Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: B2m
Description: beta-2 microglobulin
Alias: Ly-m11, beta2-m, beta2m, beta-2-microglobulin
- Zou Y, Sunshine M, Taniuchi I, Hatam F, Killeen N, Littman D. Epigenetic silencing of CD4 in T cells committed to the cytotoxic lineage. Nat Genet. 2001;29:332-6 pubmed..The epigenetic inheritance of the silenced CD4 locus was not affected by the inhibition of DNA methylation or histone deacetylation, and may thus involve other mechanisms that ensure a stable state of gene expression. ..
- Fowlkes B, Robey E. A reassessment of the effect of activated Notch1 on CD4 and CD8 T cell development. J Immunol. 2002;169:1817-21 pubmed..We suggest that the discrepancies in previous reports of Notch1IC transgenic mice are due to differences in the propensity of the two different transgenic lines to develop tumors. ..
- Jordan M, Hildeman D, Kappler J, Marrack P. An animal model of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH): CD8+ T cells and interferon gamma are essential for the disorder. Blood. 2004;104:735-43 pubmed..These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of HLH, and provide new targets for specific therapeutic intervention in this fatal disorder. ..
- Hikosaka Y, Nitta T, Ohigashi I, Yano K, Ishimaru N, Hayashi Y, et al. The cytokine RANKL produced by positively selected thymocytes fosters medullary thymic epithelial cells that express autoimmune regulator. Immunity. 2008;29:438-50 pubmed publisher..These results indicate that RANKL produced by positively selected thymocytes is responsible for fostering thymic medulla formation, thereby establishing central tolerance. ..
- Nasreen M, Ueno T, Saito F, Takahama Y. In vivo treatment of class II MHC-deficient mice with anti-TCR antibody restores the generation of circulating CD4 T cells and optimal architecture of thymic medulla. J Immunol. 2003;171:3394-400 pubmed
- Egawa T, Littman D. ThPOK acts late in specification of the helper T cell lineage and suppresses Runx-mediated commitment to the cytotoxic T cell lineage. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1131-9 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that MHC class II-selected thymocytes are directed toward the CD4(+) lineage independently of ThPOK but require ThPOK to prevent Runx-dependent differentiation toward the CD8(+) lineage. ..
- Tyznik A, Sun J, Bevan M. The CD8 population in CD4-deficient mice is heavily contaminated with MHC class II-restricted T cells. J Exp Med. 2004;199:559-65 pubmed..These results have implications for understanding CD4 versus CD8 lineage commitment in the thymus, and for the practical use of CD4-/- mice as models of helper deficiency. ..
- Marron M, Graser R, Chapman H, Serreze D. Functional evidence for the mediation of diabetogenic T cell responses by HLA-A2.1 MHC class I molecules through transgenic expression in NOD mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13753-8 pubmed..These findings provide the first functional evidence that certain human MHC class I molecules can contribute to the development of T1D. ..
- Adoro S, McCaughtry T, Erman B, Alag A, Van Laethem F, Park J, et al. Coreceptor gene imprinting governs thymocyte lineage fate. EMBO J. 2012;31:366-77 pubmed publisher..This study identifies coreceptor gene imprinting as a critical determinant of lineage fate determination in the thymus. ..
- Wang L, Wildt K, Zhu J, Zhang X, Feigenbaum L, Tessarollo L, et al. Distinct functions for the transcription factors GATA-3 and ThPOK during intrathymic differentiation of CD4(+) T cells. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1122-30 pubmed publisher..We propose that GATA-3 acts as a specification factor for the CD4(+) lineage 'upstream' of the ThPOK-controlled CD4(+) commitment checkpoint. ..
- Kohu K, Sato T, Ohno S, Hayashi K, Uchino R, Abe N, et al. Overexpression of the Runx3 transcription factor increases the proportion of mature thymocytes of the CD8 single-positive lineage. J Immunol. 2005;174:2627-36 pubmed..Thus, Runx3 can drive thymocytes to select the CD4(-)8(+) lineage. This activity is likely to be due to more than a simple silencing of CD4 gene expression. ..
- Aliahmad P, Kaye J. Development of all CD4 T lineages requires nuclear factor TOX. J Exp Med. 2008;205:245-56 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that TOX-dependent transition to the CD4(+)CD8(lo) stage is required for continued development of class II major histocompatibility complex-specific T cells, regardless of ultimate lineage fate. ..
- Sarafova S, Erman B, Yu Q, Van Laethem F, Guinter T, Sharrow S, et al. Modulation of coreceptor transcription during positive selection dictates lineage fate independently of TCR/coreceptor specificity. Immunity. 2005;23:75-87 pubmed..This study demonstrates that termination of coreceptor transcription during positive selection promotes CD8-lineage fate, regardless of TCR specificity or coreceptor protein identity. ..
- Ito M, Hiramatsu H, Kobayashi K, Suzue K, Kawahata M, Hioki K, et al. NOD/SCID/gamma(c)(null) mouse: an excellent recipient mouse model for engraftment of human cells. Blood. 2002;100:3175-82 pubmed..mice treated with anti-asialo GM1 antibody or in the beta2-microglobulin-deficient NOD/LtSz-scid (NOD/SCID/beta2m(null)) mice, which were as completely defective in NK cell activity as NOD/SCID/gamma(c)(null) mice...
- Adoro S, Erman B, Sarafova S, Van Laethem F, Park J, Feigenbaum L, et al. Targeting CD4 coreceptor expression to postselection thymocytes reveals that CD4/CD8 lineage choice is neither error-prone nor stochastic. J Immunol. 2008;181:6975-83 pubmed..However, the E8(I)-CD4 transgene did not reveal any MHC-II-selected thymocytes that adopted the CD8 lineage fate. These results demonstrate that CD4/CD8 lineage choice is neither error-prone nor stochastic. ..
- Jarchum I, Baker J, Yamada T, Takaki T, Marron M, Serreze D, et al. In vivo cytotoxicity of insulin-specific CD8+ T-cells in HLA-A*0201 transgenic NOD mice. Diabetes. 2007;56:2551-60 pubmed..The human versions of B5-14 and A2-10, differing from the murine peptides by only a single residue, represent excellent candidates to explore as CD8(+) T-cell targets in HLA-A*0201-positive type 1 diabetic patients. ..
- Fourgeaud L, Davenport C, Tyler C, Cheng T, Spencer M, Boulanger L. MHC class I modulates NMDA receptor function and AMPA receptor trafficking. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22278-83 pubmed publisher..Thus, endogenous MHCI tonically inhibits NMDAR function and controls downstream NMDAR-induced AMPA receptor trafficking during the expression of plasticity. ..
- Yanaba K, Bouaziz J, Matsushita T, Tsubata T, Tedder T. The development and function of regulatory B cells expressing IL-10 (B10 cells) requires antigen receptor diversity and TLR signals. J Immunol. 2009;182:7459-72 pubmed publisher..Thereby, both adaptive and innate signals regulate B10 cell development, maturation, CD5 expression, and competence for IL-10 production. ..
- Das G, Sheridan S, Janeway C. The source of early IFN-gamma that plays a role in Th1 priming. J Immunol. 2001;167:2004-10 pubmed..Therefore, they arise on MHC class Ib molecules that do not depend on TAP-1 transporters. ..
- Takaki T, Marron M, Mathews C, Guttmann S, Bottino R, Trucco M, et al. HLA-A*0201-restricted T cells from humanized NOD mice recognize autoantigens of potential clinical relevance to type 1 diabetes. J Immunol. 2006;176:3257-65 pubmed..In particular, the identified antigenic peptides represent promising tools to explore the potential importance of IGRP in the development of human T1D. ..
- Cho H, Choi H, Xu H, Felio K, Wang C. Nonconventional CD8+ T cell responses to Listeria infection in mice lacking MHC class Ia and H2-M3. J Immunol. 2011;186:489-98 pubmed publisher..These data demonstrate that other MHC class Ib-restricted CD8(+) T cells, in addition to H2-M3-restricted T cells, contribute to antilisterial immunity and may contribute to immune responses against other intracellular bacteria. ..
- Daniels M, Teixeiro E, Gill J, Hausmann B, Roubaty D, Holmberg K, et al. Thymic selection threshold defined by compartmentalization of Ras/MAPK signalling. Nature. 2006;444:724-9 pubmed
- King M, Covassin L, Brehm M, Racki W, Pearson T, Leif J, et al. Human peripheral blood leucocyte non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain gene mouse model of xenogeneic graft-versus-host-like disease and the role of host major histocompatibility complex. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;157:104-18 pubmed publisher..This model now provides the opportunity to investigate in vivo mechanisms of xenogeneic GVHD as well as to assess the efficacy of therapeutic agents rapidly. ..
- Sakaguchi S, Hombauer M, Bilic I, Naoe Y, Schebesta A, Taniuchi I, et al. The zinc-finger protein MAZR is part of the transcription factor network that controls the CD4 versus CD8 lineage fate of double-positive thymocytes. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:442-8 pubmed publisher..MAZR bound the silencer of the gene encoding Th-POK, which indicated direct regulation of this locus by MAZR. Thus, MAZR is part of the transcription factor network that regulates the CD8 lineage differentiation of DP thymocytes. ..
- Sato T, Ohno S, Hayashi T, Sato C, Kohu K, Satake M, et al. Dual functions of Runx proteins for reactivating CD8 and silencing CD4 at the commitment process into CD8 thymocytes. Immunity. 2005;22:317-28 pubmed
- Fontenot J, Rasmussen J, Williams L, Dooley J, Farr A, Rudensky A. Regulatory T cell lineage specification by the forkhead transcription factor foxp3. Immunity. 2005;22:329-41 pubmed..Analysis of Foxp3 expression during thymic development suggests that this mechanism is not hard-wired but is dependent on TCR/MHC ligand interactions. ..
- Chiang E, Stroynowski I. A nonclassical MHC class I molecule restricts CTL-mediated rejection of a syngeneic melanoma tumor. J Immunol. 2004;173:4394-401 pubmed..Collectively, these studies demonstrate that a MHC class Ib molecule can serve as a restriction element for antitumor CTL and mediate protective immune responses in a syngeneic setting...
- Maurice D, Hooper J, Lang G, Weston K. c-Myb regulates lineage choice in developing thymocytes via its target gene Gata3. EMBO J. 2007;26:3629-40 pubmed..We show that Gata3 is a direct target of c-Myb, and propose that c-Myb is an important regulator of Gata3, required for transduction of the T-cell receptor signal for subsequent helper cell lineage differentiation. ..
- Egawa T, Tillman R, Naoe Y, Taniuchi I, Littman D. The role of the Runx transcription factors in thymocyte differentiation and in homeostasis of naive T cells. J Exp Med. 2007;204:1945-57 pubmed..These results indicate that Runx proteins have important roles at multiple stages of T cell development and in the homeostasis of mature T cells. ..
- Guerra N, Tan Y, Joncker N, Choy A, Gallardo F, Xiong N, et al. NKG2D-deficient mice are defective in tumor surveillance in models of spontaneous malignancy. Immunity. 2008;28:571-80 pubmed publisher..These findings provide important genetic evidence for surveillance of primary tumors by an NK receptor. ..
- Sarafova S, Van Laethem F, Adoro S, Guinter T, Sharrow S, Feigenbaum L, et al. Upregulation of CD4 expression during MHC class II-specific positive selection is essential for error-free lineage choice. Immunity. 2009;31:480-90 pubmed publisher..Thus, the kinetics of CD4 coreceptor expression during MHC II-specific positive selection determines the integrity of CD4 lineage choice, revealing an elegant symmetry between coreceptor kinetics and lineage choice. ..
- Tan J, Dudl E, Leroy E, Murray R, Sprent J, Weinberg K, et al. IL-7 is critical for homeostatic proliferation and survival of naive T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8732-7 pubmed..Thus, naïve T cells disappeared gradually over a 1-month period upon adoptive transfer into IL-7(-) hosts. These findings indicate that naive T cells depend on IL-7 for survival and homeostatic proliferation. ..
- He X, He X, Dave V, Zhang Y, Hua X, Nicolas E, et al. The zinc finger transcription factor Th-POK regulates CD4 versus CD8 T-cell lineage commitment. Nature. 2005;433:826-33 pubmed
- Kawahara A, Kurauchi S, Fukata Y, Martínez Hernández J, Yagihashi T, Itadani Y, et al. Neuronal major histocompatibility complex class I molecules are implicated in the generation of asymmetries in hippocampal circuitry. J Physiol. 2013;591:4777-91 pubmed publisher..Our findings provide evidence supporting a critical role of MHCI molecules for generating asymmetries in hippocampal circuitry. ..
- Nelson P, Sage J, Wood S, Davenport C, Anagnostaras S, Boulanger L. MHC class I immune proteins are critical for hippocampus-dependent memory and gate NMDAR-dependent hippocampal long-term depression. Learn Mem. 2013;20:505-17 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that changes in MHC class I expression could be an unexpected cause of disrupted synaptic plasticity and cognitive deficits in the aging, damaged, and diseased brain. ..
- Rolph M, Raupach B, Köbernick H, Collins H, Perarnau B, Lemonnier F, et al. MHC class Ia-restricted T cells partially account for beta2-microglobulin-dependent resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Eur J Immunol. 2001;31:1944-9 pubmed..Thus, antigen presentation via MHC class Ia is an important component in resistance to M. tuberculosis, but its absence only partially accounts for the increased susceptibility of beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice. ..
- Tripathy S, Keyel P, Yang L, Pingel J, Cheng T, Schneeberger A, et al. Continuous engagement of a self-specific activation receptor induces NK cell tolerance. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1829-41 pubmed publisher..Thus, engagement of self-specific activation receptors in vivo induces an NK cell tolerance effect that is not affected by self-MHC-specific inhibitory receptors...
- Santos M, Schilham M, Rademakers L, Marx J, de Sousa M, Clevers H. Defective iron homeostasis in beta 2-microglobulin knockout mice recapitulates hereditary hemochromatosis in man. J Exp Med. 1996;184:1975-85 pubmed..Our data provide functional support for the proposed causative role of HLA-H mutations in HH. ..
- van Oers N, Killeen N, Weiss A. ZAP-70 is constitutively associated with tyrosine-phosphorylated TCR zeta in murine thymocytes and lymph node T cells. Immunity. 1994;1:675-85 pubmed..Genetic studies reveal that the constitutive ZAP-70 association with tyrosine-phosphorylated zeta does not absolutely require either TCR or coreceptor interactions with MHC molecules. ..
- Katz J, Benoist C, Mathis D. Major histocompatibility complex class I molecules are required for the development of insulitis in non-obese diabetic mice. Eur J Immunol. 1993;23:3358-60 pubmed..We question this interpretation because NOD mice lacking MHC class I molecules, hence CD8+ T cells, do not display even insulitis when expected. ..
- Steinhoff U, Brinkmann V, Klemm U, Aichele P, Seiler P, Brandt U, et al. Autoimmune intestinal pathology induced by hsp60-specific CD8 T cells. Immunity. 1999;11:349-58 pubmed..This report demonstrates that CD8 T cells with defined antigen specificity cause intestinal inflammation, emphasizing a link between infection and autoimmune disease. ..
- Pascolo S, Bervas N, Ure J, Smith A, Lemonnier F, Perarnau B. HLA-A2.1-restricted education and cytolytic activity of CD8(+) T lymphocytes from beta2 microglobulin (beta2m) HLA-A2.1 monochain transgenic H-2Db beta2m double knockout mice. J Exp Med. 1997;185:2043-51 pubmedThree different HLA-A2.1 monochains were engineered in which either the human or mouse beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) is covalently linked to the NH2 terminus of the heavy chain by a 15- amino acid long peptide: HHH, entirely human, HHD, ..
- Attaya M, Jameson S, Martinez C, Hermel E, Aldrich C, Forman J, et al. Ham-2 corrects the class I antigen-processing defect in RMA-S cells. Nature. 1992;355:647-9 pubmed..These data indicate that both MHC-linked transporter genes are probably required for class I antigen processing, and that the functional transporter in this pathway may consist of a Ham-1/Ham-2 heterodimer...
- Rothenberg B, Voland J. beta2 knockout mice develop parenchymal iron overload: A putative role for class I genes of the major histocompatibility complex in iron metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:1529-34 pubmed..that mice which have altered expression of class I gene products, the beta2-microglobulin knockout mice, [beta2m(-/-)], would develop Fe overload...
- Serreze D, Chapman H, Varnum D, Gerling I, Leiter E, Shultz L. Initiation of autoimmune diabetes in NOD/Lt mice is MHC class I-dependent. J Immunol. 1997;158:3978-86 pubmed..does not occur in NOD mice made MHC class I-deficient by a functionally inactivated beta2-microglobulin allele (beta2m(null))...
- Coles M, Raulet D. Class I dependence of the development of CD4+ CD8- NK1.1+ thymocytes. J Exp Med. 1994;180:395-9 pubmed..We propose that these populations are selected by nonpolymorphic class Ib or CD1 molecules. ..
- Kay T, Parker J, Stephens L, Thomas H, Allison J. RIP-beta 2-microglobulin transgene expression restores insulitis, but not diabetes, in beta 2-microglobulin null nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol. 1996;157:3688-93 pubmedb>Beta2m-deficient nonobese diabetic (NODbeta2mnull) do not develop insulitis or diabetes...
- Su H, Orange J, Fast L, Chan A, Simpson S, Terhorst C, et al. IL-2-dependent NK cell responses discovered in virus-infected beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice. J Immunol. 1994;153:5674-81 pubmed..Because these responses can only be measured in the absence of CD8+ T lymphocytes, an exciting model of networking between T and NK cells in response to viruses is postulated. ..
- Huh G, Boulanger L, Du H, Riquelme P, Brotz T, Shatz C. Functional requirement for class I MHC in CNS development and plasticity. Science. 2000;290:2155-9 pubmed..These results demonstrate an important role for these molecules in the activity-dependent remodeling and plasticity of connections in the developing and mature mammalian central nervous system (CNS). ..
- Park S, Guy Grand D, Lemonnier F, Wang C, Bendelac A, Jabri B. Selection and expansion of CD8alpha/alpha(1) T cell receptor alpha/beta(1) intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in the absence of both classical major histocompatibility complex class I and nonclassical CD1 molecules. J Exp Med. 1999;190:885-90 pubmed
- Koller B, Marrack P, Kappler J, Smithies O. Normal development of mice deficient in beta 2M, MHC class I proteins, and CD8+ T cells. Science. 1990;248:1227-30 pubmed..The homozygotes appeared normal, although no class I antigens could be detected on their cells and the animals are grossly deficient in CD4- CD8+ T cells, which normally mediate cytotoxic T cell function. ..
- Smyth M, Snook M. Perforin-dependent cytolytic responses in beta2-microglobulin-deficient mice. Cell Immunol. 1999;196:51-9 pubmed..Dependence on perforin function was demonstrated for the cytotoxicity of these effectors in vitro and for the ability of these effectors to reject a variety of tumors in vivo...
- Dorfman J, Zerrahn J, Coles M, Raulet D. The basis for self-tolerance of natural killer cells in beta2-microglobulin- and TAP-1- mice. J Immunol. 1997;159:5219-25 pubmedCells from mice with mutations in the genes for beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) or for TAP-1 express only low levels of MHC class I proteins on their surfaces, and are thus sensitive to attack by normal NK cells...
- Bard J, Yamazaki K, Curran M, Boyse E, Beauchamp G. Effect of B2m gene disruption on MHC-determined odortypes. Immunogenetics. 2000;51:514-8 pubmed..they lack beta2-microglobulin are distinguishable by scent from otherwise identical mice which possess an intact B2m gene...
- Kirberg J, Baron A, Jakob S, Rolink A, Karjalainen K, von Boehmer H. Thymic selection of CD8+ single positive cells with a class II major histocompatibility complex-restricted receptor. J Exp Med. 1994;180:25-34 pubmed..The results are compatible with the notion that T cell maturation requires multiple receptor-ligand interactions and establish an exception to the rule that class II-restricted TCRs are exclusively expressed by mature CD4+8- cells. ..
- Apasov S, Sitkovsky M. Highly lytic CD8+, alpha beta T-cell receptor cytotoxic T cells with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen-directed cytotoxicity in beta 2-microglobulin, MHC class I-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:2837-41 pubmed
- Grusby M, Auchincloss H, Lee R, Johnson R, Spencer J, Zijlstra M, et al. Mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class I and class II molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:3913-7 pubmed..Taken together, these results emphasize the plasticity of the immune system and suggest that MHC-deficient mice may be useful for examining compensatory mechanisms in severely immunocompromised animals. ..
- Coles M, Raulet D. NK1.1+ T cells in the liver arise in the thymus and are selected by interactions with class I molecules on CD4+CD8+ cells. J Immunol. 2000;164:2412-8 pubmed..1+ T cells or are induced to proliferate after having left the thymus. The results indicate that NK1.1+ T cells, like conventional T cells, arise in the thymus where they are selected by interactions with restricting molecules. ..
- D Souza C, Cooper A, Frank A, Ehlers S, Turner J, Bendelac A, et al. A novel nonclassic beta2-microglobulin-restricted mechanism influencing early lymphocyte accumulation and subsequent resistance to tuberculosis in the lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2000;23:188-93 pubmed
- Chan S, Cosgrove D, Waltzinger C, Benoist C, Mathis D. Another view of the selective model of thymocyte selection. Cell. 1993;73:225-36 pubmed
- Salcedo M, Diehl A, Olsson Alheim M, Sundbäck J, van Kaer L, Karre K, et al. Altered expression of Ly49 inhibitory receptors on natural killer cells from MHC class I-deficient mice. J Immunol. 1997;158:3174-80 pubmed..1+ cells from B6 (H-2b) and D8 (B6 mice transgenic for H-2Dd) mice as well as corresponding TAP1 -/-, beta2m -/-, and TAP1/beta2m -/- mutants of these mice. We demonstrate that receptor expression on NK1...
- Hogquist K, Gavin M, Bevan M. Positive selection of CD8+ T cells induced by major histocompatibility complex binding peptides in fetal thymic organ culture. J Exp Med. 1993;177:1469-73 pubmed..Fetal thymus lobes from mice deficient in the class I light chain (beta 2 microglobulin or beta 2 M-/-) were cultured for 10 d in vitro, during which time T cell precursors develop into mature T ..
- Konishi J, Iwabuchi K, Iwabuchi C, Ato M, Nagata J, Nakagawa K, et al. Thymic epithelial cells responsible for impaired generation of NK-T thymocytes in Alymphoplasia mutant mice. Cell Immunol. 2000;206:26-35 pubmed..marrow chimeras were established with the aly/aly mouse as a donor and either the beta2 microglobulin knockout (beta2m-/-) or the CD1d1-/- mouse that also lacks the NK-T cell population as a recipient...
- Robey E, Chang D, Itano A, Cado D, Alexander H, Lans D, et al. An activated form of Notch influences the choice between CD4 and CD8 T cell lineages. Cell. 1996;87:483-92 pubmed..However, activated Notch is not sufficient to promote CD8 cell development when both class I and class II MHC are absent. These results implicate Notch as a participant in the CD4 versus CD8 lineage decision. ..
- de Sousa M, Reimao R, Lacerda R, Hugo P, Kaufmann S, Porto G. Iron overload in beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice. Immunol Lett. 1994;39:105-11 pubmed
- Israel E, Wilsker D, Hayes K, Schoenfeld D, Simister N. Increased clearance of IgG in mice that lack beta 2-microglobulin: possible protective role of FcRn. Immunology. 1996;89:573-8 pubmed..These data suggest that FcRn can protect IgG from degradation, and is therefore important in maintaining IgG levels in the circulation. ..
- Mendiratta S, Kovalik J, Hong S, Singh N, Martin W, van Kaer L. Peptide dependency of alloreactive CD4+ T cell responses. Int Immunol. 1999;11:351-60 pubmed..APC from these mice were used as targets and stimulators for alloreactive CD4+ T cells. Results demonstrated that the vast majority of CD4+ alloreactive T cells recognize MHC class II molecules in a peptide-dependent fashion. ..