Gene Symbol: B4galnt2
Description: beta-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 2
Alias: AI593864, Dlb-1, Dlb1, Galg2, Galgt2, Ggm3, Igf2bp1, beta-1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2, CT-Gal NAc transferase, N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:(N-acetylneuraminyl)-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylpolypeptide-beta-1, 4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, dolichos lectin binding 1
Species: mouse
Products:     B4galnt2

Top Publications

  1. Mohlke K, Purkayastha A, Westrick R, Smith P, Petryniak B, Lowe J, et al. Mvwf, a dominant modifier of murine von Willebrand factor, results from altered lineage-specific expression of a glycosyltransferase. Cell. 1999;96:111-20 pubmed
    We have identified altered lineage-specific expression of an N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase gene, Galgt2, as the gain-of-function mechanism responsible for the action of the Mvwf locus, a major modifier of plasma von Willebrand factor (..
  2. Staubach F, Künzel S, Baines A, Yee A, McGee B, Backhed F, et al. Expression of the blood-group-related glycosyltransferase B4galnt2 influences the intestinal microbiota in mice. ISME J. 2012;6:1345-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The locus encoding the blood-group-related glycosyltransferase ?-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4galnt2) is subject to strong selective forces in natural house-mouse populations that contain a common allelic variant ..
  3. Linnenbrink M, JOHNSEN J, Montero I, Brzezinski C, Harr B, Baines J. Long-term balancing selection at the blood group-related gene B4galnt2 in the genus Mus (Rodentia; Muridae). Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:2999-3003 pubmed publisher
    ..Cis-regulatory variation at the blood group-related glycosyltransferase B4galnt2 is associated with a phenotype in mice that closely resembles a common human bleeding disorder, von Willebrand ..
  4. JOHNSEN J, Teschke M, Pavlidis P, McGee B, Tautz D, Ginsburg D, et al. Selection on cis-regulatory variation at B4galnt2 and its influence on von Willebrand factor in house mice. Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:567-78 pubmed publisher
    ..to a regulatory mutation, Mvwf1, which directs a tissue-specific switch in expression of a glycosyltransferase, B4GALNT2, from intestine to blood vessel...
  5. Lo Presti L, Cabuy E, Chiricolo M, Dall Olio F. Molecular cloning of the human beta1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase responsible for the biosynthesis of the Sd(a) histo-blood group antigen: the sequence predicts a very long cytoplasmic domain. J Biochem. 2003;134:675-82 pubmed
    ..The mRNA is expressed at a high level in differentiated Caco2 cells and in colonic mucosa and at a much lower level in lymphocytes and other colon cancer cell lines. ..
  6. Michael S, Hilgers J, Kozak C, Whitney J, Howard E. Characterization and mapping of DNA sequence homologous to mouse U1a1 snRNA: localization on chromosome 11 near the Dlb-1 and Re loci. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1986;12:215-23 pubmed
    ..The results of these experiments prove that the U1a1 gene is located on chromosome 11 near the Delb-1 and Re loci. ..
  7. Li P, Liao C, Wu W, Yu L, Chu S. Progesterone-regulated B4galnt2 expression is a requirement for embryo implantation in mice. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:2404-9, 2409.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    To investigate B4galnt2 gene regulation in the female mouse reproductive system (B4galnt2 encodes an enzyme, ?1,4-N-acetylgalactosylaminyltransferase II, that catalyzes the addition of GalNAc to glycoproteins via a ?1,4 linkage)...
  8. Brooks R, Gooderham N, Zhao K, Edwards R, Howard L, Boobis A, et al. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine is a potent mutagen in the mouse small intestine. Cancer Res. 1994;54:1665-71 pubmed
  9. Mock B, Hilgers J, Huppi K, D Hoostelaere L. A TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphism at the Hox-2.1 locus cosegregates with the Dlb-1 locus on mouse chromosome 11. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987;15:2397 pubmed

More Information


  1. Thomas P, Xu R, Martin P. B4GALNT2 (GALGT2) Gene Therapy Reduces Skeletal Muscle Pathology in the FKRP P448L Mouse Model of Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2I. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:2429-48 pubmed publisher
    Overexpression of B4GALNT2 (previously GALGT2) inhibits the development of muscle pathology in mouse models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, congenital muscular dystrophy 1A, and limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2D...
  2. Smith P, Lowe J. Molecular cloning of a murine N-acetylgalactosamine transferase cDNA that determines expression of the T lymphocyte-specific CT oligosaccharide differentiation antigen. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:15162-71 pubmed
  3. Tao K, Urlando C, Heddle J. Mutagenicity of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in vivo at the Dlb-1 native locus and a lacI transgene. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1993;22:293-6 pubmed
    ..The carcinogenicity of MMS is probably the result of its potent clastogenicity rather than its weak activity as a point mutagen. ..
  4. Shaver Walker P, Urlando C, Tao K, Zhang X, Heddle J. Enhanced somatic mutation rates induced in stem cells of mice by low chronic exposure to ethylnitrosourea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:11470-4 pubmed
    ..Enhanced mutagenesis may be important for risk evaluation, as the results show that chronic exposures can be more mutagenic than acute ones and raise the possibility of synergism between chemicals at low doses. ..
  5. Chandraskeharan K, Martin P. Embryonic overexpression of Galgt2 inhibits skeletal muscle growth via activation of myostatin signaling. Muscle Nerve. 2009;39:25-41 pubmed publisher
    ..One type of glycosylation that affects muscle growth is that controlled by the CT GalNAc transferase (Galgt2), the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the beta1,4GalNAc linkage on the CT carbohydrate antigen (..
  6. Singhal N, Xu R, Martin P. Distinct contributions of Galgt1 and Galgt2 to carbohydrate expression and function at the mouse neuromuscular junction. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2012;51:112-26 pubmed publisher
    ..CT carbohydrate on gangliosides, is required for presynaptic expression of the CT carbohydrate at the NMJ, while Galgt2, which can synthesize the ?1,4GalNAc of the CT carbohydrate on glycoproteins, is required for postsynaptic ..
  7. Wilson S, Billings P, D EUSTACHIO P, Fournier R, Geissler E, Lalley P, et al. Clustering of cytokine genes on mouse chromosome 11. J Exp Med. 1990;171:1301-14 pubmed
  8. Xu R, Chandrasekharan K, Yoon J, Camboni M, Martin P. Overexpression of the cytotoxic T cell (CT) carbohydrate inhibits muscular dystrophy in the dyW mouse model of congenital muscular dystrophy 1A. Am J Pathol. 2007;171:181-99 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that overexpression of the cytotoxic T cell (CT) GalNAc transferase (Galgt2) is effective in inhibiting the development of muscle pathology in the dy(W) mouse model of MDC1A, much as we had ..
  9. Toft N, Winton D, Kelly J, Howard L, Dekker M, te Riele H, et al. Msh2 status modulates both apoptosis and mutation frequency in the murine small intestine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:3911-5 pubmed
  10. Roberts M, Mock B, Blackwell J. Mapping of genes controlling Leishmania major infection in CXS recombinant inbred mice. Eur J Immunogenet. 1993;20:349-62 pubmed
  11. Rausch P, Steck N, Suwandi A, Seidel J, Künzel S, Bhullar K, et al. Expression of the Blood-Group-Related Gene B4galnt2 Alters Susceptibility to Salmonella Infection. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1005008 pubmed publisher
    ..expression patterns of the blood group glycosyltransferase β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4galnt2) are variable in wild mouse populations, and loss of B4galnt2 expression is associated with altered intestinal ..
  12. Xu R, Singhal N, Serinagaoglu Y, Chandrasekharan K, Joshi M, Bauer J, et al. Deletion of Galgt2 (B4Galnt2) reduces muscle growth in response to acute injury and increases muscle inflammation and pathology in dystrophin-deficient mice. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:2668-84 pubmed publisher
    Transgenic overexpression of Galgt2 (official name B4Galnt2) in skeletal muscle stimulates the glycosylation of α dystroglycan (αDG) and the up-regulation of laminin α2 and dystrophin surrogates known to inhibit muscle pathology ..
  13. Yoon J, Johnson E, Xu R, Martin L, Martin P, Montanaro F. Comparative proteomic profiling of dystroglycan-associated proteins in wild type, mdx, and Galgt2 transgenic mouse skeletal muscle. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:4413-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we describe changes that result from overexpression of Galgt2, a normally synaptic muscle glycosyltransferase that can modify alpha dystroglycan and inhibit the development of ..
  14. Li P, Liao C, Yu L, Wu W, Chu S. Localization of B4GALNT2 and its role in mouse embryo attachment. Fertil Steril. 2012;97:1206-12.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the location of ?-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase II (B4GALNT2) and the involvement of this protein and Sd(a) antigen in embryonic implantation. Cell and animal study. University...
  15. Yoshikawa M, Go S, Suzuki S, Suzuki A, Katori Y, Morlet T, et al. Ganglioside GM3 is essential for the structural integrity and function of cochlear hair cells. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:2796-807 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GM3-dependent membrane microdomains might be essential for the proper organization and maintenance of stereocilia in auditory hair cells. ..
  16. Martin P, Xu R, Rodino Klapac L, Oglesbay E, Camboni M, Montgomery C, et al. Overexpression of Galgt2 in skeletal muscle prevents injury resulting from eccentric contractions in both mdx and wild-type mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C476-88 pubmed publisher
    The cytotoxic T cell (CT) GalNAc transferase, or Galgt2, is a UDP-GalNAc:beta1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase that is localized to the neuromuscular synapse in adult skeletal muscle, where it creates the synaptic CT carbohydrate ..
  17. Takahashi M, Yoshida M, Satoh H, Hilgers J, Yaoita Y, Honjo T. Chromosomal mapping of the mouse IL-4 and human IL-5 genes. Genomics. 1989;4:47-52 pubmed
  18. Vallier M, Abou Chakra M, Hindersin L, Linnenbrink M, Traulsen A, Baines J. Evaluating the maintenance of disease-associated variation at the blood group-related gene B4galnt2 in house mice. BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:187 pubmed publisher
    b>B4galnt2 is a blood group-related glycosyltransferase that displays cis-regulatory variation for its tissue-specific expression patterns in house mice. The wild type allele, found e.g...
  19. Olvera Gomez I, Hamilton S, Xiao Z, Guimaraes C, Ploegh H, Hogquist K, et al. Cholera toxin activates nonconventional adjuvant pathways that induce protective CD8 T-cell responses after epicutaneous vaccination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:2072-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Chemoenzymatic generation of CT-antigen fusion proteins led to efficient priming of the CD8 T-cell responses, paving the way for development of this immunization strategy as a therapeutic option. ..
  20. Xu R, DeVries S, Camboni M, Martin P. Overexpression of Galgt2 reduces dystrophic pathology in the skeletal muscles of alpha sarcoglycan-deficient mice. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:235-47 pubmed publisher
    ..One such gene is Galgt2, which is also called cytotoxic T cell GalNAc transferase in mice...
  21. Cosentino L, Heddle J. The induction of dominant somatic mutations at the Dlb-1 locus. Mutat Res. 1995;346:115-9 pubmed
    ..Such ribbons were observed in the treated group but not in controls. The mutant frequency was low compared to the frequency of Dlb-1a-like mutations reported at the Dlb-1b allele in heterozygous mice. ..
  22. Ponder B, Festing M, Wilkinson M. An allelic difference determines reciprocal patterns of expression of binding sites for Dolichos biflorus lectin in inbred strains of mice. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1985;87:229-39 pubmed
    ..If so, elucidation of the genetic basis of the polymorphism might provide an insight into the mechanisms of developmental regulation of glycosyltransferase activity. ..
  23. Uiterdijk H, Ponder B, Festing M, Hilgers J, Skow L, Van Nie R. The gene controlling the binding sites of Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, Dlb-1, is on chromosome 11 of the mouse. Genet Res. 1986;47:125-9 pubmed
  24. Nguyen H, Jayasinha V, Xia B, Hoyte K, Martin P. Overexpression of the cytotoxic T cell GalNAc transferase in skeletal muscle inhibits muscular dystrophy in mdx mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:5616-21 pubmed
  25. Xia B, Hoyte K, Kammesheidt A, Deerinck T, Ellisman M, Martin P. Overexpression of the CT GalNAc transferase in skeletal muscle alters myofiber growth, neuromuscular structure, and laminin expression. Dev Biol. 2002;242:58-73 pubmed
  26. Sansom O, Stark L, Dunlop M, Clarke A. Suppression of intestinal and mammary neoplasia by lifetime administration of aspirin in Apc(Min/+) and Apc(Min/+), Msh2(-/-) mice. Cancer Res. 2001;61:7060-4 pubmed
    ..Thus embryonic and perinatal exposure to aspirin suppresses neoplasia specifically associated with the loss of Apc function, opening a potential window of opportunity for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug intervention. ..
  27. Ozawa M, Huang R, Furukawa T, Muramatsu T. A teratocarcinoma glycoprotein carrying a developmentally regulated carbohydrate marker is a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:3059-62 pubmed
    ..In contrast to other members of the superfamily, the core protein gene was significantly expressed in embryonal carcinoma cells, which are similar to undifferentiated cells of early embryos. ..
  28. Bernier L, Colman D, D EUSTACHIO P. Chromosomal locations of genes encoding 2',3' cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the mouse. J Neurosci Res. 1988;20:497-504 pubmed
    ..We have localized the GFAP gene to distal chromosome 11 in the mouse. There are two genetic loci identified by CNP probes, one is closely linked to the GFAP gene, and the other maps to chromosome 3. ..