Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Axin2
Description: axin 2
Alias: Axi1, Axil, Conductin, axin-2, axin-like protein, axis inhibition protein 2
- Liu B, Yu H, Hsu W. Craniosynostosis caused by Axin2 deficiency is mediated through distinct functions of beta-catenin in proliferation and differentiation. Dev Biol. 2007;301:298-308 pubmedTargeted disruption of Axin2 in mice induces skeletal defects, a phenotype resembling craniosynostosis in humans. Premature fusion of cranial sutures, caused by deficiency in intramembranous ossification, occurs at early postnatal stages...
- Al Alam D, Green M, Tabatabai Irani R, Parsa S, Danopoulos S, Sala F, et al. Contrasting expression of canonical Wnt signaling reporters TOPGAL, BATGAL and Axin2(LacZ) during murine lung development and repair. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23139 pubmed publisher..early progenitor cell fates: investigation has been enhanced by canonical Wnt reporter mice, TOPGAL, BATGAL and Axin2(LacZ)...
- Fu J, Jiang M, Mirando A, Yu H, Hsu W. Reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177/mouse Wntless is required for embryonic axis formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18598-603 pubmed publisher..A reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177 is essential for the patterning of the anterior-posterior axis during mammalian development. ..
- Hirata H, Bessho Y, Kokubu H, Masamizu Y, Yamada S, Lewis J, et al. Instability of Hes7 protein is crucial for the somite segmentation clock. Nat Genet. 2004;36:750-4 pubmed..We simulated this effect mathematically using a direct autorepression model. Thus, instability of Hes7 is essential for sustained oscillation and for its function as a segmentation clock. ..
- Suriben R, Fisher D, Cheyette B. Dact1 presomitic mesoderm expression oscillates in phase with Axin2 in the somitogenesis clock of mice. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:3177-83 pubmed..and with the "clock and wavefront" model of signal regulation during somitogenesis, the oscillation of Dact1 occurs in phase with the Wnt signaling component Axin2, and out of phase with the Notch signaling component Lfng.
- Gregoire E, Lavery R, Chassot A, Akiyama H, Treier M, Behringer R, et al. Transient development of ovotestes in XX Sox9 transgenic mice. Dev Biol. 2011;349:65-77 pubmed publisher..Finally, ovarian cells of the XX Wt1:Sox9 ovotestis undergo apoptosis during late embryogenesis leading to complete female-to-male sex reversal of the transgenic mice at birth...
- Zhang Y, Tomann P, Andl T, Gallant N, Huelsken J, Jerchow B, et al. Reciprocal requirements for EDA/EDAR/NF-kappaB and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathways in hair follicle induction. Dev Cell. 2009;17:49-61 pubmed publisher..These data reveal a complex interplay and interdependence of Wnt/beta-catenin and EDA/EDAR/NF-kappaB signaling pathways in initiation and maintenance of primary hair follicle placodes...
- Sato T, van Es J, Snippert H, Stange D, Vries R, van den Born M, et al. Paneth cells constitute the niche for Lgr5 stem cells in intestinal crypts. Nature. 2011;469:415-8 pubmed publisher..In colon crypts, CD24(+) cells residing between Lgr5 stem cells may represent the Paneth cell equivalents. We conclude that Lgr5 stem cells compete for essential niche signals provided by a specialized daughter cell, the Paneth cell...
- Lickert H, Cox B, Wehrle C, Taketo M, Kemler R, Rossant J. Dissecting Wnt/beta-catenin signaling during gastrulation using RNA interference in mouse embryos. Development. 2005;132:2599-609 pubmed..This functional genomic approach allows the rapid identification of functionally important components of embryonic development from large datasets of putative targets. ..
- Chai R, Xia A, Wang T, Jan T, Hayashi T, Bermingham McDonogh O, et al. Dynamic expression of Lgr5, a Wnt target gene, in the developing and mature mouse cochlea. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2011;12:455-69 pubmed publisher..The expression pattern of Lgr5 contrasts with another Wnt target gene, Axin2, a feedback inhibitor of the Wnt pathway...
- Maruyama T, Mirando A, Deng C, Hsu W. The balance of WNT and FGF signaling influences mesenchymal stem cell fate during skeletal development. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra40 pubmed publisher..Simultaneous knockout of Axin2, a negative regulator of the WNT-beta-catenin pathway, and decreased activity of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) ..
- Zeng Y, Nusse R. Wnt proteins are self-renewal factors for mammary stem cells and promote their long-term expansion in culture. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;6:568-77 pubmed publisher..In addition, stem cells mutant for the negative-feedback regulator Axin2 and therefore sensitized to Wnt signals have a competitive advantage in mammary gland reconstitution assays...
- Harris Johnson K, Domyan E, Vezina C, Sun X. beta-Catenin promotes respiratory progenitor identity in mouse foregut. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16287-92 pubmed publisher..Our findings reveal an early role for beta-Catenin in the establishment of respiratory progenitors in mouse foregut endoderm. ..
- Vermot J, Gallego Llamas J, Fraulob V, Niederreither K, Chambon P, Dolle P. Retinoic acid controls the bilateral symmetry of somite formation in the mouse embryo. Science. 2005;308:563-6 pubmed..These data implicate retinoic acid as an endogenous signal that maintains the bilateral synchrony of mesoderm segmentation, and therefore controls bilateral symmetry, in vertebrate embryos. ..
- Mikels A, Minami Y, Nusse R. Ror2 receptor requires tyrosine kinase activity to mediate Wnt5A signaling. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:30167-76 pubmed publisher..inhibit canonical Wnt signaling in vivo, we examined the effect of Ror2 loss on the expression of the Wnt reporter Axin2(LacZ), finding increased reporter activity in Ror2 null mice, demonstrating that Ror2 can also inhibit Wnt/beta-..
- Aulehla A, Wiegraebe W, Baubet V, Wahl M, Deng C, Taketo M, et al. A beta-catenin gradient links the clock and wavefront systems in mouse embryo segmentation. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:186-93 pubmed..This gradient of nuclear beta-catenin defines the size of the oscillatory field and controls key aspects of PSM maturation and segment formation, emphasizing the central role of Wnt signalling in this process. ..
- Fancy S, Harrington E, Yuen T, Silbereis J, Zhao C, Baranzini S, et al. Axin2 as regulatory and therapeutic target in newborn brain injury and remyelination. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:1009-16 pubmed publisher..We found that AXIN2 was expressed in immature oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OLPs) in white matter lesions of human newborns with ..
- Aulehla A, Wehrle C, Brand Saberi B, Kemler R, Gossler A, Kanzler B, et al. Wnt3a plays a major role in the segmentation clock controlling somitogenesis. Dev Cell. 2003;4:395-406 pubmed..Here, we establish a novel link between Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and the segmentation clock. Axin2, a negative regulator of the Wnt pathway, is directly controlled by Wnt/beta-catenin and shows oscillating ..
- Machon O, Backman M, Machonova O, Kozmik Z, Vacik T, Andersen L, et al. A dynamic gradient of Wnt signaling controls initiation of neurogenesis in the mammalian cortex and cellular specification in the hippocampus. Dev Biol. 2007;311:223-37 pubmed..This suggests that the dose of canonical Wnt signaling determines cellular fate in the developing cortex and hippocampus, and that recession of Wnt signaling acts as a morphogenetic gradient regulating neurogenesis in the cortex. ..
- Lustig B, Jerchow B, Sachs M, Weiler S, Pietsch T, Karsten U, et al. Negative feedback loop of Wnt signaling through upregulation of conductin/axin2 in colorectal and liver tumors. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1184-93 pubmed..Wnt signaling is controlled by the negative regulator conductin/axin2/axil, which induces degradation of beta-catenin by functional interaction with the tumor suppressor APC ..
- Dale J, Malapert P, Chal J, Vilhais Neto G, Maroto M, Johnson T, et al. Oscillations of the snail genes in the presomitic mesoderm coordinate segmental patterning and morphogenesis in vertebrate somitogenesis. Dev Cell. 2006;10:355-66 pubmed..Thus, Snail genes define a class of cyclic genes that coordinate segmentation and PSM morphogenesis. ..
- Sewell W, Sparrow D, Smith A, Gonzalez D, Rappaport E, Dunwoodie S, et al. Cyclical expression of the Notch/Wnt regulator Nrarp requires modulation by Dll3 in somitogenesis. Dev Biol. 2009;329:400-9 pubmed publisher..5 dpc) somitogenesis. Nrarp displays a distinct pattern of cycling phases when compared to Lfng and Axin2 (a Wnt pathway gene) at 9.5 dpc but appears to be in phase with Lfng by 10.5 dpc...
- Behr B, Longaker M, Quarto N. Differential activation of canonical Wnt signaling determines cranial sutures fate: a novel mechanism for sagittal suture craniosynostosis. Dev Biol. 2010;344:922-40 pubmed publisher..We propose that regulation of canonical Wnt signaling is of crucial importance during the physiological patterning of PF and SAG sutures. Importantly, dysregulation of this pathway may lead to craniosynostosis...
- Voronina V, Takemaru K, Treuting P, Love D, Grubb B, Hajjar A, et al. Inactivation of Chibby affects function of motile airway cilia. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:225-33 pubmed publisher..As the phenotypes of Cby(-/-) mice bear striking similarities to primary ciliary dyskinesia, Cby(-/-) mice may prove to be a useful model for this condition. ..
- Dao D, Yang X, Flick L, Chen D, Hilton M, O Keefe R. Axin2 regulates chondrocyte maturation and axial skeletal development. J Orthop Res. 2010;28:89-95 pubmed publisherAxis inhibition proteins 1 and 2 (Axin1 and Axin2) are scaffolding proteins that modulate at least two signaling pathways that are crucial in skeletogenesis: the Wnt/beta-catenin and TGF-beta signaling pathways...
- Mirando A, Maruyama T, Fu J, Yu H, Hsu W. ?-catenin/cyclin D1 mediated development of suture mesenchyme in calvarial morphogenesis. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:116 pubmed publisherMouse genetic study has demonstrated that Axin2 is essential for calvarial development and disease. Haploid deficiency of ?-catenin alleviates the calvarial phenotype caused by Axin2 deficiency...
- Khalil S, Tan G, Giri D, Zhou X, Howe L. Activation status of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in normal and neoplastic breast tissues: relationship to HER2/neu expression in human and mouse. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33421 pubmed publisher..02). Furthermore, cytoplasmic ß-catenin was detected in HER2/neu-induced mouse mammary tumors. The Axin2(NLSlacZ) mouse strain, a previously validated reporter of mammary Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, was utilized to define ..
- Zechner D, Fujita Y, Hülsken J, Muller T, Walther I, Taketo M, et al. beta-Catenin signals regulate cell growth and the balance between progenitor cell expansion and differentiation in the nervous system. Dev Biol. 2003;258:406-18 pubmed..beta-Catenin signals are thus essential for the maintenance of proliferation of neuronal progenitors, controlling the size of the progenitor pool, and impinging on the decision of neuronal progenitors to proliferate or to differentiate. ..
- Yu H, Liu B, Costantini F, Hsu W. Impaired neural development caused by inducible expression of Axin in transgenic mice. Mech Dev. 2007;124:146-56 pubmed..The ubiquitously expressed Axin1 plays an important role in formation of the embryonic neural axis, while Axin2 is essential for craniofacial skeletogenesis...
- Yu H, Jerchow B, Sheu T, Liu B, Costantini F, Puzas J, et al. The role of Axin2 in calvarial morphogenesis and craniosynostosis. Development. 2005;132:1995-2005 pubmedAxin1 and its homolog Axin2/conductin/Axil are negative regulators of the canonical Wnt pathway that suppress signal transduction by promoting degradation of beta-catenin...
- Feller J, Schneider A, Schuster Gossler K, Gossler A. Noncyclic Notch activity in the presomitic mesoderm demonstrates uncoupling of somite compartmentalization and boundary formation. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2166-71 pubmed publisher..Expression in the PSM of Hes7, Lfng, and Spry2 was no longer cyclic, whereas Axin2 was expressed dynamically...
- Baker R, Kent C, Silbermann R, Hassell J, Young L, Howe L. Pea3 transcription factors and wnt1-induced mouse mammary neoplasia. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8854 pubmed publisher..which was visualized using both beta-catenin immunohistochemistry and the beta-catenin/TCF-responsive reporter Axin2(NLSlacZ)...
- Ohazama A, Johnson E, Ota M, Choi H, Choi H, Porntaveetus T, et al. Lrp4 modulates extracellular integration of cell signaling pathways in development. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e4092 pubmed publisher..Thus in this context Wise acts as an extracellular signaling molecule linking two signaling pathways. We further show that a downstream mediator of this integration is the Shh signaling pathway. ..
- Chia I, Costantini F. Mouse axin and axin2/conductin proteins are functionally equivalent in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:4371-6 pubmed..The related protein Axin2/Conductin, although less extensively studied, is thought to perform similar functions...
- Rooker S, Liu B, Helms J. Role of Wnt signaling in the biology of the periodontium. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:140-7 pubmed publisher..We discuss these findings in the context of dental tissue regeneration. ..
- Wu H, Barik A, Lu Y, Shen C, Bowman A, Li L, et al. Slit2 as a Î²-catenin/Ctnnb1-dependent retrograde signal for presynaptic differentiation. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher..Slit2 immobilized on beads was able to induce synaptophysin puncta in axons of spinal cord explants. Together, these observations suggest that Slit2 serves as a factor utilized by muscle Ctnnb1 to direct presynaptic differentiation. ..
- Oommen S, Otsuka Tanaka Y, Imam N, Kawasaki M, Kawasaki K, Jalani Ghazani F, et al. Distinct roles of microRNAs in epithelium and mesenchyme during tooth development. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:1465-72 pubmed publisher..To investigate the role of miRNAs in tooth development, we examined mice with either mesenchymal (Wnt1Cre/Dicer(fl/fl)) or epithelial (ShhCre/Dicer(fl/fl)) conditional deletion of Dicer, which is essential for miRNA processing...
- Chen Q, Takahashi Y, Oka K, Ma J. Functional Differences of Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Splice Variants in Regulating Wnt Signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:2645-54 pubmed publisher..Our study reveals a novel mechanism for intercellular regulation of Wnt signaling through VLDLR ectodomain shedding. ..
- Huang H, Cotton J, Wang Y, Rajurkar M, Zhu L, Lewis B, et al. Specific requirement of Gli transcription factors in Hedgehog-mediated intestinal development. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:17589-96 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our study reveals, for the first time, the distinct roles of Gli proteins in intestine development and suggests SLRPs as novel regulators of smooth muscle cell differentiation. ..
- Chassot A, Gregoire E, Lavery R, Taketo M, de Rooij D, Adams I, et al. RSPO1/?-catenin signaling pathway regulates oogonia differentiation and entry into meiosis in the mouse fetal ovary. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25641 pubmed publisher..Our results demonstrate that RSPO1/?-catenin signaling is involved in meiosis in fetal germ cells and contributes to the cellular decision of germ cells to differentiate into oocyte or sperm...
- Soshnikova N, Zechner D, Huelsken J, Mishina Y, Behringer R, Taketo M, et al. Genetic interaction between Wnt/beta-catenin and BMP receptor signaling during formation of the AER and the dorsal-ventral axis in the limb. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1963-8 pubmed..Thus, AER formation and dorsal-ventral patterning of limbs are tightly controlled by an intricate interplay between Wnt/beta-catenin and BMP receptor signaling. ..
- Lin M, Li L, Liu C, Liu H, He F, Yan F, et al. Wnt5a regulates growth, patterning, and odontoblast differentiation of developing mouse tooth. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:432-40 pubmed publisher..These defects are associated with upregulated Axin2 and Shh expression in the dental epithelium and reduced levels of cell proliferation in the dental epithelium and ..
- Stewart K, Uetani N, Hendriks W, Tremblay M, Bouchard M. Inactivation of LAR family phosphatase genes Ptprs and Ptprf causes craniofacial malformations resembling Pierre-Robin sequence. Development. 2013;140:3413-22 pubmed publisher..Together these results identify LAR RPTPs as important regulators of craniofacial morphogenesis and provide insight into the etiology of Pierre-Robin sequence. ..
- Gage P, Qian M, Wu D, Rosenberg K. The canonical Wnt signaling antagonist DKK2 is an essential effector of PITX2 function during normal eye development. Dev Biol. 2008;317:310-24 pubmed publisher..We further propose a model placing PITX2 as an essential integration node between retinoic acid and canonical Wnt signaling during eye development. ..
- Planas Paz L, Orsini V, Boulter L, Calabrese D, Pikiolek M, Nigsch F, et al. The RSPO-LGR4/5-ZNRF3/RNF43 module controls liver zonation and size. Nat Cell Biol. 2016;18:467-79 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our results indicate that the RSPO-LGR4/5-ZNRF3/RNF43 module controls metabolic liver zonation and is a hepatic growth/size rheostat during development, homeostasis and regeneration. ..
- Cohen E, Ihida Stansbury K, Lu M, Panettieri R, Jones P, Morrisey E. Wnt signaling regulates smooth muscle precursor development in the mouse lung via a tenascin C/PDGFR pathway. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2538-49 pubmed publisher..Together, these data define a Wnt/Tnc/Pdgfr signaling axis that is critical for smooth muscle development and disease progression in the lung. ..
- Kessenbrock K, Dijkgraaf G, Lawson D, Littlepage L, Shahi P, Pieper U, et al. A role for matrix metalloproteinases in regulating mammary stem cell function via the Wnt signaling pathway. Cell Stem Cell. 2013;13:300-13 pubmed publisher..Our study reveals a mechanism by a microenvironmental protease that regulates Wnt signaling and impacts adult epithelial stem cell function. ..
- Yan Y, Tang D, Chen M, Huang J, Xie R, Jonason J, et al. Axin2 controls bone remodeling through the beta-catenin-BMP signaling pathway in adult mice. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3566-78 pubmed publisherTo investigate the role of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling in bone remodeling, we analyzed the bone phenotype of female Axin2-lacZ knockout (KO) mice...
- Kennedy M, Chalamalasetty R, Thomas S, Garriock R, Jailwala P, Yamaguchi T. Sp5 and Sp8 recruit Î²-catenin and Tcf1-Lef1 to select enhancers to activate Wnt target gene transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:3545-50 pubmed publisher..Because Sp5 is itself directly activated by Wnt signals, we propose that Sp5 is a Wnt/Î²-catenin pathway-specific transcript on factor that functions in a feed-forward loop to robustly activate select Wnt target genes. ..
- Minear S, Leucht P, Jiang J, Liu B, Zeng A, Fuerer C, et al. Wnt proteins promote bone regeneration. Sci Transl Med. 2010;2:29ra30 pubmed publisher..insights into the mechanism by which Wnt signaling regulates adult bone repair through the use of the mouse strain Axin2(LacZ/LacZ) in which the cellular response to Wnt is increased...
- Hoffman J, Wu C, Merrill B. Tcf7l1 prepares epiblast cells in the gastrulating mouse embryo for lineage specification. Development. 2013;140:1665-75 pubmed publisher..We suggest that the role of Tcf7l1 in mammals is to inhibit the GRN to ensure the coordination of lineage specification with the dynamic cellular events occurring during gastrulation. ..
- Li C, Lan Y, Krumlauf R, Jiang R. Modulating Wnt Signaling Rescues Palate Morphogenesis in Pax9 Mutant Mice. J Dent Res. 2017;96:1273-1281 pubmed publisher..that cleft palate pathogenesis in Pax9-deficient embryos is accompanied by significantly reduced expression of Axin2, an endogenous target of canonical Wnt signaling, in the developing palatal mesenchyme, particularly in the ..
- de Roo J, Breukel C, Chhatta A, Linssen M, Vloemans S, Salvatori D, et al. Axin2-mTurquoise2: A novel reporter mouse model for the detection of canonical Wnt signalling. Genesis. 2017;55: pubmed publisher..We used a CRISPR-Cas9 approach to insert a TQ fluorescent protein encoding gene into the general Wnt target gene Axin2, thereby establishing a Wnt reporter mouse similar to previously generated Wnt reporter mice but with the ..
- Bankhead E, Colasanto M, Dyorich K, Jamrich M, Murtaugh L, Fuhrmann S. Multiple requirements of the focal dermal hypoplasia gene porcupine during ocular morphogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:197-213 pubmed publisher..Thus, Porcn is required in both extraocular and neuroectodermal tissues to regulate distinct Wnt-dependent processes during morphogenesis of the posterior and anterior segments of the eye. ..
- Fu J, Hsu W. Epidermal Wnt controls hair follicle induction by orchestrating dynamic signaling crosstalk between the epidermis and dermis. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:890-8 pubmed publisher..Our findings uncover a mechanism underlying hair follicle development orchestrated by the Wnt pathway...
- Hayano S, Kurosaka H, Yanagita T, Kalus I, Milz F, Ishihara Y, et al. Roles of heparan sulfate sulfation in dentinogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:12217-29 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate that Sulf-mediated desulfation of cellular HSPGs is an important modification that is critical for the activation of the Wnt signaling in odontoblasts and for production of the dentin matrix. ..
- van de Ven C, Bialecka M, Neijts R, Young T, Rowland J, Stringer E, et al. Concerted involvement of Cdx/Hox genes and Wnt signaling in morphogenesis of the caudal neural tube and cloacal derivatives from the posterior growth zone. Development. 2011;138:3451-62 pubmed publisher..They shed a new light on the etiology of the caudal dysplasia or caudal regression range of human congenital defects. ..
- Lorenz A, Deutschmann M, Ahlfeld J, Prix C, Koch A, Smits R, et al. Severe alterations of cerebellar cortical development after constitutive activation of Wnt signaling in granule neuron precursors. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3326-38 pubmed publisher..In summary, we conclude that cerebellar granule neurons essentially require appropriate levels of Wnt signaling to balance their proliferation and differentiation. ..
- Mohri Y, Oyama K, Akamatsu A, Kato S, Nishimori K. Lgr4-deficient mice showed premature differentiation of ureteric bud with reduced expression of Wnt effector Lef1 and Gata3. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1626-34 pubmed publisher..We demonstrate here that Lgr4 has a novel function for maintaining the UB in an undifferentiated state. ..