Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: B4galnt2
Description: beta-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 2
Alias: AI593864, Dlb-1, Dlb1, Galg2, Galgt2, Ggm3, Igf2bp1, beta-1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2, CT-Gal NAc transferase, N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:(N-acetylneuraminyl)-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylpolypeptide-beta-1, 4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, dolichos lectin binding 1
- Thomas P, Xu R, Martin P. B4GALNT2 (GALGT2) Gene Therapy Reduces Skeletal Muscle Pathology in the FKRP P448L Mouse Model of Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2I. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:2429-48 pubmed publisherOverexpression of B4GALNT2 (previously GALGT2) inhibits the development of muscle pathology in mouse models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, congenital muscular dystrophy 1A, and limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2D...
- Smith P, Lowe J. Molecular cloning of a murine N-acetylgalactosamine transferase cDNA that determines expression of the T lymphocyte-specific CT oligosaccharide differentiation antigen. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:15162-71 pubmed
- Tao K, Urlando C, Heddle J. Mutagenicity of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in vivo at the Dlb-1 native locus and a lacI transgene. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1993;22:293-6 pubmed..The carcinogenicity of MMS is probably the result of its potent clastogenicity rather than its weak activity as a point mutagen. ..
- Shaver Walker P, Urlando C, Tao K, Zhang X, Heddle J. Enhanced somatic mutation rates induced in stem cells of mice by low chronic exposure to ethylnitrosourea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:11470-4 pubmed..Enhanced mutagenesis may be important for risk evaluation, as the results show that chronic exposures can be more mutagenic than acute ones and raise the possibility of synergism between chemicals at low doses. ..
- Chandraskeharan K, Martin P. Embryonic overexpression of Galgt2 inhibits skeletal muscle growth via activation of myostatin signaling. Muscle Nerve. 2009;39:25-41 pubmed publisher..One type of glycosylation that affects muscle growth is that controlled by the CT GalNAc transferase (Galgt2), the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the beta1,4GalNAc linkage on the CT carbohydrate antigen (..
- Singhal N, Xu R, Martin P. Distinct contributions of Galgt1 and Galgt2 to carbohydrate expression and function at the mouse neuromuscular junction. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2012;51:112-26 pubmed publisher..CT carbohydrate on gangliosides, is required for presynaptic expression of the CT carbohydrate at the NMJ, while Galgt2, which can synthesize the ?1,4GalNAc of the CT carbohydrate on glycoproteins, is required for postsynaptic ..
- Wilson S, Billings P, D EUSTACHIO P, Fournier R, Geissler E, Lalley P, et al. Clustering of cytokine genes on mouse chromosome 11. J Exp Med. 1990;171:1301-14 pubmed
- Xu R, Chandrasekharan K, Yoon J, Camboni M, Martin P. Overexpression of the cytotoxic T cell (CT) carbohydrate inhibits muscular dystrophy in the dyW mouse model of congenital muscular dystrophy 1A. Am J Pathol. 2007;171:181-99 pubmed..Here, we show that overexpression of the cytotoxic T cell (CT) GalNAc transferase (Galgt2) is effective in inhibiting the development of muscle pathology in the dy(W) mouse model of MDC1A, much as we had ..
- Toft N, Winton D, Kelly J, Howard L, Dekker M, te Riele H, et al. Msh2 status modulates both apoptosis and mutation frequency in the murine small intestine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:3911-5 pubmed
- Roberts M, Mock B, Blackwell J. Mapping of genes controlling Leishmania major infection in CXS recombinant inbred mice. Eur J Immunogenet. 1993;20:349-62 pubmed
- Rausch P, Steck N, Suwandi A, Seidel J, KÃ¼nzel S, Bhullar K, et al. Expression of the Blood-Group-Related Gene B4galnt2 Alters Susceptibility to Salmonella Infection. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1005008 pubmed publisher..expression patterns of the blood group glycosyltransferase Î²-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4galnt2) are variable in wild mouse populations, and loss of B4galnt2 expression is associated with altered intestinal ..
- Xu R, Singhal N, Serinagaoglu Y, Chandrasekharan K, Joshi M, Bauer J, et al. Deletion of Galgt2 (B4Galnt2) reduces muscle growth in response to acute injury and increases muscle inflammation and pathology in dystrophin-deficient mice. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:2668-84 pubmed publisherTransgenic overexpression of Galgt2 (official name B4Galnt2) in skeletal muscle stimulates the glycosylation of Î± dystroglycan (Î±DG) and the up-regulation of laminin Î±2 and dystrophin surrogates known to inhibit muscle pathology ..
- Yoon J, Johnson E, Xu R, Martin L, Martin P, Montanaro F. Comparative proteomic profiling of dystroglycan-associated proteins in wild type, mdx, and Galgt2 transgenic mouse skeletal muscle. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:4413-24 pubmed publisher..In addition, we describe changes that result from overexpression of Galgt2, a normally synaptic muscle glycosyltransferase that can modify alpha dystroglycan and inhibit the development of ..
- Li P, Liao C, Yu L, Wu W, Chu S. Localization of B4GALNT2 and its role in mouse embryo attachment. Fertil Steril. 2012;97:1206-12.e1-3 pubmed publisherTo investigate the location of ?-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase II (B4GALNT2) and the involvement of this protein and Sd(a) antigen in embryonic implantation. Cell and animal study. University...
- Yoshikawa M, Go S, Suzuki S, Suzuki A, Katori Y, Morlet T, et al. Ganglioside GM3 is essential for the structural integrity and function of cochlear hair cells. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:2796-807 pubmed publisher..Thus, GM3-dependent membrane microdomains might be essential for the proper organization and maintenance of stereocilia in auditory hair cells. ..
- Martin P, Xu R, Rodino Klapac L, Oglesbay E, Camboni M, Montgomery C, et al. Overexpression of Galgt2 in skeletal muscle prevents injury resulting from eccentric contractions in both mdx and wild-type mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C476-88 pubmed publisherThe cytotoxic T cell (CT) GalNAc transferase, or Galgt2, is a UDP-GalNAc:beta1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase that is localized to the neuromuscular synapse in adult skeletal muscle, where it creates the synaptic CT carbohydrate ..
- Takahashi M, Yoshida M, Satoh H, Hilgers J, Yaoita Y, Honjo T. Chromosomal mapping of the mouse IL-4 and human IL-5 genes. Genomics. 1989;4:47-52 pubmed
- Vallier M, Abou Chakra M, Hindersin L, Linnenbrink M, Traulsen A, Baines J. Evaluating the maintenance of disease-associated variation at the blood group-related gene B4galnt2 in house mice. BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:187 pubmed publisherb>B4galnt2 is a blood group-related glycosyltransferase that displays cis-regulatory variation for its tissue-specific expression patterns in house mice. The wild type allele, found e.g...
- Olvera Gomez I, Hamilton S, Xiao Z, Guimaraes C, Ploegh H, Hogquist K, et al. Cholera toxin activates nonconventional adjuvant pathways that induce protective CD8 T-cell responses after epicutaneous vaccination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:2072-7 pubmed publisher..Chemoenzymatic generation of CT-antigen fusion proteins led to efficient priming of the CD8 T-cell responses, paving the way for development of this immunization strategy as a therapeutic option. ..
- Xu R, DeVries S, Camboni M, Martin P. Overexpression of Galgt2 reduces dystrophic pathology in the skeletal muscles of alpha sarcoglycan-deficient mice. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:235-47 pubmed publisher..One such gene is Galgt2, which is also called cytotoxic T cell GalNAc transferase in mice...
- Cosentino L, Heddle J. The induction of dominant somatic mutations at the Dlb-1 locus. Mutat Res. 1995;346:115-9 pubmed..Such ribbons were observed in the treated group but not in controls. The mutant frequency was low compared to the frequency of Dlb-1a-like mutations reported at the Dlb-1b allele in heterozygous mice. ..
- Ponder B, Festing M, Wilkinson M. An allelic difference determines reciprocal patterns of expression of binding sites for Dolichos biflorus lectin in inbred strains of mice. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1985;87:229-39 pubmed..If so, elucidation of the genetic basis of the polymorphism might provide an insight into the mechanisms of developmental regulation of glycosyltransferase activity. ..
- Uiterdijk H, Ponder B, Festing M, Hilgers J, Skow L, Van Nie R. The gene controlling the binding sites of Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, Dlb-1, is on chromosome 11 of the mouse. Genet Res. 1986;47:125-9 pubmed
- Nguyen H, Jayasinha V, Xia B, Hoyte K, Martin P. Overexpression of the cytotoxic T cell GalNAc transferase in skeletal muscle inhibits muscular dystrophy in mdx mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:5616-21 pubmed
- Xia B, Hoyte K, Kammesheidt A, Deerinck T, Ellisman M, Martin P. Overexpression of the CT GalNAc transferase in skeletal muscle alters myofiber growth, neuromuscular structure, and laminin expression. Dev Biol. 2002;242:58-73 pubmed
- Sansom O, Stark L, Dunlop M, Clarke A. Suppression of intestinal and mammary neoplasia by lifetime administration of aspirin in Apc(Min/+) and Apc(Min/+), Msh2(-/-) mice. Cancer Res. 2001;61:7060-4 pubmed..Thus embryonic and perinatal exposure to aspirin suppresses neoplasia specifically associated with the loss of Apc function, opening a potential window of opportunity for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug intervention. ..
- Ozawa M, Huang R, Furukawa T, Muramatsu T. A teratocarcinoma glycoprotein carrying a developmentally regulated carbohydrate marker is a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:3059-62 pubmed..In contrast to other members of the superfamily, the core protein gene was significantly expressed in embryonal carcinoma cells, which are similar to undifferentiated cells of early embryos. ..
- Bernier L, Colman D, D EUSTACHIO P. Chromosomal locations of genes encoding 2',3' cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the mouse. J Neurosci Res. 1988;20:497-504 pubmed..We have localized the GFAP gene to distal chromosome 11 in the mouse. There are two genetic loci identified by CNP probes, one is closely linked to the GFAP gene, and the other maps to chromosome 3. ..