Gene Symbol: B2
Description: bradykinin receptor, beta 2
Alias: B2R, BK-2, BK2, BK2R, BKR2, BRB2, B2 bradykinin receptor, BK-2 receptor, kinin B2
Species: mouse
Products:     B2

Top Publications

  1. Monteiro A, Schmitz V, Svensjo E, Gazzinelli R, Almeida I, Todorov A, et al. Cooperative activation of TLR2 and bradykinin B2 receptor is required for induction of type 1 immunity in a mouse model of subcutaneous infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. J Immunol. 2006;177:6325-35 pubmed
    ..In summary, we have described a s.c. infection model where type 1 immunity is vigorously up-regulated by bradykinin, an innate signal whose levels in peripheral tissues are controlled by an intricate interplay of TLR2, B(2)R, and ACE. ..
  2. Kakoki M, Sullivan K, Backus C, Hayes J, Oh S, Hua K, et al. Lack of both bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors enhances nephropathy, neuropathy, and bone mineral loss in Akita diabetic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10190-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We have therefore explored the influence of lack of both bradykinin receptors (B1R and B2R) on diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, and osteopathy in male mice heterozygous for the Akita diabetogenic mutation ..
  3. Duka A, Kintsurashvili E, Duka I, Ona D, Hopkins T, Bader M, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition after experimental myocardial infarct: role of the kinin B1 and B2 receptors. Hypertension. 2008;51:1352-7 pubmed publisher
  4. Duka I, Shenouda S, Johns C, Kintsurashvili E, Gavras I, Gavras H. Role of the B(2) receptor of bradykinin in insulin sensitivity. Hypertension. 2001;38:1355-60 pubmed
  5. Xia C, Smith R, Shen B, Yang Z, Borlongan C, Chao L, et al. Postischemic brain injury is exacerbated in mice lacking the kinin B2 receptor. Hypertension. 2006;47:752-61 pubmed
    Kallikrein cleaves low molecular weight kininogen to generate vasoactive kinins, which bind to the kinin B2 receptor, triggering a host of biological effects...
  6. Schanstra J, Bachvarova M, Neau E, Bascands J, Bachvarov D. Gene expression profiling in the remnant kidney model of wild type and kinin B1 and B2 receptor knockout mice. Kidney Int. 2007;72:442-54 pubmed
    ..cellular physiology by interacting with one of two receptors being the more inducible B1 and the more constitutive B2 receptors. This study utilizes the mouse remnant kidney of 20 weeks duration as a model of ESRD...
  7. Souza D, Lomez E, Pinho V, Pesquero J, Bader M, Pesquero J, et al. Role of bradykinin B2 and B1 receptors in the local, remote, and systemic inflammatory responses that follow intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury. J Immunol. 2004;172:2542-8 pubmed
    ..Blockade of B(1)Rs could be a more effective strategy than B(2) or B(1)/B(2) receptor blockade for the treatment of the inflammatory injuries that follow I/R. ..
  8. Costa R, Motta E, Dutra R, Manjavachi M, Bento A, Malinsky F, et al. Anti-nociceptive effect of kinin B? and B? receptor antagonists on peripheral neuropathy induced by paclitaxel in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;164:681-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Kinins acting on both B? and B? receptors, expressed in spinal and supra-spinal sites, played a crucial role in controlling the hypernociceptive state caused by chronic treatment with paclitaxel. ..
  9. Monteiro A, Scovino A, Raposo S, Gaze V, Cruz C, Svensjo E, et al. Kinin danger signals proteolytically released by gingipain induce Fimbriae-specific IFN-gamma- and IL-17-producing T cells in mice infected intramucosally with Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Immunol. 2009;183:3700-11 pubmed publisher
    ..gingivalis. Ongoing research may clarify whether kinin-driven modulation of T cell responses may also influence the severity of chronic periodontitis. ..

More Information


  1. Dos Santos A, Roffe E, Arantes R, Juliano L, Pesquero J, Pesquero J, et al. Kinin B2 receptor regulates chemokines CCL2 and CCL5 expression and modulates leukocyte recruitment and pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. J Neuroinflammation. 2008;5:49 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to evaluate the role of B2 receptor in the cerebral microvasculature we used wild-type (WT) and kinin B2 receptor knockout (B2-/-) mice subjected to MOG(35-55)-induced EAE...
  2. Pesquero J, Araujo R, Heppenstall P, Stucky C, Silva J, Walther T, et al. Hypoalgesia and altered inflammatory responses in mice lacking kinin B1 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:8140-5 pubmed
    ..Two kinin receptors have been described, B1 and B2. The B2 receptor is constitutively expressed, and its targeted disruption leads to salt-sensitive hypertension and ..
  3. Kakoki M, Takahashi N, Jennette J, Smithies O. Diabetic nephropathy is markedly enhanced in mice lacking the bradykinin B2 receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:13302-5 pubmed
    ..Here, we confirm this inference by demonstrating that Akita diabetic mice lacking the bradykinin B2 receptor develop overt albuminuria, excreting the equivalent of >550 mg/day albumin in humans, which contrasts ..
  4. Rupniak N, Boyce S, Webb J, Williams A, Carlson E, Hill R, et al. Effects of the bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist des-Arg9[Leu8]bradykinin and genetic disruption of the B2 receptor on nociception in rats and mice. Pain. 1997;71:89-97 pubmed
    ..hyperalgesia were examined using the peptide B1 receptor antagonist des-Arg9[Leu8]bradykinin and transgenic Bk2r-/- mice. In normal rats and mice, des-Arg9[Leu8]bradykinin (30 nmol/kg i.v. or s.c...
  5. Tan Y, Keum J, Wang B, McHenry M, Lipsitz S, Jaffa A. Targeted deletion of B2-kinin receptors protects against the development of diabetic nephropathy. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;293:F1026-35 pubmed
    ..These findings provide the first evidence that targeted deletion of B2KR protects against the development of DN. ..
  6. Prediger R, Medeiros R, Pandolfo P, Duarte F, Passos G, Pesquero J, et al. Genetic deletion or antagonism of kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors improves cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience. 2008;151:631-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, selective kinin receptor antagonists, especially the new orally active non-peptide antagonists, might represent drugs of potential interest for the treatment of AD. ..
  7. Borkowski J, Ransom R, Seabrook G, Trumbauer M, Chen H, Hill R, et al. Targeted disruption of a B2 bradykinin receptor gene in mice eliminates bradykinin action in smooth muscle and neurons. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:13706-10 pubmed
    Mice that are homozygous for the targeted disruption of the gene encoding the B2 bradykinin receptor have been generated. The gene disruption results in a deletion of the entire coding sequence for the B2 receptor...
  8. Aliberti J, Viola J, Vieira de Abreu A, Bozza P, Sher A, Scharfstein J. Cutting edge: bradykinin induces IL-12 production by dendritic cells: a danger signal that drives Th1 polarization. J Immunol. 2003;170:5349-53 pubmed
    ..Our data thus indicate that kinin peptides can serve as danger signals that trigger dendritic cells to produce IL-12 through activation of B(2) bradykinin receptors. ..
  9. Meotti F, Campos R, da Silva K, Paszcuk A, Costa R, Calixto J. Inflammatory muscle pain is dependent on the activation of kinin B? and B? receptors and intracellular kinase pathways. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;166:1127-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Inflammatory muscle pain involves a cascade of events that is dependent on the activation of PKC, p38 and JNK, and the synthesis of IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-6 associated with the up-regulation of both B(1) and B(2) kinin receptors. ..
  10. Madeddu P, Emanueli C. Can knockout mice help dissect relevant genes in hypertension? Evidence and confounding factors. Hypertension. 1999;34:e14-5 pubmed
  11. Xi L, Das A, Zhao Z, Merino V, Bader M, Kukreja R. Loss of myocardial ischemic postconditioning in adenosine A1 and bradykinin B2 receptors gene knockout mice. Circulation. 2008;118:S32-7 pubmed publisher
  12. Trabold R, Erös C, Zweckberger K, Relton J, Beck H, Nussberger J, et al. The role of bradykinin B(1) and B(2) receptors for secondary brain damage after traumatic brain injury in mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2010;30:130-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05), and better functional outcome 7 days after TBI as compared with WT mice (P<0.05). The present results show that bradykinin and its B(2) receptors play a causal role for brain edema formation and cell death after TBI. ..
  13. Wang D, Yoshida H, Song Q, Chao L, Chao J. Enhanced renal function in bradykinin B(2) receptor transgenic mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000;278:F484-91 pubmed
    ..These studies showed that overexpression of B(2) receptors in transgenic mice resulted in hypotension and enhanced renal function through activation of nitric oxide-cGMP and cAMP signal transduction pathways...
  14. Trabold F, Pons S, Hagege A, Bloch Faure M, Alhenc Gelas F, Giudicelli J, et al. Cardiovascular phenotypes of kinin B2 receptor- and tissue kallikrein-deficient mice. Hypertension. 2002;40:90-5 pubmed
    ..the role of the kallikrein-kinin system in cardiovascular homeostasis, the systemic and regional hemodynamics of kinin B2 receptor-deficient (B2-/-) and tissue kallikrein-deficient (TK-/-) mice were compared with their wild-type (WT) ..
  15. Mori M, Sales V, Motta F, Fonseca R, Alenina N, Guadagnini D, et al. Kinin B1 receptor in adipocytes regulates glucose tolerance and predisposition to obesity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44782 pubmed
    ..Thus, kinin B(1) receptor participates in the modulation of insulin action in adipocytes, contributing to systemic insulin sensitivity and predisposition to obesity. ..
  16. Hess J, Borkowski J, MacNeil T, Stonesifer G, Fraher J, Strader C, et al. Differential pharmacology of cloned human and mouse B2 bradykinin receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1994;45:1-8 pubmed
    ..The possibility of B2 bradykinin receptor heterogeneity had been proposed on the basis of numerous studies in various tissue preparations...
  17. Kakoki M, McGarrah R, Kim H, Smithies O. Bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors both have protective roles in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7576-81 pubmed
    ..In 4-month-old mice, blood pressures were not significantly different among B1RB2R-null, B2R-null (Bdkrb2-/-), and WT mice...
  18. Viel T, Lima Caetano A, Nasello A, Lancelotti C, Nunes V, Araujo M, et al. Increases of kinin B1 and B2 receptors binding sites after brain infusion of amyloid-beta 1-40 peptide in rats. Neurobiol Aging. 2008;29:1805-14 pubmed
  19. Silvestre J, Bergaya S, Tamarat R, Duriez M, Boulanger C, Levy B. Proangiogenic effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition is mediated by the bradykinin B(2) receptor pathway. Circ Res. 2001;89:678-83 pubmed
    ..Therefore, proangiogenic effect of ACE inhibition is mediated by B(2)-receptor signaling and was associated with upregulation of eNOS content, independently of VEGF expression. ..
  20. Mamenko M, Zaika O, Doris P, Pochynyuk O. Salt-dependent inhibition of epithelial Na+ channel-mediated sodium reabsorption in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron by bradykinin. Hypertension. 2012;60:1234-41 pubmed publisher
    ..bradykinin (BK) directly inhibits activity of the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) via the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R)-G(q/11)-phospholipase C pathway...
  21. Zaika O, Zhang J, Shapiro M. Functional role of M-type (KCNQ) K? channels in adrenergic control of cardiomyocyte contraction rate by sympathetic neurons. J Physiol. 2011;589:2559-68 pubmed publisher
    ..the increase in CR in the presence or absence of the specific M-channel opener retigabine, or agonists of bradykinin B2 or purinergic P2Y receptors on the SNs...
  22. Krankel N, Katare R, Siragusa M, Barcelos L, Campagnolo P, Mangialardi G, et al. Role of kinin B2 receptor signaling in the recruitment of circulating progenitor cells with neovascularization potential. Circ Res. 2008;103:1335-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We now demonstrate the involvement of the kinin B2 receptor (B(2)R) in the recruitment of CPCs to sites of ischemia and in their proangiogenic action...
  23. Delemasure S, Blaes N, Richard C, Couture R, Bader M, Dutartre P, et al. Antioxidant/oxidant status and cardiac function in bradykinin B(1)- and B(2)-receptor null mice. Physiol Res. 2013;62:511-7 pubmed
    ..The interrelationship between the differential B(1)R and B(2)R roles in oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases remain to be investigated. ..
  24. Bengtson S, Eddleston J, Morgelin M, Zuraw B, Herwald H. Regulation of kinin B(2) receptors by bradykinin in human lung cells. Biol Chem. 2008;389:1435-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a possible explanation for the potency of bradykinin in inducing ongoing airway inflammation. ..
  25. Costa R, Manjavachi M, Motta E, Marotta D, Juliano L, Torres H, et al. The role of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in the scratching behaviour induced by proteinase-activated receptor-2 agonists in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;159:888-97 pubmed publisher
    ..c.v.). The present results demonstrated that kinins acting on both B(1) and B(2) receptors played a crucial role in controlling the pruriceptive signalling triggered by PAR-2 activation in mice. ..
  26. Picard N, Eladari D, El Moghrabi S, Planes C, Bourgeois S, Houillier P, et al. Defective ENaC processing and function in tissue kallikrein-deficient mice. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:4602-11 pubmed
    ..In mice lacking the B2 receptor for kinins, the abundance of the 70-kDa form of gamma-ENaC was increased, indicating that its absence in TK-..
  27. Hillmeister P, Gatzke N, Dülsner A, Bader M, Schadock I, Hoefer I, et al. Arteriogenesis is modulated by bradykinin receptor signaling. Circ Res. 2011;109:524-33 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of kinin signaling via the kinin receptors (B1R and B2R) in arteriogenesis is unclear...
  28. Ferreira J, Campos M, Pesquero J, Araujo R, Bader M, Calixto J. Evidence for the participation of kinins in Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammatory and nociceptive responses in kinin B1 and B2 receptor knockout mice. Neuropharmacology. 2001;41:1006-12 pubmed
    ..The results of the present study, taken together with those of previous studies, suggest that B(1) receptor antagonists represent a potential target for the development of new drugs to treat persistent inflammatory pain. ..
  29. Batista E, Batista E, Ramalho J, Reis F, Barros C, Moraes M, et al. Swimming training exacerbates pathological cardiac hypertrophy in kinin B2 receptor-deficient mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2008;8:271-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the aim of this work was to verify the influence of kinin B2 receptor deletion on physiological hypertrophy to exercise stimulus...
  30. El Dahr S, Harrison Bernard L, Dipp S, Yosipiv I, Meleg Smith S. Bradykinin B2 null mice are prone to renal dysplasia: gene-environment interactions in kidney development. Physiol Genomics. 2000;3:121-31 pubmed
    ..This study provides a "proof-of-principle" that defined gene-environment interactions are a cause of congenital renal disease...
  31. Souza P, Brechter A, Reis R, Costa C, Lundberg P, Lerner U. IL-4 and IL-13 inhibit IL-1? and TNF-? induced kinin B1 and B2 receptors through a STAT6-dependent mechanism. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;169:400-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim was to investigate if expression of B1 and B2 kinin receptors can be affected by IL-4 and IL-13...
  32. Cervenka L, Harrison Bernard L, Dipp S, Primrose G, Imig J, El Dahr S. Early onset salt-sensitive hypertension in bradykinin B(2) receptor null mice. Hypertension. 1999;34:176-80 pubmed
  33. Hiyoshi H, Yayama K, Takano M, Okamoto H. Stimulation of cyclic GMP production via AT2 and B2 receptors in the pressure-overloaded aorta after banding. Hypertension. 2004;43:1258-63 pubmed
    ..banding mice but not of sham mice, and was restored by either the AT2-receptor antagonist PD123319 or the bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist icatibant...
  34. Liesmaa I, Leskinen H, Kokkonen J, Ruskoaho H, Kovanen P, Lindstedt K. Hypoxia-induced expression of bradykinin type-2 receptors in endothelial cells triggers NO production, cell migration, and angiogenesis. J Cell Physiol. 2009;221:359-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present results show that mild hypoxia triggers a temporal expression of functional BK-2Rs in human and rat endothelial cells and support a role for BK-2Rs in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. ..
  35. Nagai N, Oike Y, Izumi Nagai K, Koto T, Satofuka S, Shinoda H, et al. Suppression of choroidal neovascularization by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme: minimal role of bradykinin. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:2321-6 pubmed
    ..Wild-type mice were pretreated with the ACE inhibitor imidapril, with or without the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2-R) antagonist icatibant daily for 6 days before photocoagulation, and the treatment was continued daily ..
  36. Bergaya S, Meneton P, Bloch Faure M, Mathieu E, Alhenc Gelas F, Levy B, et al. Decreased flow-dependent dilation in carotid arteries of tissue kallikrein-knockout mice. Circ Res. 2001;88:593-9 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates the active contribution of the vascular kallikrein-kinin system to one-third of the flow-dependent dilation response via activation of B(2) receptors coupled to endothelial NO release. ..
  37. Estrela G, Wasinski F, Bacurau R, Malheiros D, Camara N, Araujo R. Kinin B2 receptor deletion and blockage ameliorates cisplatin-induced acute renal injury. Int Immunopharmacol. 2014;22:115-9 pubmed publisher
    ..g., IL-1? and TNF-?). The kinin B2 receptor has been associated with the inflammation process, as well as the regulation of cytokine expression, and ..
  38. Ma J, Wang D, Chao L, Chao J. Cloning, sequence analysis and expression of the gene encoding the mouse bradykinin B2 receptor. Gene. 1994;149:283-8 pubmed
    The bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) mediates most of the biological effects of kinins. In the present study, we have cloned and sequenced the gene (B2R) from a mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell genomic library...
  39. Lemos M, Amaral F, Dong K, Bittencourt M, Caetano A, Pesquero J, et al. Role of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in memory consolidation during the aging process of mice. Neuropeptides. 2010;44:163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Male C57Bl/6 (wt), knock-out B1 (koB1) or B2 (koB2) mice (3, 6, 12 and 18-month-old - mo; n=10 per group) were submitted to an acquisition session, reinforcement ..
  40. de Picoli Souza K, Batista E, Silva E, Reis F, Silva S, Araujo R, et al. Effect of kinin B2 receptor ablation on skeletal muscle development and myostatin gene expression. Neuropeptides. 2010;44:209-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism involved in this phenotype could be related to the reduction of myostatin gene expression during postnatal life. ..
  41. Shaw O, Harper J. Bradykinin receptor 2 extends inflammatory cell recruitment in a model of acute gouty arthritis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;416:266-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice were injected intraperitoneally with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals ± bradykinin B1- or B2 receptor antagonists, Des-Arg-HOE-140 and HOE-140, respectively...
  42. Fan H, Stefkova J, El Dahr S. Susceptibility to metanephric apoptosis in bradykinin B2 receptor null mice via the p53-Bax pathway. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;291:F670-82 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a model whereby a seemingly silent genetic mutation of BdkrB2 predisposes mice to renal dysplasia by creating a "preapoptotic" state through p53 activation. ..
  43. Nico D, Feijó D, Maran N, Morrot A, Scharfstein J, Palatnik M, et al. Resistance to visceral leishmaniasis is severely compromised in mice deficient of bradykinin B2-receptors. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:261 pubmed publisher
    ..chagasi depends on activation of G-protein coupled bradykinin B2 receptors (B2R)...
  44. Yokoyama S, Kimura Y, Taketo M, Black J, Ransom B, Higashida H. B2 bradykinin receptors in NG108-15 cells: cDNA cloning and functional expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;200:634-41 pubmed
    ..One was identical with rat uterus B2 BKR, whereas the other one (mBKR) had 91% amino acid homology to the rat B2 BKR and 82% homology to human B2 BKR...
  45. Kiehne K, Rozengurt E. Down-regulation of bradykinin receptors and bradykinin-induced Ca2+ mobilization, tyrosine phosphorylation, and DNA synthesis by autocrine factors, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon beta in Swiss 3T3 cells. J Cell Physiol. 1995;162:367-77 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism that regulates cellular sensitivity to bradykinin via an autocrine factor(s). ..
  46. Shariat Madar Z, Mahdi F, Warnock M, Homeister J, Srikanth S, Krijanovski Y, et al. Bradykinin B2 receptor knockout mice are protected from thrombosis by increased nitric oxide and prostacyclin. Blood. 2006;108:192-9 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that BK B2 receptor knockout (KO) mice (BKB2R(-/-)) have increased thrombosis risk...
  47. Bernstein K, Xiao H, Frenzel K, Li P, Shen X, Adams J, et al. Six truisms concerning ACE and the renin-angiotensin system educed from the genetic analysis of mice. Circ Res. 2005;96:1135-44 pubmed
  48. Cayla C, Labuz D, Machelska H, Bader M, Schafer M, Stein C. Impaired nociception and peripheral opioid antinociception in mice lacking both kinin B1 and B2 receptors. Anesthesiology. 2012;116:448-57 pubmed publisher
    Kinins (e.g., bradykinin) acting through the constitutively expressed B2 and the injury-induced B1 receptors are involved in pain and hyperalgesia, as previously shown by use of receptor-selective antagonists and single-receptor knockout ..
  49. Barros C, Haro A, Russo F, Schadock I, Almeida S, Ribeiro R, et al. Altered glucose homeostasis and hepatic function in obese mice deficient for both kinin receptor genes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40573 pubmed publisher
    ..are the major effectors of this system and promote their effects by binding to two different receptors, the kinin B2 and B1 receptors, respectively...
  50. Duka I, Kintsurashvili E, Gavras I, Johns C, Bresnahan M, Gavras H. Vasoactive potential of the b(1) bradykinin receptor in normotension and hypertension. Circ Res. 2001;88:275-81 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, they indicate that experimental manipulations to produce hypertension also induce upregulation of the B(1)R, but not the B(2)R, in cardiac and renal tissues. ..
  51. Emanueli C, Maestri R, Corradi D, Marchione R, Minasi A, Tozzi M, et al. Dilated and failing cardiomyopathy in bradykinin B(2) receptor knockout mice. Circulation. 1999;100:2359-65 pubmed
    ..01), and reparative fibrosis. The disruption of the bradykinin B(2) receptor leads to hypertension, LV remodeling, and functional impairment, implying that kinins are essential for the functional and structural preservation of the heart. ..
  52. Nostramo R, Tillinger A, Serova L, Kvetnansky R, Sabban E. Bradykinin B2 receptor in the adrenal medulla of male rats and mice: glucocorticoid-dependent increase with immobilization stress. Endocrinology. 2013;154:3729-38 pubmed publisher
    Bradykinin, acting via the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R), is a potent stimulator of adrenomedullary catecholamine biosynthesis and release and likely plays an important role in the adrenomedullary stress response...
  53. Madeddu P, Varoni M, Palomba D, Emanueli C, Demontis M, Glorioso N, et al. Cardiovascular phenotype of a mouse strain with disruption of bradykinin B2-receptor gene. Circulation. 1997;96:3570-8 pubmed
    ..Under basal conditions, tail-cuff blood pressure was higher in Bk2r-/- than in wild-type Bk2r+/+ and heterozygous Bk2r+/- mice (124+/-1 versus 109+/-1 and 111+/-2 mm Hg, respectively; ..
  54. Wende A, Soto J, Olsen C, Pires K, Schell J, Larrieu Lahargue F, et al. Loss of bradykinin signaling does not accelerate the development of cardiac dysfunction in type 1 diabetic akita mice. Endocrinology. 2010;151:3536-42 pubmed publisher
    ..in the diabetic heart, we examined cardiac function in mice with genetic ablation of both bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors (B1RB2R(-/-)) in the context of the Akita model of insulin-deficient type 1 diabetes (Ins2(Akita/+))...
  55. Jaffa M, Kobeissy F, Al Hariri M, Chalhoub H, Eid A, Ziyadeh F, et al. Global renal gene expression profiling analysis in B2-kinin receptor null mice: impact of diabetes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44714 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of the present study provide a global genomics view of biomarkers that highlight the mechanisms and putative pathways involved in DN. ..
  56. Hess J, Borkowski J, Stonesifer G, MacNeil T, Strader C, Ransom R. Cloning and pharmacological characterization of bradykinin receptors. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1994;27:1725-31 pubmed
    A human B2 bradykinin receptor cDNA was cloned from the lung fibroblast cell line, CCD-Lu. This clone was utilized to isolate a genomic clone of a mouse B2 bradykinin receptor...
  57. Ricupero D, Polgar P, Taylor L, Sowell M, Gao Y, Bradwin G, et al. Enhanced bradykinin-stimulated phospholipase C activity in murine embryonic stem cells lacking the G-protein alphaq-subunit. Biochem J. 1997;327 ( Pt 3):803-9 pubmed
    ..The bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor was stably transfected into wild-type (WT) alphai-2-null and alphaq-null ES cells...
  58. Lu F, Chauhan A, Fernandes S, Walsh M, Wagner D, Davis A. The effect of C1 inhibitor on intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;295:G1042-9 pubmed publisher
    ..C57BL/6, C1INH-deficient (C1INH(-/-)), bradykinin type 2 receptor-deficient (Bk2R(-/-)), and C3-deficient mice (C3(-/-)) were randomized into three groups: sham operated control, IR, and IR + C1INH-..
  59. Madeddu P, Emanueli C, Gaspa L, Salis B, Milia A, Chao L, et al. Role of the bradykinin B2 receptor in the maturation of blood pressure phenotype: lesson from transgenic and knockout mice. Immunopharmacology. 1999;44:9-13 pubmed
    The binding of bradykinin (BK) to its B2 receptor results in a wide spectrum of biological effects including vasodilation, smooth muscle contraction and relaxation, pain, and inflammation...
  60. Hess J, Chen R, Hey P, Breese R, Chang R, Chen T, et al. Generation and characterization of a humanized bradykinin B1 receptor mouse. Biol Chem. 2006;387:195-201 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we have generated a humanized B1R mouse model that is suitable for testing the efficacy of human B1R-selective compounds. ..
  61. Madeddu P, Emanueli C, Maestri R, Salis M, Minasi A, Capogrossi M, et al. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade prevents cardiac remodeling in bradykinin B(2) receptor knockout mice. Hypertension. 2000;35:391-6 pubmed
    ..The interaction of Ang II and BK appears to be essential for the development of a normal heart. ..
  62. Song J, Hwang I, Cho K, Garcia M, Kim A, Wang T, et al. Plasma carboxypeptidase B downregulates inflammatory responses in autoimmune arthritis. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3517-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that CPB plays a critical role in dampening local, C5a-mediated inflammation and represents a molecular link between inflammation and coagulation in autoimmune arthritis. ..
  63. Yosipiv I, Dipp S, El Dahr S. Targeted disruption of the bradykinin B(2) receptor gene in mice alters the ontogeny of the renin-angiotensin system. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001;281:F795-801 pubmed
    ..6-fold, P < 0.05). We conclude that 1) bradykinin stimulates renin gene expression, 2) renal kallikrein is regulated via a negative feedback loop involving the B(2) receptor, and 3) Ao, ACE, and AT(1) are not bradykinin-target genes...
  64. Adolfo Argañaraz G, Regina Perosa S, Cristina Lencioni E, Bader M, Abrão Cavalheiro E, da Graça Naffah Mazzacoratti M, et al. Role of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in the development of pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Brain Res. 2004;1013:30-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a deleterious effect for kinin B1 receptor and a protective effect for kinin B2 receptor during the development of the temporal lobe epilepsy.
  65. Cervenka L, Vaneckova I, Maly J, Horacek V, El Dahr S. Genetic inactivation of the B2 receptor in mice worsens two-kidney, one-clip hypertension: role of NO and the AT2 receptor. J Hypertens. 2003;21:1531-8 pubmed
    ..ANG II) type 2 (AT2) receptors results in nitric oxide (NO) release via activation of endothelial bradykinin B2 (B2R) receptors...
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    ..aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a common polymorphic variant of the bradykinin B2 receptor gene (B2R; -58T/C) on the autonomic regulation of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in 129 mild-moderate never-treated ..
  67. Schanstra J, Duchene J, Praddaude F, Bruneval P, Tack I, Chevalier J, et al. Decreased renal NO excretion and reduced glomerular tuft area in mice lacking the bradykinin B2 receptor. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;284:H1904-8 pubmed
    ..These differences between B(2)-/- and wild-type mice might become important under pathological conditions as shown by a number of studies using these bradykinin B(2) receptor knockout mice. ..
  68. Emanueli C, Fink E, Milia A, Salis M, Conti M, Demontis M, et al. Enhanced blood pressure sensitivity to deoxycorticosterone in mice with disruption of bradykinin B2 receptor gene. Hypertension. 1998;31:1278-83 pubmed
    ..3 micromol/g body wt s.c. once per week for 6 weeks) or vehicle in transgenic mice (Bk2r-/-) lacking the bradykinin B2 receptor gene and in wild-type controls (Bk2r+/+)...
  69. Kakoki M, Kizer C, Yi X, Takahashi N, Kim H, Bagnell C, et al. Senescence-associated phenotypes in Akita diabetic mice are enhanced by absence of bradykinin B2 receptors. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1302-9 pubmed
    ..previously reported that genetically increased angiotensin-converting enzyme levels, or absence of the bradykinin B2 receptor, increase kidney damage in diabetic mice...
  70. Bhagat T, Zhou L, Sokol L, Kessel R, Caceres G, Gundabolu K, et al. miR-21 mediates hematopoietic suppression in MDS by activating TGF-? signaling. Blood. 2013;121:2875-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these studies demonstrate the role of miR-21 in regulating overactivated TGF-? signaling in MDS. ..
  71. Blaes N, Pecher C, Mehrenberger M, Cellier E, Praddaude F, Chevalier J, et al. Bradykinin inhibits high glucose- and growth factor-induced collagen synthesis in mesangial cells through the B2-kinin receptor. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;303:F293-303 pubmed publisher
    ..is achieved with angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), which also favor bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor (B2R) activation...
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    ..The present study sought to investigate whether the B(2)R gene deletion will have an impact on myocardial function...
  73. Isbell D, Voros S, Yang Z, DiMaria J, Berr S, French B, et al. Interaction between bradykinin subtype 2 and angiotensin II type 2 receptors during post-MI left ventricular remodeling. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H3372-8 pubmed
    ..However, B(2)R does appear to have a role in the smaller cavity size and hyperdynamic function observed at baseline in AT(2)TG mice and in limiting collagen deposition during postinfarct remodeling. ..
  74. Mukhin Y, Garnovsky E, Ullian M, Garnovskaya M. Bradykinin B2 receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase in mIMCD-3 cells via epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;304:968-77 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that BK stimulates Ras-dependent activation of ERK1/2 in mIMCD-3 cells via transactivation of EGFR through a novel mechanism. ..
  75. Shivakumar B, Wang Z, Hammond T, Harris R. EP24.15 interacts with the angiotensin II type I receptor and bradykinin B2 receptor. Cell Biochem Funct. 2005;23:195-204 pubmed
    ..Two-hybrid screening also determined that EP24.15 can interact with the B2 bradykinin receptor. Transient expression of EP24...
  76. Alfie M, Yang X, Hess F, Carretero O. Salt-sensitive hypertension in bradykinin B2 receptor knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;224:625-30 pubmed
    ..We tested the hypothesis that mice lacking the gene encoding for the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2-KO) have a greater hypertensive response to chronic high Na+ intake (salt sensitivity) compared to ..
  77. Moran C, Rush C, Dougan T, Jose R, Biros E, Norman P, et al. Modulation of Kinin B2 Receptor Signaling Controls Aortic Dilatation and Rupture in the Angiotensin II-Infused Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mouse. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:898-907 pubmed publisher
    ..Activity of the local kallikrein-kinin system may be important in cardiovascular disease. The effect of kinin B2 receptor (B2R) agonist and antagonist peptides on experimental AAA was investigated...
  78. Madeddu P, Salis M, Emanueli C. Altered baroreflex control of heart rate in bradykinin B2-receptor knockout mice. Immunopharmacology. 1999;45:21-7 pubmed
    Recently, we have shown that a knockout mouse strain lacking the bradykinin B2-receptor gene exhibits an accelerated heart rate (HR) under basal conditions, this alteration being associated with mildly elevated blood pressure (BP) levels ..
  79. Marcon R, Claudino R, Dutra R, Bento A, Schmidt E, Bouzon Z, et al. Exacerbation of DSS-induced colitis in mice lacking kinin B(1) receptors through compensatory up-regulation of kinin B(2) receptors: the role of tight junctions and intestinal homeostasis. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;168:389-402 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased susceptibility of B1(-/-) may be associated with compensatory overexpression of B(2) receptors, which, in turn, modulates tight junction expression. ..
  80. Rodi D, Buzzi A, Barbieri M, Zucchini S, Verlengia G, Binaschi A, et al. Bradykinin B? receptors increase hippocampal excitability and susceptibility to seizures in mice. Neuroscience. 2013;248:392-402 pubmed publisher
    Bradykinin (BK) and its receptors (B1 and B2) may exert a role in the pathophysiology of certain CNS diseases, including epilepsy...
  81. Barros C, Haro A, Russo F, Schadock I, Almeida S, Reis F, et al. Bradykinin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis in obese mice. Lab Invest. 2012;92:1419-27 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this, we generated genetically obese mice (ob/ob) lacking the BK B2 receptor (obB2KO)...
  82. Maul B, Krause W, Pankow K, Becker M, Gembardt F, Alenina N, et al. Central angiotensin II controls alcohol consumption via its AT1 receptor. FASEB J. 2005;19:1474-81 pubmed
    ..II on alcohol consumption is mediated by the angiotensin receptor AT1 whereas the AT2 receptor and the bradykinin B2 receptor are not involved...
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