regulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell homeostasis. ..
  26. Zheng X, Gao J, Chang X, Wang Y, Liu Y, Wen J, et al. B7-CD28 interaction promotes proliferation and survival but suppresses differentiation of CD4-CD8- T cells in the thymus. J Immunol. 2004;173:2253-61 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that the development of DN in the thymus is subject to modulation by the B7-CD28 costimulatory pathway. ..
  27. Li G, Wu X, Zhang F, Li X, Sun B, Yu Y, et al. Triple expression of B7-1, B7-2 and 4-1BBL enhanced antitumor immune response against mouse H22 hepatocellular carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011;137:695-703 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the antitumor consequences of using B7-1, B7-2 and 4-1BBL gene transfer have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of gene therapy approach for hepatocellular carcinoma. ..
  28. Jain N, Miu B, Jiang J, McKinstry K, Prince A, Swain S, et al. CD28 and ITK signals regulate autoreactive T cell trafficking. Nat Med. 2013;19:1632-7 pubmed publisher
  29. Beyranvand Nejad E, van der Sluis T, van Duikeren S, Yagita H, Janssen G, van Veelen P, et al. Tumor Eradication by Cisplatin Is Sustained by CD80/86-Mediated Costimulation of CD8+ T Cells. Cancer Res. 2016;76:6017-6029 pubmed
    ..Cancer Res; 76(20); 6017-29. ©2016 AACR. ..
  30. Sun J, Tumurbaatar B, Jia J, Diao H, Bodola F, Lemon S, et al. Parenchymal expression of CD86/B7.2 contributes to hepatitis C virus-related liver injury. J Virol. 2005;79:10730-9 pubmed
    ..This study provides an additional rationale for exploring immunomodulation-based therapies that could reduce disease progression in individuals with chronic HCV infection. ..
  31. Zheng P, Wu Y, Guo Y, Lee C, Liu Y. B7-CTLA4 interaction enhances both production of antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes and resistance to tumor challenge. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:6284-9 pubmed
  32. Chen C, Nabavi N. In vitro induction of T cell anergy by blocking B7 and early T cell costimulatory molecule ETC-1/B7-2. Immunity. 1994;1:147-54 pubmed
  33. Terme M, Tomasello E, Maruyama K, Crépineau F, Chaput N, Flament C, et al. IL-4 confers NK stimulatory capacity to murine dendritic cells: a signaling pathway involving KARAP/DAP12-triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell 2 molecules. J Immunol. 2004;172:5957-66 pubmed
    ..These data outline a novel role for Th2 cytokines in the regulation of innate immune responses through triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells. ..
  34. Zhang P, Lewis J, Michalek S, Katz J. Role of CD80 and CD86 in host immune responses to the recombinant hemagglutinin domain of Porphyromonas gingivalis gingipain and in the adjuvanticity of cholera toxin B and monophosphoryl lipid A. Vaccine. 2007;25:6201-10 pubmed
    ..n. route alone or with adjuvant. ..
  35. White A, Jenkinson W, Cowan J, Parnell S, Bacon A, Jones N, et al. An essential role for medullary thymic epithelial cells during the intrathymic development of invariant NKT cells. J Immunol. 2014;192:2659-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the identification of a novel requirement for iNKT cells in thymus medulla development further highlights the role of both innate and adaptive immune cells in thymus medulla formation. ..
  36. Yang J, Riella L, Chock S, Liu T, Zhao X, Yuan X, et al. The novel costimulatory programmed death ligand 1/B7.1 pathway is functional in inhibiting alloimmune responses in vivo. J Immunol. 2011;187:1113-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1 interaction with T cell PDL1 did not. These data indicate that PDL1 interaction with B7.1 plays an important role in the inhibition of alloimmune responses in vivo and suggests a dominant direction for PDL1 and B7.1 interaction. ..
  37. Kariv I, Truneh A, Sweet R. Analysis of the site of interaction of CD28 with its counter-receptors CD80 and CD86 and correlation with function. J Immunol. 1996;157:29-38 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, for CD28, the strength of functional response, as measured by IL-2 production, directly correlates with binding avidity. ..
  38. Truneh A, Reddy M, Ryan P, Lyn S, Eichman C, Couez D, et al. Differential recognition by CD28 of its cognate counter receptors CD80 (B7.1) and B70 (B7.2): analysis by site directed mutagenesis. Mol Immunol. 1996;33:321-34 pubmed
    ..serves as a co-signalling molecule for T cell activation through binding to its cognate counter-receptors CD80 and B70, expressed on antigen presenting cells...
  39. Zeng M, Guinet E, Nouri Shirazi M. B7-1 and B7-2 differentially control peripheral homeostasis of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. Transpl Immunol. 2009;20:171-9 pubmed publisher
  40. Grujic M, Bartholdy C, Remy M, Pinschewer D, Christensen J, Thomsen A. The role of CD80/CD86 in generation and maintenance of functional virus-specific CD8+ T cells in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J Immunol. 2010;185:1730-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, virus-specific T cell memory was more impaired in the absence of B7 molecules than in the absence of the CD28 receptor, supporting earlier data suggesting the existence of additional stimulatory receptors for B7. ..
  41. Thomas I, Petrich de Marquesini L, Ravanan R, Smith R, Guerder S, Flavell R, et al. CD86 has sustained costimulatory effects on CD8 T cells. J Immunol. 2007;179:5936-46 pubmed
    ..These functions have implications for the engineered use of costimulatory molecules in altering immune responses in a therapeutic setting. ..
  42. Mamchak A, Sullivan B, Hou B, Lee L, Gilden J, Krummel M, et al. Normal development and activation but altered cytokine production of Fyn-deficient CD4+ T cells. J Immunol. 2008;181:5374-85 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that ablation of Fyn expression does not alter most Ag-driven CD4(+) T cell responses, with the exception of cytokine production, which under some circumstances is enhanced in Fyn-deficient CD4(+) T cells. ..
  43. DeFalco T, Bhattacharya I, Williams A, Sams D, Capel B. Yolk-sac-derived macrophages regulate fetal testis vascularization and morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E2384-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a previously unappreciated role for macrophages in testis morphogenesis and suggest that macrophages are an intermediary between neovascularization and organ architecture during fetal organogenesis. ..
  44. Lei J, Cheng J, Li Y, Li S, Zhang L. CD80, but not CD86, express on cultured murine keratinocyte stem cells. Transplant Proc. 2005;37:289-91 pubmed
    ..The data indicate KSCs could act as antigen-presenting cells and thus provide an alternative explanation for the ultimate rejection of allogeneic keratinocytes. ..
  45. Fuse S, Tsai C, Rommereim L, Zhang W, Usherwood E. Differential requirements for CD80/86-CD28 costimulation in primary and memory CD4 T cell responses to vaccinia virus. Cell Immunol. 2011;266:130-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight different costimulatory requirements for primary CD4 and CD8 T cell responses to vaccinia virus...
  46. Cook C, Chen L, Wen J, Zimmerman P, Zhang Y, Trgovcich J, et al. CD28/B7-mediated co-stimulation is critical for early control of murine cytomegalovirus infection. Viral Immunol. 2009;22:91-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytokine evaluations confirm that CD28/B7 co-stimulation is not required for non-specific antiviral responses. We conclude that CD28-mediated co-stimulation is critical for early viral control during acute MCMV infection. ..
  47. Gopisetty A, Bhattacharya P, Haddad C, Bruno J, Vasu C, Miele L, et al. OX40L/Jagged1 cosignaling by GM-CSF-induced bone marrow-derived dendritic cells is required for the expansion of functional regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2013;190:5516-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results showed a critical role for OX40L- and Jagged1-induced cosignaling in GM-BMDC-induced Treg expansion. ..
  48. Levy R, Rotfogel Z, Hillman D, Popugailo A, Arad G, Supper E, et al. Superantigens hyperinduce inflammatory cytokines by enhancing the B7-2/CD28 costimulatory receptor interaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E6437-E6446 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal a role for B7-2 as obligatory receptor for superantigens. B7-2 homodimer interface mimotopes prevent superantigen lethality by blocking the superantigen-host costimulatory receptor interaction. ..
  49. Watanabe M, Fujihara C, Radtke A, Chiang Y, Bhatia S, Germain R, et al. Co-stimulatory function in primary germinal center responses: CD40 and B7 are required on distinct antigen-presenting cells. J Exp Med. 2017;214:2795-2810 pubmed publisher
  50. Isono T, Seto A. Cloning and sequencing of the rabbit gene encoding T-cell costimulatory molecules. Immunogenetics. 1995;42:217-20 pubmed
  51. Chang T, Kuchroo V, Sharpe A. Role of the B7-CD28/CTLA-4 pathway in autoimmune disease. Curr Dir Autoimmun. 2002;5:113-30 pubmed
  52. Kline J, Zhang L, Battaglia L, Cohen K, Gajewski T. Cellular and molecular requirements for rejection of B16 melanoma in the setting of regulatory T cell depletion and homeostatic proliferation. J Immunol. 2012;188:2630-42 pubmed publisher
  53. Nierkens S, Aalbers M, Bol M, Bleumink R, van Kooten P, Boon L, et al. Differential requirement for CD28/CTLA-4-CD80/CD86 interactions in drug-induced type 1 and type 2 immune responses to trinitrophenyl-ovalbumin. J Immunol. 2005;175:3707-14 pubmed
    ..Importantly, the effects of treatment with anti-CD80/CD86 mAbs and CTLA-4-Ig may be considerably different in responses induced by distinct drugs. ..
  54. Salek Ardakani S, Arens R, Flynn R, Sette A, Schoenberger S, Croft M. Preferential use of B7.2 and not B7.1 in priming of vaccinia virus-specific CD8 T cells. J Immunol. 2009;182:2909-18 pubmed publisher
    ..2 is the major ligand for the CD28 receptor on VACV-specific CD8 T cells, that B7.2 can promote efficient CD8 T cell priming without B7.1, and that B7.1 and B7.2 can be differentially utilized during antiviral responses. ..
  55. Bielinska A, Makidon P, Janczak K, Blanco L, Swanson B, Smith D, et al. Distinct pathways of humoral and cellular immunity induced with the mucosal administration of a nanoemulsion adjuvant. J Immunol. 2014;192:2722-33 pubmed publisher
  56. Fuse S, Obar J, Bellfy S, Leung E, Zhang W, Usherwood E. CD80 and CD86 control antiviral CD8+ T-cell function and immune surveillance of murine gammaherpesvirus 68. J Virol. 2006;80:9159-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, CD80 and CD86, signaling through CD28 and possibly another unidentified receptor, are required for optimal immune surveillance and antiviral immune responses to murine gammaherpesvirus. ..
  57. Krupnick A, Gelman A, Barchet W, Richardson S, Kreisel F, Turka L, et al. Murine vascular endothelium activates and induces the generation of allogeneic CD4+25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2005;175:6265-70 pubmed
    ..This process occurs independently of B7.1 costimulation but is dependent on programmed death ligand 1 (B7-H1). This finding may have important implications for tolerance induction in transplantation. ..
  58. Liang B, Kashgarian M, Sharpe A, Mamula M. Autoantibody responses and pathology regulated by B7-1 and B7-2 costimulation in MRL/lpr lupus. J Immunol. 2000;165:3436-43 pubmed
    ..By comparison, B7-1-deficient MRL-lpr/lpr mice had more severe IgG and C3 deposits in glomeruli. ..
  59. Ribot J, deBarros A, Mancio Silva L, Pamplona A, Silva Santos B. B7-CD28 costimulatory signals control the survival and proliferation of murine and human ?? T cells via IL-2 production. J Immunol. 2012;189:1202-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data collectively show that CD28 signals are required for IL-2-mediated survival and proliferation of both CD27(+) and CD27(-) ?? T cell subsets, thus providing new mechanistic insight for their modulation in disease models. ..
  60. Tsai M, Ho H, Chien H, Ou Yang P, Lee C, Lee P. The role of B7 ligands (CD80 and CD86) in CD152-mediated allograft tolerance: a crosscheck hypothesis. Transplantation. 2004;77:48-54 pubmed
    ..Both CD80 and CD86 were essential for the induction and maintenance of the CD152-mediated allograft tolerance. ..
  61. Inaba K, Witmer Pack M, Inaba M, Hathcock K, Sakuta H, Azuma M, et al. The tissue distribution of the B7-2 costimulator in mice: abundant expression on dendritic cells in situ and during maturation in vitro. J Exp Med. 1994;180:1849-60 pubmed
    ..Dendritic cell stimulation of T cells (DNA synthesis) during the mixed leukocyte reaction was significantly (35-65%) blocked by GL-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  62. Williams J, Lumsden J, Yu X, Feigenbaum L, Zhang J, Steinberg S, et al. Regulation of thymic NKT cell development by the B7-CD28 costimulatory pathway. J Immunol. 2008;181:907-17 pubmed
  63. Anderson B, McNiff J, Jain D, Blazar B, Shlomchik W, Shlomchik M. Distinct roles for donor- and host-derived antigen-presenting cells and costimulatory molecules in murine chronic graft-versus-host disease: requirements depend on target organ. Blood. 2005;105:2227-34 pubmed
    ..These results identify differences in APC requirements between CD8-mediated aGVHD and CD4-mediated cGVHD. They further highlight donor APCs as additional targets for GVHD therapy. ..
  64. Ait Oufella H, Salomon B, Potteaux S, Robertson A, Gourdy P, Zoll J, et al. Natural regulatory T cells control the development of atherosclerosis in mice. Nat Med. 2006;12:178-80 pubmed
    ..These results provide new insights into the immunopathogenesis of atherosclerosis and could lead to new therapeutic approaches that involve immune modulation using regulatory T cells. ..
  65. LaBelle J, Hanke C, Blazar B, Truitt R. Negative effect of CTLA-4 on induction of T-cell immunity in vivo to B7-1+, but not B7-2+, murine myelogenous leukemia. Blood. 2002;99:2146-53 pubmed
    ..Blocking or deletion of CTLA-4 did not affect the growth of parental C1498, indicating that B7-1 was important for the induction of CD8+ T-cell immunity in the absence of CTLA-4. ..
  66. Strainic M, Liu J, Huang D, An F, Lalli P, Muqim N, et al. Locally produced complement fragments C5a and C3a provide both costimulatory and survival signals to naive CD4+ T cells. Immunity. 2008;28:425-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These local paracrine and autocrine interactions thus operate constitutively in naive T cells to maintain viability, and their amplification by cognate APC partners thus is critical to T cell costimulation. ..
  67. Wang C, Heuts F, Ovcinnikovs V, Wardzinski L, Bowers C, Schmidt E, et al. CTLA-4 controls follicular helper T-cell differentiation by regulating the strength of CD28 engagement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:524-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support a model in which CTLA-4 control of immunity goes beyond vetoing T-cell priming and encompasses the regulation of T(FH) differentiation by graded control of CD28 engagement. ..
  68. Onodera T, Jang M, Guo Z, Yamasaki M, Hirata T, Bai Z, et al. Constitutive expression of IDO by dendritic cells of mesenteric lymph nodes: functional involvement of the CTLA-4/B7 and CCL22/CCR4 interactions. J Immunol. 2009;183:5608-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a mechanism may help induce the specific milieu in MLNs that is required for the induction of oral tolerance. ..
  69. Jabs C, Greve B, Chang T, Sobel R, Sharpe A, Kuchroo V. Genetic background determines the requirement for B7 costimulation in induction of autoimmunity. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:2687-97 pubmed
    ..Thus, genetic background determines the B7 requirement for inducing autoimmunity. These data have important implications for developing B7-based immunotherapies for human diseases. ..
  70. Stack R, Lenschow D, Gray G, Bluestone J, Fitch F. IL-4 treatment of small splenic B cells induces costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2. J Immunol. 1994;152:5723-33 pubmed
    ..Additionally, these findings support our previous findings that an alternative ligand for CD28 and CTLA4 is important in providing costimulation. ..
  71. Brunschwig E, Levine E, Trefzer U, Tykocinski M. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-modified murine B7-1 and B7-2 retain costimulator function. J Immunol. 1995;155:5498-505 pubmed
  72. Lin Z, Wang C, Xia H, Liu W, Xiao W, Qian L, et al. CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells induce NKG2D down-regulation in natural killer cells in CD86-RAE-1? transgenic mice. Immunology. 2014;141:401-15 pubmed publisher
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