Axin1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Axin1
Description: axin 1
Alias: AI316800, Axin, fused, kinky, knobbly, axin-1, axis inhibition protein 1, protein Fused
Species: mouse
Products:     Axin1

Top Publications

  1. Redina O, Zhelezova A, Golubitsa A, Agulnik A, Ruvinsky A. Phenotypic expression of the fused (Fu) gene in chimaeric mice. Genet Res. 1994;63:183-7 pubmed
    The dominant gene Fused (Fu) produces skeletal abnormalities during embryonic development. It was previously shown that C57BL/6 mice contain a suppressor of Fu, which acts after fertilization...
  2. Jho E, Lomvardas S, Costantini F. A GSK3beta phosphorylation site in axin modulates interaction with beta-catenin and Tcf-mediated gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;266:28-35 pubmed
    ..b>Axin is a scaffold protein which binds beta-catenin and GSK3beta (as well as several other proteins) and thus promotes ..
  3. Allen S. H-2f, a tenth allele at the histocompatibility-2 locus in the mouse as determined by tumor transplantation. Cancer Res. 1955;15:315-9 pubmed
  4. Luo W, Lin S. Axin: a master scaffold for multiple signaling pathways. Neurosignals. 2004;13:99-113 pubmed
    Axin was originally identified from the characterization of the Fused locus, the disruption of which leads to duplication of axis and embryonic lethality...
  5. Kim S, Choi E, Song K, Kim S, Seo E, Jho E, et al. Axin localizes to mitotic spindles and centrosomes in mitotic cells. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:943-54 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of Axin, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, in mitosis has remained unclear...
  6. Hsu W, Shakya R, Costantini F. Impaired mammary gland and lymphoid development caused by inducible expression of Axin in transgenic mice. J Cell Biol. 2001;155:1055-64 pubmed
    b>Axin is a component of the canonical Wnt pathway that negatively regulates signal transduction by promoting degradation of beta-catenin...
  7. Fagotto F, Jho E, Zeng L, Kurth T, Joos T, Kaufmann C, et al. Domains of axin involved in protein-protein interactions, Wnt pathway inhibition, and intracellular localization. J Cell Biol. 1999;145:741-56 pubmed
    b>Axin was identified as a regulator of embryonic axis induction in vertebrates that inhibits the Wnt signal transduction pathway...
  8. Ha N, Tonozuka T, Stamos J, Choi H, Weis W. Mechanism of phosphorylation-dependent binding of APC to beta-catenin and its role in beta-catenin degradation. Mol Cell. 2004;15:511-21 pubmed
    ..Phosphorylation occurs in a multiprotein complex that includes the kinases, beta-catenin, axin, and the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) protein. The role of APC in this process is poorly understood...
  9. Kim M, Chia I, Costantini F. SUMOylation target sites at the C terminus protect Axin from ubiquitination and confer protein stability. FASEB J. 2008;22:3785-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Axin is a scaffold protein for the beta-catenin destruction complex, and a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling...

More Information

Publications85

  1. Luo W, Zou H, Jin L, Lin S, Li Q, Ye Z, et al. Axin contains three separable domains that confer intramolecular, homodimeric, and heterodimeric interactions involved in distinct functions. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:5054-60 pubmed
    b>Axin is a major scaffold protein, interacting with diverse molecules involved in a number of signaling pathways. Axin can undergo dimer/oligomerization via its DIX domain...
  2. Zeng L, Fagotto F, Zhang T, Hsu W, Vasicek T, Perry W, et al. The mouse Fused locus encodes Axin, an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway that regulates embryonic axis formation. Cell. 1997;90:181-92 pubmed
    Mutations at the mouse Fused locus have pleiotropic developmental effects, including the formation of axial duplications in homozygous embryos...
  3. Rui Y, Xu Z, Xiong B, Cao Y, Lin S, Zhang M, et al. A beta-catenin-independent dorsalization pathway activated by Axin/JNK signaling and antagonized by aida. Dev Cell. 2007;13:268-82 pubmed
    b>Axin is a scaffold protein that controls multiple important pathways, including the canonical Wnt pathway and JNK signaling...
  4. Mao J, Wang J, Liu B, Pan W, Farr G, Flynn C, et al. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 binds to Axin and regulates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Mol Cell. 2001;7:801-9 pubmed
    To understand how the Wnt coreceptor LRP-5 is involved in transducing the canonical Wnt signals, we identified Axin as a protein that interacts with the intracellular domain of LRP-5...
  5. Luo W, Ng W, Jin L, Ye Z, Han J, Lin S. Axin utilizes distinct regions for competitive MEKK1 and MEKK4 binding and JNK activation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:37451-8 pubmed
    b>Axin is a multidomain protein that plays a critical role in Wnt signaling, serving as a scaffold for down-regulation of beta-catenin. It also activates the JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase by binding to MEKK1...
  6. Rui H, Fan E, Zhou H, Xu Z, Zhang Y, Lin S. SUMO-1 modification of the C-terminal KVEKVD of Axin is required for JNK activation but has no effect on Wnt signaling. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:42981-6 pubmed
    b>Axin is a multifunctional protein, regulating Wnt signaling and the c-Jun N-terminal/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) pathway as well as tumorigenesis...
  7. Zeng X, Huang H, Tamai K, Zhang X, Harada Y, Yokota C, et al. Initiation of Wnt signaling: control of Wnt coreceptor Lrp6 phosphorylation/activation via frizzled, dishevelled and axin functions. Development. 2008;135:367-75 pubmed
    ..We also show that axin, a key scaffolding protein in the Wnt pathway, is required for Lrp6 phosphorylation via its ability to recruit Gsk3,..
  8. Huang S, Mishina Y, Liu S, Cheung A, Stegmeier F, Michaud G, et al. Tankyrase inhibition stabilizes axin and antagonizes Wnt signalling. Nature. 2009;461:614-20 pubmed publisher
    ..XAV939 stimulates beta-catenin degradation by stabilizing axin, the concentration-limiting component of the destruction complex...
  9. Perry W, Vasicek T, Lee J, Rossi J, Zeng L, Zhang T, et al. Phenotypic and molecular analysis of a transgenic insertional allele of the mouse Fused locus. Genetics. 1995;141:321-32 pubmed
    Spontaneous mutations at the mouse Fused (Fu) locus cause dominant skeletal and neurological defects and recessive lethal embryonic defects including neuroectodermal abnormalities and axial duplications...
  10. Jacobs Cohen R, Spiegelman M, Cookingham J, Bennett D. Knobbly, a new dominant mutation in the mouse that affects embryonic ectoderm organization. Genet Res. 1984;43:43-50 pubmed
  11. Theiler K, Gluecksohn Waelsch S. The morphological effects and the development of the fused mutation in the mouse. Anat Rec. 1956;125:83-103 pubmed
  12. Rui Y, Xu Z, Lin S, Li Q, Rui H, Luo W, et al. Axin stimulates p53 functions by activation of HIPK2 kinase through multimeric complex formation. EMBO J. 2004;23:4583-94 pubmed
    b>Axin and p53 are tumor suppressors, controlling cell growth, apoptosis, and development...
  13. Li Q, Lin S, Wang X, Lian G, Lu Z, Guo H, et al. Axin determines cell fate by controlling the p53 activation threshold after DNA damage. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1128-34 pubmed
    ..An axin mutation promotes carcinogenesis in Axin(Fu)/+ (Axin-Fused) mice, consistent with a dominantnegative role for Axin(Fu) in p53 activation...
  14. Wodarz A, Nusse R. Mechanisms of Wnt signaling in development. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1998;14:59-88 pubmed
    ..Here we review recent data that have started to unravel the mechanisms of Wnt signaling. ..
  15. Ciani L, Krylova O, Smalley M, Dale T, Salinas P. A divergent canonical WNT-signaling pathway regulates microtubule dynamics: dishevelled signals locally to stabilize microtubules. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:243-53 pubmed
    ..In the canonical WNT pathway, the negative regulator Axin forms a complex with beta-catenin and GSK-3beta, resulting in beta-catenin degradation...
  16. Hsu W, Zeng L, Costantini F. Identification of a domain of Axin that binds to the serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A and a self-binding domain. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:3439-45 pubmed
    b>Axin is a negative regulator of embryonic axis formation in vertebrates, which acts through a Wnt signal transduction pathway involving the serine/threonine kinase GSK-3 and beta-catenin...
  17. Zhang Y, Neo S, Wang X, Han J, Lin S. Axin forms a complex with MEKK1 and activates c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase through domains distinct from Wnt signaling. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:35247-54 pubmed
    b>Axin negatively regulates the Wnt pathway during axis formation and plays a central role in cell growth control and tumorigenesis...
  18. Feng G, Cotta W, Wei X, Poetz O, Evans R, Jardé T, et al. Conditional disruption of Axin1 leads to development of liver tumors in mice. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:1650-9 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in components of the Wnt signaling pathway, including ?-catenin and AXIN1, are found in more than 50% of human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Disruption of Axin1 causes embryonic lethality in mice...
  19. Liu C, Li Y, Semenov M, Han C, Baeg G, Tan Y, et al. Control of beta-catenin phosphorylation/degradation by a dual-kinase mechanism. Cell. 2002;108:837-47 pubmed
    ..which is believed to be performed by glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in complex with tumor suppressor proteins Axin and adnomatous polyposis coli (APC)...
  20. Huang X, Langelotz C, Hetfeld Pechoc B, Schwenk W, Dubiel W. The COP9 signalosome mediates beta-catenin degradation by deneddylation and blocks adenomatous polyposis coli destruction via USP15. J Mol Biol. 2009;391:691-702 pubmed publisher
    ..A model is provided that proposes a role of CSN-mediated deneddylation in the formation of the beta-catenin-degrading supercomplex and the protection of complex-bound APC via CSN-associated USP15. ..
  21. Ruvinsky A, Agulnik A. Gametic imprinting and the manifestation of the fused gene in the house mouse. Dev Genet. 1990;11:263-9 pubmed
    ..The dominant fused (Fu) gene located on chromosome 17 is one of the few good cases demonstrating the phenomenon in mice...
  22. Sakanaka C, Williams L. Functional domains of axin. Importance of the C terminus as an oligomerization domain. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:14090-3 pubmed
    To understand the mechanism of how Axin acts as an inhibitory molecule in the Wnt pathway, we generated a series of mutated forms of Axin...
  23. Cong F, Schweizer L, Varmus H. Casein kinase Iepsilon modulates the signaling specificities of dishevelled. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:2000-11 pubmed
    ..We suggest that CKIepsilon functions as a molecular switch to direct Dvl from the JNK pathway to the beta-catenin pathway, possibly by altering the conformation of the C terminus of Dvl. ..
  24. Chang J, Sonoyama W, Wang Z, Jin Q, Zhang C, Krebsbach P, et al. Noncanonical Wnt-4 signaling enhances bone regeneration of mesenchymal stem cells in craniofacial defects through activation of p38 MAPK. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:30938-48 pubmed
    ..The activation of p38 was dependent on Axin and was required for the enhancement of MSC differentiation by Wnt-4...
  25. Choi E, Kim S, Jho E, Song K, Kee S. Axin expression enhances herpes simplex virus type 1 replication by inhibiting virus-mediated cell death in L929 cells. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1636-46 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Axin is a scaffolding protein that regulates Wnt signalling and participates in various cellular events, including ..
  26. Lu Z, Liu W, Huang H, He Y, Han Y, Rui Y, et al. Protein encoded by the Axin(Fu) allele effectively down-regulates Wnt signaling but exerts a dominant negative effect on c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:13132-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is encoded by the mouse Fused (Fu) locus; the Axin(Fu) allele is caused by insertion of an IAP transposon...
  27. Zhang C, Jiang B, Li M, Zhu M, Peng Y, Zhang Y, et al. The lysosomal v-ATPase-Ragulator complex is a common activator for AMPK and mTORC1, acting as a switch between catabolism and anabolism. Cell Metab. 2014;20:526-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Under glucose starvation, the v-ATPase-Ragulator complex is accessible to AXIN/LKB1 for AMPK activation...
  28. Zhang M, Ferrigno O, Wang Z, Ohnishi M, Prunier C, Levy L, et al. TGIF governs a feed-forward network that empowers Wnt signaling to drive mammary tumorigenesis. Cancer Cell. 2015;27:547-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a function of TGIF in Wnt signaling. TGIF associates with and diverts Axin1 and Axin2 from the β-catenin destruction complex, therefore allowing β-catenin accrual...
  29. Chen H, Lin C, Lin C, Perez Olle R, Leung C, Liem R. The role of microtubule actin cross-linking factor 1 (MACF1) in the Wnt signaling pathway. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1933-45 pubmed
    ..In the absence of Wnt, MACF1 associated with a complex that contained Axin, beta-catenin, GSK3beta, and APC...
  30. Malhotra S, Kincade P. Canonical Wnt pathway signaling suppresses VCAM-1 expression by marrow stromal and hematopoietic cells. Exp Hematol. 2009;37:19-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Wnt pathway inhibitors, Axin (intracellular) or Dickkopf-1 (extracellular) blocked the regulation of VCAM-1 by diffusible Wnt3a...
  31. Wang Q, Piotrowska K, Ciemerych M, Milenkovic L, Scott M, Davis R, et al. A genome-wide study of gene activity reveals developmental signaling pathways in the preimplantation mouse embryo. Dev Cell. 2004;6:133-44 pubmed
    ..Overall, these data provide a detailed temporal profile of gene expression that reveals the richness of signaling processes in early mammalian development. ..
  32. Redina O, Zhelezova A, Golubitsa A, Agul nik A, Ruvinskiĭ A. [Analysis of chimeric mice bearing the fused mutation]. Genetika. 1993;29:1320-7 pubmed
    Interaction of cells with different genotypes and expression of Fused (Fu) gene in chimaeric mice were studied. Genetic analysis of 20 chimaeras showed that gonads of chimaeras in our experiments consisted of white component cells...
  33. Zhang T, Hoffman B, Ruiz de Algara T, Helgason C. SAGE reveals expression of Wnt signalling pathway members during mouse prostate development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:310-24 pubmed
    ..These studies provide the first evidence that Wnt pathway members are expressed in the developing prostate. Functional analyses are now required to establish the biological significance of this observation. ..
  34. Jeon S, Jeong W, Cho J, Lee K, Choi K. Akt is involved in the inhibition of cell proliferation by EGF. Exp Mol Med. 2007;39:491-8 pubmed
    b>Axin is a negative regulator of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and is involved in the regulation of axis formation and proliferation. Involvement of Axin in the regulation of other signaling pathways is poorly understood...
  35. Xie R, Jiang R, Chen D. Generation of Axin1 conditional mutant mice. Genesis. 2011;49:98-102 pubmed publisher
    b>Axin1 is a critical negative regulator of the canonical Wnt-signaling pathway. It is a concentration-limiting factor in the ?-catenin degradation complex. Axin1 null mutant mouse embryos died at embryonic day 9...
  36. Yang H, Youm Y, Sun Y, Rim J, Galban C, Vandanmagsar B, et al. Axin expression in thymic stromal cells contributes to an age-related increase in thymic adiposity and is associated with reduced thymopoiesis independently of ghrelin signaling. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:928-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified that the Wnt inhibitor axin is expressed in the lymphoid as well as stromal cells of the thymus with increased expression in CD45- TSCs of ..
  37. Hida T, Yamashita N, Usui H, Nakamura F, Sasaki Y, Kikuchi A, et al. GSK3?/axin-1/?-catenin complex is involved in semaphorin3A signaling. J Neurosci. 2012;32:11905-18 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Axin-1, a key player in Wnt signaling, is an unprimed substrate of GSK3?...
  38. Cha B, Kim W, Kim Y, Hwang B, Park S, Yoon J, et al. Methylation by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 increases stability of Axin, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling. Oncogene. 2011;30:2379-89 pubmed publisher
    b>Axin, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, is a key scaffold protein for the ?-catenin destruction complex. It has been previously shown that multiple post-translational modification enzymes regulate the level of Axin...
  39. Zhang Y, Qiu W, Chan S, Han J, He X, Lin S. Casein kinase I and casein kinase II differentially regulate axin function in Wnt and JNK pathways. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:17706-12 pubmed
    b>Axin uses different combinations of functional domains in down-regulation of the Wnt pathway and activation of the MEKK1/JNK pathway. We are interested in the elucidation of the functional switch of Axin...
  40. Liu W, Rui H, Wang J, Lin S, He Y, Chen M, et al. Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-beta signaling that promotes degradation of Smad7 by Arkadia. EMBO J. 2006;25:1646-58 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that Axin activates TGF-beta signaling by forming a multimeric complex consisting of Smad7 and ubiquitin E3 ligase Arkadia...
  41. Ebersole T, Lai F, Artzt K. New molecular markers for the distal end of the t-complex and their relationships to mutations affecting mouse development. Genetics. 1992;131:175-82 pubmed
  42. Dao D, Yang X, Flick L, Chen D, Hilton M, O Keefe R. Axin2 regulates chondrocyte maturation and axial skeletal development. J Orthop Res. 2010;28:89-95 pubmed publisher
    Axis inhibition proteins 1 and 2 (Axin1 and Axin2) are scaffolding proteins that modulate at least two signaling pathways that are crucial in skeletogenesis: the Wnt/beta-catenin and TGF-beta signaling pathways...
  43. Zhang C, Li M, Ma T, Zong Y, Cui J, Feng J, et al. Metformin Activates AMPK through the Lysosomal Pathway. Cell Metab. 2016;24:521-522 pubmed publisher
  44. Azzolin L, Panciera T, Soligo S, Enzo E, Bicciato S, Dupont S, et al. YAP/TAZ incorporation in the ?-catenin destruction complex orchestrates the Wnt response. Cell. 2014;158:157-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This work reveals an unprecedented signaling framework relevant for organ size control, regeneration, and tumor suppression. ..
  45. Jiang Y, Luo W, Howe P. Dab2 stabilizes Axin and attenuates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by preventing protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-Axin interactions. Oncogene. 2009;28:2999-3007 pubmed publisher
    ..we found that the endocytic adaptor disabled-2 (Dab2) could attenuate Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by stabilizing Axin and preventing its translocation to the membrane...
  46. Häärä O, Fujimori S, Schmidt Ullrich R, Hartmann C, Thesleff I, Mikkola M. Ectodysplasin and Wnt pathways are required for salivary gland branching morphogenesis. Development. 2011;138:2681-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We also provide evidence suggesting that the effects of mesenchymal Wnt/?-catenin signaling are mediated, at least in part, through regulation of Eda expression. ..
  47. Lyu J, Costantini F, Jho E, Joo C. Ectopic expression of Axin blocks neuronal differentiation of embryonic carcinoma P19 cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:13487-95 pubmed
    b>Axin regulates Wnt signaling through down-regulation of beta-catenin...
  48. Li Q, He Y, Wei L, Wu X, Wu D, Lin S, et al. AXIN is an essential co-activator for the promyelocytic leukemia protein in p53 activation. Oncogene. 2011;30:1194-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Both PML and the key Wnt signaling regulator AXIN regulate p53-dependent apoptosis in response to DNA damage...
  49. Chen M, Gao N, Kawakami T, Chuang P. Mice deficient in the fused homolog do not exhibit phenotypes indicative of perturbed hedgehog signaling during embryonic development. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:7042-53 pubmed
    ..Key components that mediate Hh signal transduction downstream of the receptor include Fused (Fu), Suppressor of fused (Sufu), and Costal-2 (Cos2) or the vertebrate homologs Kif27/Kif7...
  50. Hocevar B, Mou F, Rennolds J, Morris S, Cooper J, Howe P. Regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by disabled-2 (Dab2). EMBO J. 2003;22:3084-94 pubmed
    ..Wnt stimulation leads to a time-dependent dissociation of endogenous Dab2-Dvl-3 and Dvl-3-axin interactions in NIH-3T3 cells, while Dab2 overexpression leads to maintenance of Dab2-Dvl-3 association and ..
  51. Fei C, Li Z, Li C, Chen Y, Chen Z, He X, et al. Smurf1-mediated Lys29-linked nonproteolytic polyubiquitination of axin negatively regulates Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:4095-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a novel function of Smurf1 in regulating Wnt/?-catenin signaling through targeting axin for nonproteolytic ubiquitination...
  52. Vasicek T, Zeng L, Guan X, Zhang T, Costantini F, Tilghman S. Two dominant mutations in the mouse fused gene are the result of transposon insertions. Genetics. 1997;147:777-86 pubmed
    ..Three dominant mutations result in a kinked tail in heterozygotes. Two of the dominant mutations, Fused and Knobbly, result from insertion of intracisternal A particle retrotransposons into the gene...
  53. Liu G, Bafico A, Harris V, Aaronson S. A novel mechanism for Wnt activation of canonical signaling through the LRP6 receptor. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5825-35 pubmed
    ..Thus, Wnt canonical signaling through LRP6 establishes a novel mechanism for receptor activation which is opposite to the general paradigm of ligand-induced receptor oligomerization. ..
  54. Himmelbauer H, Harvey R, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Silver L. High-resolution genetic analysis of a deletion on mouse chromosome 17 extending over the fused, tufted, and homeobox Nkx2-5 loci. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:814-6 pubmed
  55. Lammi L, Arte S, Somer M, Jarvinen H, Lahermo P, Thesleff I, et al. Mutations in AXIN2 cause familial tooth agenesis and predispose to colorectal cancer. Am J Hum Genet. 2004;74:1043-50 pubmed
    ..Our findings introduce a new gene for hereditary colorectal cancer and suggest that tooth agenesis may be an indicator of cancer susceptibility. ..
  56. Cowan C, Henkemeyer M. The SH2/SH3 adaptor Grb4 transduces B-ephrin reverse signals. Nature. 2001;413:174-9 pubmed
    ..including the Cbl-associated protein (CAP/ponsin), the Abl-interacting protein-1 (Abi-1), dynamin, PAK1, hnRNPK and axin. These data provide a biochemical pathway whereby cytoskeletal regulators are recruited to Eph-ephrin bidirectional ..
  57. Merchant M, Evangelista M, Luoh S, Frantz G, Chalasani S, Carano R, et al. Loss of the serine/threonine kinase fused results in postnatal growth defects and lethality due to progressive hydrocephalus. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:7054-68 pubmed
    The Drosophila Fused (Fu) kinase is an integral component of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway that helps promote Hh-dependent gene transcription...
  58. Waterland R, Dolinoy D, Lin J, Smith C, Shi X, Tahiliani K. Maternal methyl supplements increase offspring DNA methylation at Axin Fused. Genesis. 2006;44:401-6 pubmed
    ..The current study tested whether another murine metastable epiallele, axin fused (Axin(Fu)), similarly exhibits epigenetic plasticity to maternal diet...
  59. Cong F, Varmus H. Nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of Axin regulates subcellular localization of beta-catenin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:2882-7 pubmed
    Wnt signaling regulates many aspects of development by increasing the signaling activity of beta-catenin. Axin is a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, and it is responsible for the formation of the beta-catenin degradation ..
  60. Deák V, Skroblin P, Dittmayer C, Knobeloch K, Bachmann S, Klussmann E. The A-kinase Anchoring Protein GSKIP Regulates GSK3β Activity and Controls Palatal Shelf Fusion in Mice. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:681-90 pubmed publisher
    ..At embryonic day 18.5, GSK3β activity decreased to levels close to that of wild type. Our findings reveal a novel, crucial role for GSKIP in the coordination of GSK3β signaling in palatal shelf fusion. ..
  61. Li V, Ng S, Boersema P, Low T, Karthaus W, Gerlach J, et al. Wnt signaling through inhibition of ?-catenin degradation in an intact Axin1 complex. Cell. 2012;149:1245-56 pubmed publisher
    Degradation of cytosolic ?-catenin by the APC/Axin1 destruction complex represents the key regulated step of the Wnt pathway. It is incompletely understood how the Axin1 complex exerts its Wnt-regulated function...
  62. Karasawa T, Yokokura H, Kitajewski J, Lombroso P. Frizzled-9 is activated by Wnt-2 and functions in Wnt/beta -catenin signaling. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:37479-86 pubmed
    ..Rfz9 also relocalizes Axin from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane in the presence of Dvl-1, suggesting that one of the consequences of Dvl-..
  63. Piao S, Lee S, Kim H, Yum S, Stamos J, Xu Y, et al. Direct inhibition of GSK3beta by the phosphorylated cytoplasmic domain of LRP6 in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e4046 pubmed publisher
    ..of PPPSPxS motifs in the LRP6/5 intracellular region and the inhibition of GSK3beta bound to the scaffold protein Axin. However, it remains unknown how GSK3beta is specifically inhibited upon Wnt stimulation...
  64. Choi E, Kim S, Song K, Lee J, Kee S. Axin1 expression facilitates cell death induced by aurora kinase inhibition through PARP activation. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:2392-402 pubmed publisher
    Axin, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, participates in apoptosis, and Axin1 localizes to centrosomes and mitotic spindles, which requires Aurora kinase activity...
  65. Rossi J, Chen H, Tilghman S. Genetic map of the fused locus on mouse chromosome 17. Genomics. 1994;23:178-84 pubmed
    ..There are two more severe alleles at Fu, Kinky (FuKi) and Knobbly (FuKb), which die between 9 and 10 days of gestation as homozygotes, exhibiting a duplication of the embryonic ..
  66. Ruiz S, Segrelles C, Bravo A, Santos M, Perez P, Leis H, et al. Abnormal epidermal differentiation and impaired epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions in mice lacking the retinoblastoma relatives p107 and p130. Development. 2003;130:2341-53 pubmed
    ..These results indicate an essential role for p107 and p130 in the epithelial-mesenchimal interactions. ..
  67. Allen S. Linkage Relations of the Genes Histocompatibility-2 and Fused Tail, Brachyury and Kinky Tail in the Mouse, as Determined by Tumor Transplantation. Genetics. 1955;40:627-50 pubmed
  68. Caronia Brown G, Yoshida M, Gulden F, Assimacopoulos S, Grove E. The cortical hem regulates the size and patterning of neocortex. Development. 2014;141:2855-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a much broader role for the hem in cortical development than previously recognized, and emphasize that two major signaling centers interact antagonistically to pattern cerebral cortex. ..
  69. Sutherland H, Pick E, Francis F, Lehrach H, Frischauf A. Mapping around the Fused locus on mouse chromosome 17. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:449-53 pubmed
    We have established a high-resolution genetic map of the region surrounding the Fused locus as a first step towards the molecular identification and analysis of this gene...
  70. Chia I, Costantini F. Mouse axin and axin2/conductin proteins are functionally equivalent in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:4371-6 pubmed
    b>Axin is a central component of the canonical Wnt signal transduction machinery, serving as a scaffold for the beta-catenin destruction complex...
  71. Nozawa Y, Yao E, Gacayan R, Xu S, Chuang P. Mammalian Fused is essential for sperm head shaping and periaxonemal structure formation during spermatogenesis. Dev Biol. 2014;388:170-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis of the expression and function of the putative serine-threonine kinase Fused (Fu) provides critical insight into key steps in spermatogenesis...
  72. Rakyan V, Chong S, Champ M, Cuthbert P, Morgan H, Luu K, et al. Transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic states at the murine Axin(Fu) allele occurs after maternal and paternal transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:2538-43 pubmed
    ..The molecular basis of this phenomenon, however, is largely a mystery. Axin-fused (Axin(Fu)), first identified in 1937, is a classic example of a mammalian allele displaying extremely variable ..
  73. Orme M, Giannini A, Vivanco M, Kypta R. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 and Axin function in a beta-catenin-independent pathway that regulates neurite outgrowth in neuroblastoma cells. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2003;24:673-86 pubmed
    ..Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway disrupts a multiprotein complex that includes beta-catenin, Axin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), which would otherwise promote the phosphorylation and degradation of beta-..
  74. Chia I, Kim M, Itoh K, Sokol S, Costantini F. Both the RGS domain and the six C-terminal amino acids of mouse Axin are required for normal embryogenesis. Genetics. 2009;181:1359-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Axin is a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling, which promotes the degradation of beta-catenin, the major effector in this signaling cascade...
  75. Kim H, Won S, Hwang D, Lee J, Kim M, Kim R, et al. Downregulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling causes degeneration of hippocampal neurons in vivo. Neurobiol Aging. 2011;32:2316.e1-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Downregulation of Wnt signaling by the inducible expression of Axin, ICAT, and dnTcf4E causes degeneration of hippocampal neurons, while upregulation of Wnt signaling by the inducible ..
  76. Dunn L. A Third Lethal in the T (Brachy) Series in the House Mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1937;23:474-7 pubmed