Gene Symbol: Atg16l1
Description: autophagy related 16-like 1 (S. cerevisiae)
Alias: 1500009K01Rik, Apg16l, Atg16l, WDR30, autophagy-related protein 16-1, APG16-like 1, Atg16L1 gamma, autophagy-related 16-like 1 gamma
Species: mouse
Products:     Atg16l1

Top Publications

  1. Itoh T, Fujita N, Kanno E, Yamamoto A, Yoshimori T, Fukuda M. Golgi-resident small GTPase Rab33B interacts with Atg16L and modulates autophagosome formation. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2916-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we showed that Golgi-resident small GTPase Rab33B (and Rab33A) specifically interacts with Atg16L, an essential factor in isolation membrane formation, in a guanosine triphosphate-dependent manner...
  2. Saitoh T, Fujita N, Jang M, Uematsu S, Yang B, Satoh T, et al. Loss of the autophagy protein Atg16L1 enhances endotoxin-induced IL-1beta production. Nature. 2008;456:264-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Atg16L1 (autophagy-related 16-like 1), which is implicated in Crohn's disease, regulates endotoxin-induced inflammasome ..
  3. Cadwell K, Liu J, Brown S, Miyoshi H, Loh J, Lennerz J, et al. A key role for autophagy and the autophagy gene Atg16l1 in mouse and human intestinal Paneth cells. Nature. 2008;456:259-63 pubmed publisher
    ..One Crohn's disease risk allele is in ATG16L1, a gene homologous to the essential yeast autophagy gene ATG16 (ref. 2)...
  4. Mizushima N, Kuma A, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto A, Matsubae M, Takao T, et al. Mouse Apg16L, a novel WD-repeat protein, targets to the autophagic isolation membrane with the Apg12-Apg5 conjugate. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:1679-88 pubmed
    ..region of this novel protein shows homology with yeast Apg16, we have designated it mouse Apg16-like protein (Apg16L). Apg16L, however, has a large C-terminal domain containing seven WD repeats that is absent from yeast Apg16...
  5. Deretic V. Multiple regulatory and effector roles of autophagy in immunity. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009;21:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..A properly functioning autophagy helps prevent autoimmunity and assists in clearing pathogens. When aberrant, it contributes to human inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease. ..
  6. Lassen K, Kuballa P, Conway K, Patel K, Becker C, Peloquin J, et al. Atg16L1 T300A variant decreases selective autophagy resulting in altered cytokine signaling and decreased antibacterial defense. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:7741-6 pubmed publisher
    A coding polymorphism (Thr300Ala) in the essential autophagy gene, autophagy related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1), confers increased risk for the development of Crohn disease, although the mechanisms by which single disease-associated ..
  7. Fujita N, Saitoh T, Kageyama S, Akira S, Noda T, Yoshimori T. Differential involvement of Atg16L1 in Crohn disease and canonical autophagy: analysis of the organization of the Atg16L1 complex in fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:32602-9 pubmed publisher
    A single nucleotide polymorphism in Atg16L1, an autophagy-related gene (ATG), is a risk factor for Crohn disease, a major form of chronic inflammatory bowel disease...
  8. Gammoh N, Florey O, Overholtzer M, Jiang X. Interaction between FIP200 and ATG16L1 distinguishes ULK1 complex-dependent and -independent autophagy. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:144-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we have identified an interaction between mammalian FIP200 and ATG16L1, essential components of the ULK1 and ATG5 complexes, respectively...
  9. Nishimura T, Kaizuka T, Cadwell K, Sahani M, Saitoh T, Akira S, et al. FIP200 regulates targeting of Atg16L1 to the isolation membrane. EMBO Rep. 2013;14:284-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we found that FIP200, which is involved in proximal events, directly interacts with Atg16L1, one of the downstream Atg factors, in an Atg14- and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent manner...

More Information


  1. Ishibashi K, Fujita N, Kanno E, Omori H, Yoshimori T, Itoh T, et al. Atg16L2, a novel isoform of mammalian Atg16L that is not essential for canonical autophagy despite forming an Atg12–5-16L2 complex. Autophagy. 2011;7:1500-13 pubmed
    A large protein complex consisting of Atg5, Atg12 and Atg16L1 has recently been shown to be essential for the elongation of isolation membranes (also called phagophores) during mammalian autophagy...
  2. Fujita N, Itoh T, Omori H, Fukuda M, Noda T, Yoshimori T. The Atg16L complex specifies the site of LC3 lipidation for membrane biogenesis in autophagy. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2092-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Atg12 is conjugated to Atg5 and forms an approximately 800-kDa protein complex with Atg16L (referred to as Atg16L complex)...
  3. Dooley H, Razi M, Polson H, Girardin S, Wilson M, Tooze S. WIPI2 links LC3 conjugation with PI3P, autophagosome formation, and pathogen clearance by recruiting Atg12-5-16L1. Mol Cell. 2014;55:238-52 pubmed publisher
    ..By identifying interacting partners of WIPIs, WD-repeat PtdIns(3)P effector proteins, we found that Atg16L1 directly binds WIPI2b...
  4. Cadwell K, Patel K, Maloney N, Liu T, Ng A, Storer C, et al. Virus-plus-susceptibility gene interaction determines Crohn's disease gene Atg16L1 phenotypes in intestine. Cell. 2010;141:1135-45 pubmed publisher
    ..that an interaction between a specific virus infection and a mutation in the Crohn's disease susceptibility gene Atg16L1 induces intestinal pathologies in mice...
  5. Pampliega O, Orhon I, Patel B, Sridhar S, Díaz Carretero A, Beau I, et al. Functional interaction between autophagy and ciliogenesis. Nature. 2013;502:194-200 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that basal autophagy regulates ciliary growth through the degradation of proteins required for intraflagellar transport. Compromised ability to activate the autophagic response may underlie some common ciliopathies. ..
  6. Cadwell K, Patel K, Komatsu M, Virgin H, Stappenbeck T. A common role for Atg16L1, Atg5 and Atg7 in small intestinal Paneth cells and Crohn disease. Autophagy. 2009;5:250-2 pubmed
    ..identified genetic determinants for enhanced susceptibility to Crohn disease (CD) included polymorphisms in the ATG16L1 and IRGM1 loci suggesting that the autophagy pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of this disease...
  7. Tattoli I, Sorbara M, Yang C, Tooze S, Philpott D, Girardin S. Listeria phospholipases subvert host autophagic defenses by stalling pre-autophagosomal structures. EMBO J. 2013;32:3066-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results uncover a critical role for Listeria phospholipases C in the inhibition of autophagic flux, favouring bacterial escape from host autophagic defense. ..
  8. Ohshima J, Lee Y, Sasai M, Saitoh T, Su Ma J, Kamiyama N, et al. Role of mouse and human autophagy proteins in IFN-?-induced cell-autonomous responses against Toxoplasma gondii. J Immunol. 2014;192:3328-35 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii proliferation and recruitment of an IRG Irgb6 and GBPs are profoundly impaired in Atg7- or Atg16L1-deficient cells...
  9. Kumar H, Kawai T, Akira S. Pathogen recognition in the innate immune response. Biochem J. 2009;420:1-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present review, we will discuss the recent progress in the study of pathogen recognition by TLRs, RLRs and NLRs and their signalling pathways. ..
  10. He C, Bassik M, Moresi V, Sun K, Wei Y, Zou Z, et al. Exercise-induced BCL2-regulated autophagy is required for muscle glucose homeostasis. Nature. 2012;481:511-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, exercise induces autophagy, BCL2 is a crucial regulator of exercise- (and starvation)-induced autophagy in vivo, and autophagy induction may contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of exercise. ..
  11. Kimmey J, Huynh J, Weiss L, Park S, Kambal A, Debnath J, et al. Unique role for ATG5 in neutrophil-mediated immunopathology during M. tuberculosis infection. Nature. 2015;528:565-9 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis co-localizes with autophagy factors ATG5, ATG12, ATG16L1, p62, NDP52, BECN1 and LC3 (refs 2-6), stimulation of autophagy increases bacterial killing, and inhibition of ..
  12. Marchiando A, Ramanan D, Ding Y, Gómez L, Hubbard Lucey V, Maurer K, et al. A deficiency in the autophagy gene Atg16L1 enhances resistance to enteric bacterial infection. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;14:216-24 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms in the essential autophagy gene Atg16L1 have been linked with susceptibility to Crohn's disease, a major type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
  13. Guo L, Zhao J, Qu Y, Yin R, Gao Q, Ding S, et al. microRNA-20a Inhibits Autophagic Process by Targeting ATG7 and ATG16L1 and Favors Mycobacterial Survival in Macrophage Cells. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2016;6:134 pubmed
    ..macrophages resulted in enhanced expression of miRNA-20a, which inhibits autophagic process by targeting ATG7 and ATG16L1 and promotes BCG survival in macrophages...
  14. Ramanan D, Tang M, Bowcutt R, Loke P, Cadwell K. Bacterial sensor Nod2 prevents inflammation of the small intestine by restricting the expansion of the commensal Bacteroides vulgatus. Immunity. 2014;41:311-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Nod2 prevents inflammatory pathologies by controlling the microbiota and support a multihit disease model involving specific gene-microbe interactions. ..
  15. Saitoh T, Fujita N, Hayashi T, Takahara K, Satoh T, Lee H, et al. Atg9a controls dsDNA-driven dynamic translocation of STING and the innate immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20842-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that dynamic membrane traffic mediates the sequential translocation and assembly of STING, both of which are essential processes required for maximal activation of the innate immune response triggered by dsDNA. ..
  16. Pirooz S, He S, Zhang T, Zhang X, Zhao Z, Oh S, et al. UVRAG is required for virus entry through combinatorial interaction with the class C-Vps complex and SNAREs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:2716-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, UVRAG governs downstream viral entry, highlighting an important pathway capable of potential antiviral therapeutics. ..
  17. Alissafi T, Banos A, Boon L, Sparwasser T, Ghigo A, Wing K, et al. Tregs restrain dendritic cell autophagy to ameliorate autoimmunity. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:2789-2804 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may pave the way for the development of therapeutic protocols that exploit Tregs for the treatment of autoimmunity as well as diseases in which disturbed tolerance is a common denominator. ..
  18. Symington J, Wang C, Twentyman J, Owusu Boaitey N, Schwendener R, Núñez G, et al. ATG16L1 deficiency in macrophages drives clearance of uropathogenic E. coli in an IL-1β-dependent manner. Mucosal Immunol. 2015;8:1388-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Deficiency in a key autophagy protein, ATG16L1, protects mice from infection with the predominant bacterial cause of UTIs, Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC)...
  19. Sun K, Chen M, Tu M, Wang I, Chang S, Li C. MicroRNA-20a regulates autophagy related protein-ATG16L1 in hypoxia-induced osteoclast differentiation. Bone. 2015;73:145-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The results from dual luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-20a directly targets Atg16l1 by binding to its 3'UTR end...
  20. Kuo S, Castoreno A, Aldrich L, Lassen K, Goel G, Dančík V, et al. Small-molecule enhancers of autophagy modulate cellular disease phenotypes suggested by human genetics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E4281-7 pubmed publisher
    ..BRD5631 can serve as a valuable tool for studying the role of autophagy in the context of cellular homeostasis and disease. ..
  21. Maurer K, Reyes Robles T, Alonzo F, Durbin J, Torres V, Cadwell K. Autophagy mediates tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin. Cell Host Microbe. 2015;17:429-40 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Atg16L1 hypomorphic mice (Atg16L1(HM)), which have reduced autophagy, were highly susceptible to lethality in both sepsis ..
  22. Wu X, Fleming A, Ricketts T, Pavel M, Virgin H, Menzies F, et al. Autophagy regulates Notch degradation and modulates stem cell development and neurogenesis. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10533 pubmed publisher
    ..We define a novel route whereby this plasma membrane-resident receptor is degraded by autophagy, via uptake into ATG16L1-positive autophagosome-precursor vesicles...
  23. Tschurtschenthaler M, Adolph T, Ashcroft J, Niederreiter L, Bharti R, Saveljeva S, et al. Defective ATG16L1-mediated removal of IRE1? drives Crohn's disease-like ileitis. J Exp Med. 2017;214:401-422 pubmed publisher
    b>ATG16L1T300A, a major risk polymorphism in Crohn's disease (CD), causes impaired autophagy, but it has remained unclear how this predisposes to CD...
  24. Murthy A, Li Y, Peng I, Reichelt M, Katakam A, Noubade R, et al. A Crohn's disease variant in Atg16l1 enhances its degradation by caspase 3. Nature. 2014;506:456-62 pubmed publisher
    ..A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) encoding a missense variant in the autophagy gene ATG16L1 (rs2241880, Thr300Ala) is strongly associated with the incidence of Crohn's disease...
  25. Uemura T, Yamamoto M, Kametaka A, Sou Y, Yabashi A, Yamada A, et al. A cluster of thin tubular structures mediates transformation of the endoplasmic reticulum to autophagic isolation membrane. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:1695-706 pubmed publisher
    ..formation of these thin tubular clusters was observed in several cell lines and MEFs deficient for Atg5, Atg7, or Atg16L1 but not in FIP200-deficient cells, suggesting that they were relevant to the earlier events in autophagosome ..
  26. Conway K, Kuballa P, Song J, Patel K, Castoreno A, Yilmaz O, et al. Atg16l1 is required for autophagy in intestinal epithelial cells and protection of mice from Salmonella infection. Gastroenterology. 2013;145:1347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated mice deficient in Atg16l1 in epithelial cells (Atg16l1(f/f) × Villin-cre) or CD11c(+) cells (Atg16l1(f/f) × CD11c-cre); these mice were ..
  27. Bejarano E, Yuste A, Patel B, Stout R, Spray D, Cuervo A. Connexins modulate autophagosome biogenesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2014;16:401-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Maturation of the Cx-containing pre-autophagosomes into autophagosomes leads to degradation of these endogenous inhibitors, allowing for sustained activation of autophagy. ..
  28. Fletcher K, Ulferts R, Jacquin E, Veith T, Gammoh N, Arasteh J, et al. The WD40 domain of ATG16L1 is required for its non-canonical role in lipidation of LC3 at single membranes. EMBO J. 2018;37: pubmed publisher the covalent lipidation of LC3 and insertion into the double-membrane phagophore, which is driven by the ATG16L1/ATG5-ATG12 complex...
  29. Travassos L, Carneiro L, Ramjeet M, Hussey S, Kim Y, Magalhaes J, et al. Nod1 and Nod2 direct autophagy by recruiting ATG16L1 to the plasma membrane at the site of bacterial entry. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..independent of the adaptor RIP2 and transcription factor NF-kappaB, Nod1 and Nod2 recruited the autophagy protein ATG16L1 to the plasma membrane at the bacterial entry site...
  30. Itakura E, Mizushima N. p62 Targeting to the autophagosome formation site requires self-oligomerization but not LC3 binding. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that p62 localizes to the autophagosome formation site on the ER, where autophagosomes are nucleated. This process is similar to the yeast cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathway. ..
  31. Bell B, Leverrier S, Weist B, Newton R, Arechiga A, Luhrs K, et al. FADD and caspase-8 control the outcome of autophagic signaling in proliferating T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:16677-82 pubmed publisher
  32. Lee J, Kim H, Quinley C, Kim J, Gonzalez Navajas J, Xavier R, et al. Autophagy suppresses interleukin-1? (IL-1?) signaling by activation of p62 degradation via lysosomal and proteasomal pathways. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:4033-40 pubmed publisher
    b>ATG16L1 is an essential component of the autophagasome. The T300A allele of ATG16L1 is associated with the increased susceptibility to Crohn disease...
  33. Zhang H, Zheng L, Chen J, Fukata M, Ichikawa R, Shih D, et al. The protection role of Atg16l1 in CD11c+dendritic cells in murine colitis. Immunobiology. 2017;222:831-841 pubmed publisher
    The autophagy-related 16-like 1 gene (Atg16l1) is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and has been shown to play an essential role in paneth cell function and intestinal homeostasis...
  34. Zhang H, Zheng L, McGovern D, Hamill A, Ichikawa R, Kanazawa Y, et al. Myeloid ATG16L1 Facilitates Host-Bacteria Interactions in Maintaining Intestinal Homeostasis. J Immunol. 2017;198:2133-2146 pubmed publisher
    Intact ATG16L1 plays an essential role in Paneth cell function and intestinal homeostasis. However, the functional consequences of ATG16L1 deficiency in myeloid cells, particularly macrophages, are not fully characterized...
  35. Wang C, Mendonsa G, Symington J, Zhang Q, Cadwell K, Virgin H, et al. Atg16L1 deficiency confers protection from uropathogenic Escherichia coli infection in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:11008-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The autophagy gene ATG16L1 has a commonly occurring mutation that is associated with inflammatory disease and intestinal cell abnormalities ..
  36. Hwang S, Maloney N, Bruinsma M, Goel G, Duan E, Zhang L, et al. Nondegradative role of Atg5-Atg12/ Atg16L1 autophagy protein complex in antiviral activity of interferon gamma. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;11:397-409 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the Atg5-Atg12/Atg16L1 protein complex, whose prior known function is in autophagosome formation, is required for IFN?-mediated host ..
  37. DeBosch B, Heitmeier M, Mayer A, Higgins C, Crowley J, Kraft T, et al. Trehalose inhibits solute carrier 2A (SLC2A) proteins to induce autophagy and prevent hepatic steatosis. Sci Signal. 2016;9:ra21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicated that trehalose triggers beneficial cellular autophagy by inhibiting glucose transport. ..
  38. Kabat A, Harrison O, Riffelmacher T, Moghaddam A, Pearson C, Laing A, et al. The autophagy gene Atg16l1 differentially regulates Treg and TH2 cells to control intestinal inflammation. elife. 2016;5:e12444 pubmed publisher
    A polymorphism in the autophagy gene Atg16l1 is associated with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, it remains unclear how autophagy contributes to intestinal immune homeostasis...
  39. Morozova K, Sridhar S, Sidhar S, Zolla V, Clement C, Scharf B, et al. Annexin A2 promotes phagophore assembly by enhancing Atg16L⁺ vesicle biogenesis and homotypic fusion. Nat Commun. 2015;6:5856 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultrastructural, proteomic and FACS analyses of Atg16L-positive vesicles reveal that 30% of Atg16L-positive vesicles are also annexin A2-positive...
  40. Hubbard Lucey V, Shono Y, Maurer K, West M, Singer N, Ziegler C, et al. Autophagy gene Atg16L1 prevents lethal T cell alloreactivity mediated by dendritic cells. Immunity. 2014;41:579-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Atg16L1 mediates the cellular degradative process of autophagy and is considered a critical regulator of inflammation based on its genetic association with inflammatory bowel disease...
  41. Sorbara M, Ellison L, Ramjeet M, Travassos L, Jones N, Girardin S, et al. The protein ATG16L1 suppresses inflammatory cytokines induced by the intracellular sensors Nod1 and Nod2 in an autophagy-independent manner. Immunity. 2013;39:858-73 pubmed publisher
    The peptidoglycan sensor Nod2 and the autophagy protein ATG16L1 have been linked to Crohn's disease (CD)...
  42. Wang C, Yuan X, Ma E, Mendonsa G, Plantinga T, Kiemeney L, et al. NOD2 is dispensable for ATG16L1 deficiency-mediated resistance to urinary tract infection. Autophagy. 2014;10:331-8 pubmed publisher
    ..NOD2 functions in concert with the autophagy protein ATG16L1, which is also implicated in Crohn disease...
  43. Adolph T, Tomczak M, Niederreiter L, Ko H, Böck J, Martínez Naves E, et al. Paneth cells as a site of origin for intestinal inflammation. Nature. 2013;503:272-6 pubmed publisher
    The recognition of autophagy related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1) as a genetic risk factor has exposed the critical role of autophagy in Crohn's disease...
  44. Wang C, Chen S, Yeo S, Karsli Uzunbas G, White E, Mizushima N, et al. Elevated p62/SQSTM1 determines the fate of autophagy-deficient neural stem cells by increasing superoxide. J Cell Biol. 2016;212:545-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that, in contrast to Fip200 deletion, inhibition of autophagy by deletion of Atg5, Atg16L1, or Atg7 does not impair the maintenance and differentiation of postnatal neural stem cells (NSCs)...
  45. xu x, Kobayashi S, Chen K, Timm D, Volden P, Huang Y, et al. Diminished autophagy limits cardiac injury in mouse models of type 1 diabetes. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:18077-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings demonstrate that the diminished autophagy is an adaptive response that limits cardiac dysfunction in type 1 diabetes, presumably through up-regulation of alternative autophagy and mitophagy. ..
  46. Diamanti M, Gupta J, Bennecke M, De Oliveira T, Ramakrishnan M, Braczynski A, et al. IKK? controls ATG16L1 degradation to prevent ER stress during inflammation. J Exp Med. 2017;214:423-437 pubmed publisher
    ..Induction of the UPR is linked to decreased ATG16L1 stabilization in Ikk?AA/AA mice...
  47. Chandra M, Saran R, Datta S. Deciphering the role of Atg5 in nucleotide dependent interaction of Rab33B with the dimeric complex, Atg5-Atg16L1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;473:8-16 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Atg16L1 is an effector of Golgi-resident Rab33B and the molecular mechanism of the interaction of Rab33B with either ..
  48. Matsuzawa Ishimoto Y, Shono Y, Gómez L, Hubbard Lucey V, Cammer M, Neil J, et al. Autophagy protein ATG16L1 prevents necroptosis in the intestinal epithelium. J Exp Med. 2017;214:3687-3705 pubmed publisher
    A variant of the autophagy gene ATG16L1 is associated with Crohn's disease, an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and poor survival in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients...
  49. Gao P, Liu H, Huang H, Zhang Q, Strober W, Zhang F. The Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Associated Autophagy Gene Atg16L1T300A Acts as a Dominant Negative Variant in Mice. J Immunol. 2017;198:2457-2467 pubmed publisher
    ..exhibits increased susceptibility to caspase 3-mediated cleavage and resulting decreased levels of full-length Atg16L1 in macrophages...
  50. Cao B, Parnell L, Diamond M, Mysorekar I. Inhibition of autophagy limits vertical transmission of Zika virus in pregnant mice. J Exp Med. 2017;214:2303-2313 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, deficiency in an essential autophagy gene, Atg16l1, in mice limited ZIKV vertical transmission and placental and fetal damage and overall improved placental and ..
  51. Bel S, Pendse M, Wang Y, Li Y, Ruhn K, Hassell B, et al. Paneth cells secrete lysozyme via secretory autophagy during bacterial infection of the intestine. Science. 2017;357:1047-1052 pubmed publisher
    ..Secretory autophagy was disrupted in Paneth cells of mice harboring a mutation in autophagy gene Atg16L1 that confers increased risk for Crohn's disease in humans...
  52. Li J, Chen Z, Stang M, Gao W. Transiently expressed ATG16L1 inhibits autophagosome biogenesis and aberrantly targets RAB11-positive recycling endosomes. Autophagy. 2017;13:345-358 pubmed publisher
    The membrane source for autophagosome biogenesis is an unsolved mystery in the study of autophagy. ATG16L1 forms a complex with ATG12-ATG5 (the ATG16L1 complex)...
  53. Ishibashi K, Uemura T, Waguri S, Fukuda M. Atg16L1, an essential factor for canonical autophagy, participates in hormone secretion from PC12 cells independently of autophagic activity. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3193-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Atg16L1, an essential protein for canonical autophagy, is localized on hormone-containing dense-core vesicles in ..