Gene Symbol: Atg5
Description: autophagy related 5
Alias: 2010107M05Rik, 3110067M24Rik, AW319544, Apg5l, Atg5l, C88337, Paddy, autophagy protein 5
Species: mouse
Products:     Atg5

Top Publications

  1. Vazquez P, Arroba A, Cecconi F, de la Rosa E, Boya P, de Pablo F. Atg5 and Ambra1 differentially modulate neurogenesis in neural stem cells. Autophagy. 2012;8:187-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Further supporting the role of autophagy for neuronal differentiation Atg5-null OB cells differentiating in culture displayed decreased TuJ1 levels and lower number of cells with neurites...
  2. Bejarano E, Girao H, Yuste A, Patel B, Marques C, Spray D, et al. Autophagy modulates dynamics of connexins at the plasma membrane in a ubiquitin-dependent manner. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2156-69 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals a novel regulatory role for macroautophagy in GJ function that is directly dependent on the ubiquitinylation of plasma membrane connexins. ..
  3. Kuma A, Hatano M, Matsui M, Yamamoto A, Nakaya H, Yoshimori T, et al. The role of autophagy during the early neonatal starvation period. Nature. 2004;432:1032-6 pubmed
    ..Mice deficient for Atg5, which is essential for autophagosome formation, appear almost normal at birth but die within 1 day of delivery...
  4. Nishida Y, Arakawa S, Fujitani K, Yamaguchi H, Mizuta T, Kanaseki T, et al. Discovery of Atg5/Atg7-independent alternative macroautophagy. Nature. 2009;461:654-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is believed that Atg5 (ref. 4) and Atg7 (ref. 5) are essential genes for mammalian macroautophagy...
  5. Hara T, Nakamura K, Matsui M, Yamamoto A, Nakahara Y, Suzuki Migishima R, et al. Suppression of basal autophagy in neural cells causes neurodegenerative disease in mice. Nature. 2006;441:885-9 pubmed
    ..Mice deficient for Atg5 (autophagy-related 5) specifically in neural cells develop progressive deficits in motor function that are ..
  6. Selleck E, Fentress S, Beatty W, Degrandi D, Pfeffer K, Virgin H, et al. Guanylate-binding protein 1 (Gbp1) contributes to cell-autonomous immunity against Toxoplasma gondii. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003320 pubmed publisher
    ..was associated with clearance in IFN-?-activated macrophages in vitro, a process dependent on the autophagy protein Atg5. The increased susceptibility of ?rop18 mutants in IFN-?-activated macrophages was reverted in Gbp1(-/-) cells, and ..
  7. Mariño G, Fernández A, Cabrera S, LUNDBERG Y, Cabanillas R, Rodriguez F, et al. Autophagy is essential for mouse sense of balance. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:2331-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, these abnormalities were exacerbated in Atg5-/- mice, which completely lack the ability to perform autophagy, confirming that autophagic activity is necessary ..
  8. Hara T, Takamura A, Kishi C, Iemura S, Natsume T, Guan J, et al. FIP200, a ULK-interacting protein, is required for autophagosome formation in mammalian cells. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:497-510 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that FIP200 is a novel mammalian autophagy factor that functions together with ULKs. ..
  9. Zhao J, Brault J, Schild A, Cao P, Sandri M, Schiaffino S, et al. FoxO3 coordinately activates protein degradation by the autophagic/lysosomal and proteasomal pathways in atrophying muscle cells. Cell Metab. 2007;6:472-83 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that decreased IGF-1-PI3K-Akt signaling activates autophagy not only through mTOR but also more slowly by a transcription-dependent mechanism involving FoxO3. ..

More Information


  1. Jounai N, Takeshita F, Kobiyama K, Sawano A, Miyawaki A, Xin K, et al. The Atg5 Atg12 conjugate associates with innate antiviral immune responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14050-5 pubmed
    ..We show here that the Atg5-Atg12 conjugate, a key regulator of the autophagic process, plays an important role in innate antiviral immune ..
  2. DeSelm C, Miller B, Zou W, Beatty W, van Meel E, Takahata Y, et al. Autophagy proteins regulate the secretory component of osteoclastic bone resorption. Dev Cell. 2011;21:966-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that proteins essential for autophagy, including Atg5, Atg7, Atg4B, and LC3, are important for generating the osteoclast ruffled border, the secretory function of ..
  3. Wang Q, Ding Y, Kohtz D, Kohtz S, Mizushima N, Cristea I, et al. Induction of autophagy in axonal dystrophy and degeneration. J Neurosci. 2006;26:8057-68 pubmed
    ..We propose that induction of autophagy serves as an early stress response in axonal dystrophy and may participate in the remodeling of axon structures...
  4. Rodríguez Muela N, Germain F, Marino G, Fitze P, Boya P. Autophagy promotes survival of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve axotomy in mice. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:162-9 pubmed publisher
    ..activation of autophagy shortly after axotomy with autophagosome formation, upregulation of the autophagy regulator Atg5 and apoptotic death of 50% of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after 5 days...
  5. Lum J, Bauer D, Kong M, Harris M, Li C, Lindsten T, et al. Growth factor regulation of autophagy and cell survival in the absence of apoptosis. Cell. 2005;120:237-48 pubmed
    ..Thus, growth factor signal transduction is required to direct the utilization of sufficient exogenous nutrients to maintain cell viability. ..
  6. Hammond E, Brunet C, Johnson G, Parkhill J, Milner A, Brady G, et al. Homology between a human apoptosis specific protein and the product of APG5, a gene involved in autophagy in yeast. FEBS Lett. 1998;425:391-5 pubmed
    ..These data indicate a possible relationship between apoptosis and autophagy and suggest evolutionary conservation in mammalian apoptosis of a degradative process present in yeast. ..
  7. Mathew R, Kongara S, Beaudoin B, Karp C, Bray K, Degenhardt K, et al. Autophagy suppresses tumor progression by limiting chromosomal instability. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1367-81 pubmed
    ..Identification of this novel role of autophagy may be important for rational chemotherapy and therapeutic exploitation of autophagy inducers as potential chemopreventive agents. ..
  8. Hwang S, Maloney N, Bruinsma M, Goel G, Duan E, Zhang L, et al. Nondegradative role of Atg5-Atg12/ Atg16L1 autophagy protein complex in antiviral activity of interferon gamma. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;11:397-409 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the Atg5-Atg12/Atg16L1 protein complex, whose prior known function is in autophagosome formation, is required for IFN?-..
  9. Simonsen A, Birkeland H, Gillooly D, Mizushima N, Kuma A, Yoshimori T, et al. Alfy, a novel FYVE-domain-containing protein associated with protein granules and autophagic membranes. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:4239-51 pubmed
    ..By electron microscopy, similar structures can be found within autophagosomes. We propose that Alfy might target cytosolic protein aggregates for autophagic degradation. ..
  10. Itoh T, Fujita N, Kanno E, Yamamoto A, Yoshimori T, Fukuda M. Golgi-resident small GTPase Rab33B interacts with Atg16L and modulates autophagosome formation. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2916-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, overexpression of the Rab33B binding domain of Atg16L suppressed autophagosome formation. Our findings suggest that Rab33 modulates autophagosome formation through interaction with Atg16L. ..
  11. Cadwell K, Liu J, Brown S, Miyoshi H, Loh J, Lennerz J, et al. A key role for autophagy and the autophagy gene Atg16l1 in mouse and human intestinal Paneth cells. Nature. 2008;456:259-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the ileal epithelium, both ATG16L1 and a second essential autophagy protein ATG5 are selectively important for the biology of the Paneth cell, a specialized epithelial cell that functions in part ..
  12. Young M, Takahashi Y, Khan O, Park S, Hori T, Yun J, et al. Autophagosomal membrane serves as platform for intracellular death-inducing signaling complex (iDISC)-mediated caspase-8 activation and apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:12455-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of autophagosome formation by depletion of Atg5 or Atg3 results in a marked suppression of caspase-8 activation and apoptosis...
  13. Nedjic J, Aichinger M, Mizushima N, Klein L. Macroautophagy, endogenous MHC II loading and T cell selection: the benefits of breaking the rules. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009;21:92-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we will discuss recent findings suggesting a crucial role of macroautophagy in thymic epithelial cells for the generation of peptide/MHC class II ligands for positive selection and induction of T cell tolerance. ..
  14. Zhao Z, Fux B, Goodwin M, Dunay I, Strong D, Miller B, et al. Autophagosome-independent essential function for the autophagy protein Atg5 in cellular immunity to intracellular pathogens. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:458-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Using mice with granulocyte- and macrophage-specific deletion of the essential autophagy protein Atg5, we show that Atg5 is required for in vivo resistance to the intracellular pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and ..
  15. Zheng Y, Shahnazari S, Brech A, Lamark T, Johansen T, Brumell J. The adaptor protein p62/SQSTM1 targets invading bacteria to the autophagy pathway. J Immunol. 2009;183:5909-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies demonstrate that the surveillance of misfolded proteins and bacteria occurs via a conserved pathway, and they reveal a novel function for p62 in innate immunity. ..
  16. Singh R, Kaushik S, Wang Y, Xiang Y, Novak I, Komatsu M, et al. Autophagy regulates lipid metabolism. Nature. 2009;458:1131-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies a critical function for autophagy in lipid metabolism that could have important implications for human diseases with lipid over-accumulation such as those that comprise the metabolic syndrome. ..
  17. Mizushima N, Yamamoto A, Hatano M, Kobayashi Y, Kabeya Y, Suzuki K, et al. Dissection of autophagosome formation using Apg5-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells. J Cell Biol. 2001;152:657-68 pubmed
    ..We also show that Apg12-Apg5 is required for targeting of a mammalian Aut7/Apg8 homologue, LC3, to the isolation membranes. These results suggest that the Apg12-Apg5 conjugate plays essential roles in isolation membrane development. ..
  18. Nedjic J, Aichinger M, Emmerich J, Mizushima N, Klein L. Autophagy in thymic epithelium shapes the T-cell repertoire and is essential for tolerance. Nature. 2008;455:396-400 pubmed publisher
    ..In doing so, it contributes to T-cell selection and is essential for the generation of a self-tolerant T-cell repertoire. ..
  19. Rosenfeldt M, O Prey J, Morton J, Nixon C, Mackay G, Mrowinska A, et al. p53 status determines the role of autophagy in pancreatic tumour development. Nature. 2013;504:296-300 pubmed publisher
    ..However, mice also lacking the essential autophagy genes Atg5 or Atg7 accumulate low-grade, pre-malignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions, but progression to high-..
  20. Mizushima N, Kuma A, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto A, Matsubae M, Takao T, et al. Mouse Apg16L, a novel WD-repeat protein, targets to the autophagic isolation membrane with the Apg12-Apg5 conjugate. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:1679-88 pubmed
    ..Because WD-repeat proteins provide a platform for protein-protein interactions, the approximately 800 kDa complex is expected to function in autophagosome formation, further interacting with other proteins in mammalian cells. ..
  21. Matsunaga K, Saitoh T, Tabata K, Omori H, Satoh T, Kurotori N, et al. Two Beclin 1-binding proteins, Atg14L and Rubicon, reciprocally regulate autophagy at different stages. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:385-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the Beclin 1-hVps34 complex functions in two different steps of autophagy by altering the subunit composition. ..
  22. Ishibashi K, Fujita N, Kanno E, Omori H, Yoshimori T, Itoh T, et al. Atg16L2, a novel isoform of mammalian Atg16L that is not essential for canonical autophagy despite forming an Atg12–5-16L2 complex. Autophagy. 2011;7:1500-13 pubmed
    A large protein complex consisting of Atg5, Atg12 and Atg16L1 has recently been shown to be essential for the elongation of isolation membranes (also called phagophores) during mammalian autophagy...
  23. Sanjuan M, Dillon C, Tait S, Moshiach S, Dorsey F, Connell S, et al. Toll-like receptor signalling in macrophages links the autophagy pathway to phagocytosis. Nature. 2007;450:1253-7 pubmed
    ..marker LC3 to be rapidly recruited to the phagosome in a manner that depends on the autophagy pathway proteins ATG5 and ATG7; this process is preceded by recruitment of beclin 1 and phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase activity...
  24. Orvedahl A, MacPherson S, Sumpter R, Talloczy Z, Zou Z, Levine B. Autophagy protects against Sindbis virus infection of the central nervous system. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;7:115-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the autophagy gene Atg5 function is critical for protection against lethal Sindbis virus (SIN) infection of the mouse central nervous ..
  25. Kim B, Shenoy A, Kumar P, Das R, Tiwari S, MacMicking J. A family of IFN-?-inducible 65-kD GTPases protects against bacterial infection. Science. 2011;332:717-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, specific 65-kD Gbps coordinate a potent oxidative and vesicular trafficking program to protect the host from infection. ..
  26. Kanamori H, Takemura G, Goto K, Maruyama R, Ono K, Nagao K, et al. Autophagy limits acute myocardial infarction induced by permanent coronary artery occlusion. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;300:H2261-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro, transfection with small interfering RNAs targeting Atg5 or Lamp-2 (an autophagy-related gene necessary, respectively, for the initiation and digestion step of autophagy), ..
  27. Watson R, Manzanillo P, Cox J. Extracellular M. tuberculosis DNA targets bacteria for autophagy by activating the host DNA-sensing pathway. Cell. 2012;150:803-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal an unexpected link between DNA sensing, innate immunity, and autophagy and indicate a major role for this autophagy pathway in resistance to M. tuberculosis infection. ..
  28. Morgan Bathke M, Lin H, Chibly A, Zhang W, Sun X, Chen C, et al. Deletion of ATG5 shows a role of autophagy in salivary homeostatic control. J Dent Res. 2013;92:911-7 pubmed publisher
    ..recombinase through control of aquaporin 5 (Aqp5) promoter/enhancer (Aqp5-Cre) allows us to specifically inactivate Atg5, a protein necessary for autophagy, in salivary acinar cells of Atg5(f/f);Aqp5-Cre mice...
  29. Takamura A, Komatsu M, Hara T, Sakamoto A, Kishi C, Waguri S, et al. Autophagy-deficient mice develop multiple liver tumors. Genes Dev. 2011;25:795-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that mice with systemic mosaic deletion of Atg5 and liver-specific Atg7?/? mice develop benign liver adenomas...
  30. Qu X, Zou Z, Sun Q, Luby Phelps K, Cheng P, Hogan R, et al. Autophagy gene-dependent clearance of apoptotic cells during embryonic development. Cell. 2007;128:931-46 pubmed
    ..Embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from cells lacking the autophagy genes, atg5 or beclin 1, fail to cavitate. This defect is due to persistence of cell corpses, rather than impairment of PCD...
  31. Kirkin V, Lamark T, Sou Y, Bjørkøy G, Nunn J, Bruun J, et al. A role for NBR1 in autophagosomal degradation of ubiquitinated substrates. Mol Cell. 2009;33:505-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that NBR1 and p62 act as receptors for selective autophagosomal degradation of ubiquitinated targets. ..
  32. Ponpuak M, Davis A, Roberts E, Delgado M, Dinkins C, Zhao Z, et al. Delivery of cytosolic components by autophagic adaptor protein p62 endows autophagosomes with unique antimicrobial properties. Immunity. 2010;32:329-41 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis. Thus, p62 brings cytosolic proteins to autolysosomes where they are processed from innocuous precursors into neo-antimicrobial peptides, explaining in part the unique bactericidal properties of autophagic organelles. ..
  33. Zhao Z, Thackray L, Miller B, Lynn T, Becker M, Ward E, et al. Coronavirus replication does not require the autophagy gene ATG5. Autophagy. 2007;3:581-5 pubmed
    Macroautophagy (herein autophagy) is a cellular process, requiring ATG5, by which cells deliver double membrane-bound packets containing cytoplasm or cytoplasmic organelles to the lysosome...
  34. Kouroku Y, Fujita E, Tanida I, Ueno T, Isoai A, Kumagai H, et al. ER stress (PERK/eIF2alpha phosphorylation) mediates the polyglutamine-induced LC3 conversion, an essential step for autophagy formation. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:230-9 pubmed
    ..PolyQ72, but not polyQ11, stimulated Atg5-Atg12-Atg16 complex-dependent microtubule-associated protein 1 (MAP1) light chain 3 (LC3) conversion from LC3-I to -..
  35. Nishiyama J, Miura E, Mizushima N, Watanabe M, Yuzaki M. Aberrant membranes and double-membrane structures accumulate in the axons of Atg5-null Purkinje cells before neuronal death. Autophagy. 2007;3:591-6 pubmed
    ..Many autophagy-related genes (Atg) have been identified in yeast; a ubiquitin-like Atg12-Atg5 system is also essential for the elongation of the isolation membrane in mammalian cells...
  36. Tsukamoto S, Kuma A, Murakami M, Kishi C, Yamamoto A, Mizushima N. Autophagy is essential for preimplantation development of mouse embryos. Science. 2008;321:117-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Autophagy-defective oocytes derived from oocyte-specific Atg5 (autophagy-related 5) knockout mice failed to develop beyond the four- and eight-cell stages if they were ..
  37. Dupont N, Jiang S, Pilli M, Ornatowski W, Bhattacharya D, Deretic V. Autophagy-based unconventional secretory pathway for extracellular delivery of IL-1?. EMBO J. 2011;30:4701-11 pubmed publisher the biogenesis and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1? via an export pathway that depends on Atg5, inflammasome, at least one of the two mammalian Golgi reassembly stacking protein (GRASP) paralogues, GRASP55 (..
  38. Fujimoto C, Iwasaki S, Urata S, Morishita H, Sakamaki Y, Fujioka M, et al. Autophagy is essential for hearing in mice. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e2780 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we generated mice deficient in autophagy-related 5 (Atg5), a gene essential for autophagy, in the HCs to investigate the effect of basal autophagy on hearing acuity...
  39. Vosler P, Gao Y, Brennan C, Yanagiya A, Gan Y, Cao G, et al. Ischemia-induced calpain activation causes eukaryotic (translation) initiation factor 4G1 (eIF4GI) degradation, protein synthesis inhibition, and neuronal death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18102-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data demonstrate that calpain-mediated degradation of a translation initiation factor, eIF4G1, is a cause of both persistent PSI and neuronal death. ..
  40. Lu Q, Yao Y, Hu Z, Hu C, Song Q, Ye J, et al. Angiogenic Factor AGGF1 Activates Autophagy with an Essential Role in Therapeutic Angiogenesis for Heart Disease. PLoS Biol. 2016;14:e1002529 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies with Atg5 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the autophagy inhibitors bafilomycin A1 (Baf) and chloroquine demonstrate that ..
  41. Lin H, Lin S, Chung Y, Vonderfecht S, Camden J, Flodby P, et al. Dynamic involvement of ATG5 in cellular stress responses. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1478 pubmed publisher
    ..Blocking outflow from exocrine glands causes glandular atrophy by increased ductal pressure. Atg5(f/-);Aqp5-Cre mice with salivary acinar-specific knockout (KO) of autophagy essential gene Atg5 were generated...
  42. Artal Martinez de Narvajas A, Gomez T, Zhang J, Mann A, Taoda Y, Gorman J, et al. Epigenetic regulation of autophagy by the methyltransferase G9a. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:3983-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings reveal that G9a directly represses genes known to participate in the autophagic process and that inhibition of G9a-mediated epigenetic repression represents an important regulatory mechanism during autophagy. ..
  43. Kim C, Kim W, Lee H, Ji E, Choe Y, Martindale J, et al. The RNA-binding protein HuD regulates autophagosome formation in pancreatic ? cells by promoting autophagy-related gene 5 expression. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:112-21 pubmed publisher
    Tight regulation of autophagy is critical for the fate of pancreatic ? cells. The autophagy protein ATG5 is essential for the formation of autophagosomes by promoting the lipidation of microtubule-associated protein LC3 (light chain 3)...
  44. Höhn A, Sittig A, Jung T, Grimm S, Grune T. Lipofuscin is formed independently of macroautophagy and lysosomal activity in stress-induced prematurely senescent human fibroblasts. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:1760-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, such an inhibition is accompanied by an enhanced toxicity of the formed protein aggregates. Furthermore, it could be proven that macroautophagy is responsible for the uptake of lipofuscin into the lysosomes. ..
  45. Liao X, Sluimer J, Wang Y, Subramanian M, Brown K, Pattison J, et al. Macrophage autophagy plays a protective role in advanced atherosclerosis. Cell Metab. 2012;15:545-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of autophagy by silencing ATG5 or other autophagy mediators enhances apoptosis and NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress while at the same time ..
  46. Li S, He J, Wang Z, Yu Y, Fu S, Zhang H, et al. miR-30b inhibits autophagy to alleviate hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury via decreasing the Atg12-Atg5 conjugate. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22:4501-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of light chain 3, autophagy-related gene (Atg)12, Atg5, P62, and caspase-3 were detected by western blotting analysis...
  47. Wang Y, Wang X, Lapi E, Sullivan A, Jia W, He Y, et al. Autophagic activity dictates the cellular response to oncogenic RAS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:13325-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Oncogenic RAS-expressing ASPP2((?3/?3)) mouse embryonic fibroblasts that escape senescence express a high level of ATG5/ATG12...
  48. Kuo T, Chen C, Baron D, Onder T, Loewer S, Almeida S, et al. Midbody accumulation through evasion of autophagy contributes to cellular reprogramming and tumorigenicity. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1214-23 pubmed publisher
    ..MB(d) enrichment enhances reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells and increases the in vitro tumorigenicity of cancer cells. These results indicate unexpected roles for MB(d)s in stem cells and cancer 'stem cells'. ..
  49. Zwaferink H, Stockinger S, Reipert S, Decker T. Stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by beta interferon increases necrotic death of macrophages upon Listeria monocytogenes infection. Infect Immun. 2008;76:1649-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on morphology, the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential, and a lack of dependence on caspase 1, we characterize the type of cell death occurring and show that infected macrophages die by interferon-upregulated necrosis. ..
  50. Inomata M, Into T, Niida S, Murakami Y. Atg5 regulates formation of MyD88 condensed structures and MyD88-dependent signal transduction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;437:509-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Atg5, a key regulatory protein of autophagy, inhibits the formation of MyD88 condensed structures...
  51. Pua H, Guo J, Komatsu M, He Y. Autophagy is essential for mitochondrial clearance in mature T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2009;182:4046-55 pubmed publisher
  52. Perez Sala D, Boya P, Ramos I, Herrera M, Stamatakis K. The C-terminal sequence of RhoB directs protein degradation through an endo-lysosomal pathway. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8117 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we define a novel motif for protein sorting and rapid degradation, which allows controlling protein levels by means of clinically used drugs. ..
  53. Bansal M, Moharir S, Sailasree S, Sirohi K, Sudhakar C, Sarathi D, et al. Optineurin promotes autophagosome formation by recruiting the autophagy-related Atg12-5-16L1 complex to phagophores containing the Wipi2 protein. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:132-147 pubmed publisher
    ..Of note, Optn was recruited to Atg12-5-16L1-positive puncta, and interacted with Atg5 and also with Atg12-5 conjugate...
  54. Hahn D, Na C, Weaver T. Reserve autophagic capacity in alveolar epithelia provides a replicative niche for influenza A virus. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2014;51:400-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we generated two mouse models, with > 90% or > 50% recombination at the Atg5 locus in the distal respiratory epithelium, to assess the effect of dose-dependent decreases in autophagy on ..
  55. Denaës T, Lodder J, Chobert M, Ruiz I, Pawlotsky J, Lotersztajn S, et al. The Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Protects Against Alcoholic Liver Disease Via a Macrophage Autophagy-Dependent Pathway. Sci Rep. 2016;6:28806 pubmed publisher
    ..For this purpose, mice invalidated for CB2 receptor (CB2(Mye-/-) mice) or for the autophagy gene ATG5 (ATG5(Mye-/-) mice) in the myeloid lineage, and their littermate wild-type mice were subjected to chronic-plus-..
  56. Park S, Shin J, Kim E, Jo Y, Kim J, Hwang J, et al. Mitochondrial fragmentation caused by phenanthroline promotes mitophagy. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:4303-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Phen-mediated loss of mitochondrial mass was more reduced in ATG5 deficient cells than in wild type cells...
  57. Kuang E, Okumura C, Sheffy Levin S, Varsano T, Shu V, Qi J, et al. Regulation of ATG4B stability by RNF5 limits basal levels of autophagy and influences susceptibility to bacterial infection. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003007 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the RNF5-mediated control of membranalATG4B reveals a novel layer in the regulation of LC3 processing and autophagy. ..
  58. Lee S, Hwang K, Sun S, Xu Y, Kim N. Modulation of autophagy influences development and apoptosis in mouse embryos developing in vitro. Mol Reprod Dev. 2011;78:498-509 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that autophagy influences developmental patterning and apoptosis, and may play a role in early mouse embryogenesis. ..
  59. Kimmey J, Huynh J, Weiss L, Park S, Kambal A, Debnath J, et al. Unique role for ATG5 in neutrophil-mediated immunopathology during M. tuberculosis infection. Nature. 2015;528:565-9 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis co-localizes with autophagy factors ATG5, ATG12, ATG16L1, p62, NDP52, BECN1 and LC3 (refs 2-6), stimulation of autophagy increases bacterial killing, and ..
  60. Ozeki N, Mogi M, Hase N, Hiyama T, Yamaguchi H, Kawai R, et al. Autophagy-related gene 5 and Wnt5 signaling pathway requires differentiation of embryonic stem cells into odontoblast-like cells. Exp Cell Res. 2016;341:92-104 pubmed publisher
    ..In a screening experiment, CS/BMP-4 increased the mRNA and protein levels of Atg5, Lrp5/Fzd9 (an Atg5 receptor), and Wnt5, but not microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain (LC3; a mammalian ..
  61. Alirezaei M, Fox H, Flynn C, Moore C, Hebb A, Frausto R, et al. Elevated ATG5 expression in autoimmune demyelination and multiple sclerosis. Autophagy. 2009;5:152-8 pubmed
    ..Recently, the autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5) has been shown to modulate T cell survival...
  62. Nishiyama J, Matsuda K, Kakegawa W, Yamada N, Motohashi J, Mizushima N, et al. Reevaluation of neurodegeneration in lurcher mice: constitutive ion fluxes cause cell death with, not by, autophagy. J Neurosci. 2010;30:2177-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, the disruption of Atg5, a gene crucial for autophagy, did not prevent but rather aggravated Purkinje-cell death in Lc mice...
  63. Filimonenko M, Isakson P, Finley K, Anderson M, Jeong H, Melia T, et al. The selective macroautophagic degradation of aggregated proteins requires the PI3P-binding protein Alfy. Mol Cell. 2010;38:265-79 pubmed publisher
    ..intracellular inclusions and scaffolds a complex between p62(SQSTM1)-positive proteins and the autophagic effectors Atg5, Atg12, Atg16L, and LC3...
  64. Aichinger M, Wu C, Nedjic J, Klein L. Macroautophagy substrates are loaded onto MHC class II of medullary thymic epithelial cells for central tolerance. J Exp Med. 2013;210:287-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that macroautophagy supports central CD4(+) T cell tolerance through facilitating the direct presentation of endogenous self-antigens by mTECs. ..
  65. Frank M, Duvezin Caubet S, Koob S, Occhipinti A, Jagasia R, Petcherski A, et al. Mitophagy is triggered by mild oxidative stress in a mitochondrial fission dependent manner. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1823:2297-310 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that these mild oxidative conditions resembling well physiological situations are thus very helpful for studying the molecular pathways governing the selective removal of dysfunctional mitochondria. ..
  66. Terawaki S, Camosseto V, Prete F, Wenger T, Papadopoulos A, Rondeau C, et al. RUN and FYVE domain-containing protein 4 enhances autophagy and lysosome tethering in response to Interleukin-4. J Cell Biol. 2015;210:1133-52 pubmed publisher
    ..RUFY4 is therefore the first molecule characterized to date that promotes autophagy and influences endosome dynamics in a subset of immune cells. ..
  67. Jung C, Seo M, Otto N, Kim D. ULK1 inhibits the kinase activity of mTORC1 and cell proliferation. Autophagy. 2011;7:1212-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Atg5 deficiency did not have a significant effect on mTORC1 signaling and cell proliferation...
  68. Kimura T, Jia J, Kumar S, Choi S, Gu Y, Mudd M, et al. Dedicated SNAREs and specialized TRIM cargo receptors mediate secretory autophagy. EMBO J. 2017;36:42-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, secretory autophagy utilizes a specialized cytosolic cargo receptor and a dedicated SNARE system. Other unconventionally secreted cargo, such as ferritin, is secreted via the same pathway. ..