Gene Symbol: Ascl2
Description: achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 2
Alias: 2410083I15Rik, Mash2, bHLHa45, achaete-scute homolog 2, ASH-2, achaete-scute complex homolog 2, achaete-scute complex homolog-like 2, long transient receptor potential-related channel 5, mASH-2, mammalian achaete scute homolog 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Ascl2

Top Publications

  1. Wendling O, Chambon P, Mark M. Retinoid X receptors are essential for early mouse development and placentogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:547-51 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, as a RXR ligand appears dispensable, placentogenesis must be controlled by a yet unknown hormonal ligand(s) activating the heterodimerization partner(s) of RXRs. ..
  2. Oh McGinnis R, Bogutz A, Lefebvre L. Partial loss of Ascl2 function affects all three layers of the mature placenta and causes intrauterine growth restriction. Dev Biol. 2011;351:277-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that Del(7AI) causes a partial loss of Ascl2, a maternally expressed gene in the IC2 cluster, which when knocked out leads to embryonic lethality at ..
  3. Oh R, Ho R, Mar L, Gertsenstein M, Paderova J, Hsien J, et al. Epigenetic and phenotypic consequences of a truncation disrupting the imprinted domain on distal mouse chromosome 7. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1092-103 pubmed
    ..Thus, all the imprinted genes located in the region and required for normal development are silenced by an IC2-dependent mechanism on the paternal allele...
  4. Salas M, John R, Saxena A, Barton S, Frank D, Fitzpatrick G, et al. Placental growth retardation due to loss of imprinting of Phlda2. Mech Dev. 2004;121:1199-210 pubmed
    The maternally expressed/paternally silenced genes Phlda2 (a.k.a. Ipl/Tssc3), Slc22a1l, Cdkn1c, Kcnq1, and Ascl2 are clustered in an imprinted domain on mouse chromosome 7...
  5. van der Flier L, van Gijn M, Hatzis P, Kujala P, Haegebarth A, Stange D, et al. Transcription factor achaete scute-like 2 controls intestinal stem cell fate. Cell. 2009;136:903-12 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the genes within this stem cell signature is the Wnt target Achaete scute-like 2 (Ascl2)...
  6. Umlauf D, Goto Y, Cao R, Cerqueira F, Wagschal A, Zhang Y, et al. Imprinting along the Kcnq1 domain on mouse chromosome 7 involves repressive histone methylation and recruitment of Polycomb group complexes. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1296-300 pubmed
  7. Shin J, Fitzpatrick G, Higgins M. Two distinct mechanisms of silencing by the KvDMR1 imprinting control region. EMBO J. 2008;27:168-78 pubmed
  8. Caspary T, Cleary M, Baker C, Guan X, Tilghman S. Multiple mechanisms regulate imprinting of the mouse distal chromosome 7 gene cluster. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:3466-74 pubmed
    ..region on the distal end of mouse chromosome 7 that contains a cluster of four maternally expressed genes, H19, Mash2, Kvlqt1, and p57(Kip2), as well as two paternally expressed genes, Igf2 and Ins2, and assess the expression and ..
  9. Guillemot F, Caspary T, Tilghman S, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, et al. Genomic imprinting of Mash2, a mouse gene required for trophoblast development. Nat Genet. 1995;9:235-42 pubmed
    The mouse gene Mash2 encodes a transcription factor required for development of trophoblast progenitors. Mash2-homozygous mutant embryos die at 10 days postcoitum from placental failure. Here we show that Mash2 is genomically imprinted...

More Information


  1. Paulsen M, Davies K, Bowden L, Villar A, Franck O, Fuermann M, et al. Syntenic organization of the mouse distal chromosome 7 imprinting cluster and the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome region in chromosome 11p15.5. Hum Mol Genet. 1998;7:1149-59 pubmed
    ..We also localized Kcnq1 (Kvlqt1) and Cd81 (Tapa-1) between Cdkn1c (p57(Kip2)) and Mash2. The mouse Kcnq1 gene is maternally expressed in most fetal but biallelically transcribed in most neonatal tissues,..
  2. Stepan H, Marqwardt W, Kuhn Y, Hockel M, Schultheiss H, Walther T. Structure and regulation of the murine Mash2 gene. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:40-4 pubmed
    Transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix family such as Mash2 are essential for adequate differentiation of the trophoblast...
  3. Riley P, Anson Cartwright L, Cross J. The Hand1 bHLH transcription factor is essential for placentation and cardiac morphogenesis. Nat Genet. 1998;18:271-5 pubmed
    ..Their heart tubes showed abnormal looping and ventricular myocardial differentiation. Therefore, Hand1 is essential for differentiation of both trophoblast and cardiomyocytes, which are embryologically distinct cell lineages. ..
  4. Kato R, Shirohzu H, Yokomine T, Mizuno S, Mukai T, Sasaki H. Sequence-ready 1-Mb YAC, BAC and cosmid contigs covering the distal imprinted region of mouse chromosome 7. DNA Res. 1999;6:401-5 pubmed
  5. Gould T, Pfeifer K. Imprinting of mouse Kvlqt1 is developmentally regulated. Hum Mol Genet. 1998;7:483-7 pubmed
    ..Late juvenile and adult animals show complete biallelism, suggesting an explanation for the lack of parent of origin bias in JLN and long QT. ..
  6. Kaji K, Nichols J, Hendrich B. Mbd3, a component of the NuRD co-repressor complex, is required for development of pluripotent cells. Development. 2007;134:1123-32 pubmed
  7. Guillemot F, Nagy A, Auerbach A, Rossant J, Joyner A. Essential role of Mash-2 in extraembryonic development. Nature. 1994;371:333-6 pubmed
    ..Mash-2 is the first transcription factor shown to play a critical part in the development of the mammalian trophoblast lineage. ..
  8. Lewis A, Mitsuya K, Umlauf D, Smith P, Dean W, Walter J, et al. Imprinting on distal chromosome 7 in the placenta involves repressive histone methylation independent of DNA methylation. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1291-5 pubmed
  9. Engemann S, Strödicke M, Paulsen M, Franck O, Reinhardt R, Lane N, et al. Sequence and functional comparison in the Beckwith-Wiedemann region: implications for a novel imprinting centre and extended imprinting. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:2691-706 pubmed
    ..One of the genes outside the cluster, Obph1, is imprinted in mouse placenta indicating that at least in extra-embryonic tissues the imprinting cluster extends into a larger domain. ..
  10. Mancini Dinardo D, Steele S, Levorse J, Ingram R, Tilghman S. Elongation of the Kcnq1ot1 transcript is required for genomic imprinting of neighboring genes. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1268-82 pubmed
    ..of multiple genes, including the genes encoding the maternally expressed placental-specific transcription factor ASCL2, the cyclin-dependent kinase CDKN1C, and the potassium channel KCNQ1...
  11. Fitzpatrick G, Soloway P, Higgins M. Regional loss of imprinting and growth deficiency in mice with a targeted deletion of KvDMR1. Nat Genet. 2002;32:426-31 pubmed
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that loss of methylation in BWS patients activates the repressive function of KvDMR1 on the maternal chromosome, resulting in abnormal silencing of CDKN1C and the development of BWS. ..
  12. Tunster S, Tycko B, John R. The imprinted Phlda2 gene regulates extraembryonic energy stores. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:295-306 pubmed publisher
  13. Onyango P, Miller W, Lehoczky J, Leung C, Birren B, Wheelan S, et al. Sequence and comparative analysis of the mouse 1-megabase region orthologous to the human 11p15 imprinted domain. Genome Res. 2000;10:1697-710 pubmed
    ..This study provides the first global view of the architecture of an entire imprinted domain and provides candidate sequence elements for subsequent functional analyses. ..
  14. Alders M, Hodges M, Hadjantonakis A, Postmus J, van Wijk I, Bliek J, et al. The human Achaete-Scute homologue 2 (ASCL2,HASH2) maps to chromosome 11p15.5, close to IGF2 and is expressed in extravillus trophoblasts. Hum Mol Genet. 1997;6:859-67 pubmed
    Here we describe the cloning of the human Achaete Scute Homologue 2 (HASH2) gene, officially designated ASCL2 (Achaete Scute complex like 2), a homologue of the Drosophila Achaete and Scute genes...
  15. Tanaka M, Gertsenstein M, Rossant J, Nagy A. Mash2 acts cell autonomously in mouse spongiotrophoblast development. Dev Biol. 1997;190:55-65 pubmed
    The Mash2 gene, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is one of the mammalian homologues of the Drosophila achaete-scute genes...
  16. Paulsen M, El Maarri O, Engemann S, Strödicke M, Franck O, Davies K, et al. Sequence conservation and variability of imprinting in the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome gene cluster in human and mouse. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:1829-41 pubmed
    ..This and additional comparisons with other imprinted and non-imprinted regions suggest that CpG islands are key features of imprinted domains. ..
  17. Jubb A, Chalasani S, Frantz G, Smits R, Grabsch H, Kavi V, et al. Achaete-scute like 2 (ascl2) is a target of Wnt signalling and is upregulated in intestinal neoplasia. Oncogene. 2006;25:3445-57 pubmed
    ..Using oligonucleotide microarrays we identified ascl2 as a gene significantly upregulated in colorectal adenocarcinomas (n=36 cancers, n=16 normals; 15-fold, P<0...
  18. Cerrato F, Sparago A, Di Matteo I, Zou X, Dean W, Sasaki H, et al. The two-domain hypothesis in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: autonomous imprinting of the telomeric domain of the distal chromosome 7 cluster. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:503-11 pubmed
  19. Luo J, Sladek R, Bader J, Matthyssen A, Rossant J, Giguere V. Placental abnormalities in mouse embryos lacking the orphan nuclear receptor ERR-beta. Nature. 1997;388:778-82 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that ERR-beta has an important role in early placentation, and suggest that an inductive signal originating from or modified by the chorion is required for normal trophoblast proliferation and differentiation. ..
  20. Tunster S, Van de Pette M, John R. Fetal overgrowth in the Cdkn1c mouse model of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Dis Model Mech. 2011;4:814-21 pubmed publisher
  21. Reik W, Maher E. Imprinting in clusters: lessons from Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Trends Genet. 1997;13:330-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, the precise phenotypic spectrum of BWS might depend on which maternally expressed gene is mutated. ..
  22. Suzuki A, de la Pompa J, Stambolic V, Elia A, Sasaki T, del Barco Barrantes I, et al. High cancer susceptibility and embryonic lethality associated with mutation of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene in mice. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1169-78 pubmed
    ..We provide direct evidence of the role of mPTEN as a tumor suppressor gene in mice, and establish the mPTEN mutant mouse as an experimental model for investigating the role of PTEN in cancer progression. ..
  23. Hasan M, Ikawati M, Tocharus J, Kawaichi M, Oka C. Abnormal development of placenta in HtrA1-deficient mice. Dev Biol. 2015;397:89-102 pubmed publisher
  24. Sebastiano V, Dalvai M, Gentile L, Schubart K, Sutter J, Wu G, et al. Oct1 regulates trophoblast development during early mouse embryogenesis. Development. 2010;137:3551-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data also suggest that Oct1 is required in the embryo proper from late gastrulation stages onwards. ..
  25. Du X, Dong Y, Shi H, Li J, Kong S, Shi D, et al. Mst1 and mst2 are essential regulators of trophoblast differentiation and placenta morphogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e90701 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that Mst1/2 deficiency down regulated the expression of Mash2, which is required for suppressing the differentiation of trophoblast giant cells...
  26. Mclaughlin K, Szabo P, Haegel H, Mann J. Mouse embryos with paternal duplication of an imprinted chromosome 7 region die at midgestation and lack placental spongiotrophoblast. Development. 1996;122:265-70 pubmed
    ..observed is similar, if not identical to, that resulting from mutation of the imprinted distal chromosome 7 gene, Mash2, which in normal midgestation embryos exhibits spongiotrophoblast-specific maternally active/paternally inactive (..
  27. Mugford J, Yee D, Magnuson T. Failure of extra-embryonic progenitor maintenance in the absence of dosage compensation. Development. 2012;139:2130-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, unlike the epiblast, in which XCI is not required for progenitor cell maintenance, we demonstrate that dosage compensation is indispensable for the maintenance of trophoblast progenitors. ..
  28. Wang J, Mager J, Schnedier E, Magnuson T. The mouse PcG gene eed is required for Hox gene repression and extraembryonic development. Mamm Genome. 2002;13:493-503 pubmed
    ..Tetraploid rescue experiments demonstrated that the defect is cell autonomous in the extraembryonic lineage. Mash2, a paternally imprinted gene important for trophoblast development, was ectopically expressed in the eed mutants...
  29. Kuang S, Liao L, Zhang H, Pereira F, Yuan Y, DeMayo F, et al. Deletion of the cancer-amplified coactivator AIB3 results in defective placentation and embryonic lethality. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:45356-60 pubmed
    ..These results also indicate that the biological function of AIB3 is not redundant with other classes of nuclear receptor coactivators such as PBP and members of the steroid receptor coactivator family. ..
  30. Goller T, Vauti F, Ramasamy S, Arnold H. Transcriptional regulator BPTF/FAC1 is essential for trophoblast differentiation during early mouse development. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6819-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, BPTF/FAC1 may also play a role either directly or indirectly in anterior-posterior patterning of the epiblast. ..
  31. Chu J, Shen M. Functional redundancy of EGF-CFC genes in epiblast and extraembryonic patterning during early mouse embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;342:63-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that both Cripto and Cryptic function non-cell-autonomously during normal development, and that most if not all Nodal activity in early mouse embryogenesis is EGF-CFC-dependent. ..
  32. Guillemot F. Analysis of the role of basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors in the development of neural lineages in the mouse. Biol Cell. 1995;84:3-6 pubmed
    ..We have also started a genetic analysis of the mouse HES genes to study their function during neurogenesis and the possibility that they regulate the activity of Mash1 and other positive regulators. ..
  33. Hu X, Li J, Zhang Q, Zheng L, Wang G, Zhang X, et al. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K) Subunit p110? Is Essential for Trophoblast Cell Differentiation and Placental Development in Mouse. Sci Rep. 2016;6:28201 pubmed publisher
    ..These data, taken together, provide the first in vivo evidence that p110? may play an important role in placental vascularization through manipulating trophoblast giant cell. ..
  34. Auman H, Nottoli T, Lakiza O, Winger Q, Donaldson S, Williams T. Transcription factor AP-2gamma is essential in the extra-embryonic lineages for early postimplantation development. Development. 2002;129:2733-47 pubmed
    ..By contrast, the presence of AP-2gamma in the extra-embryonic membranes is required for normal development of this compartment and also for survival of the mouse embryo. ..
  35. Lefebvre L, Mar L, Bogutz A, Oh McGinnis R, Mandegar M, Paderova J, et al. The interval between Ins2 and Ascl2 is dispensable for imprinting centre function in the murine Beckwith-Wiedemann region. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:4255-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the deleted interval is not required for normal imprinting on distal Chr 7 and uncover a new imprinted growth phenotype. ..
  36. Wang C, Wang M, Arrington J, Shan T, Yue F, Nie Y, et al. Ascl2 inhibits myogenesis by antagonizing the transcriptional activity of myogenic regulatory factors. Development. 2017;144:235-247 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we define Ascl2 as a novel inhibitor of MRFs...
  37. Enklaar T, Esswein M, Oswald M, Hilbert K, Winterpacht A, Higgins M, et al. Mtr1, a novel biallelically expressed gene in the center of the mouse distal chromosome 7 imprinting cluster, is a member of the Trp gene family. Genomics. 2000;67:179-87 pubmed
    ..Imprinting analysis, using RT-PCR on RNA from reciprocal mouse crosses harboring a sequence polymorphism, revealed biallelic expression of Mtr1 transcripts at all stages and tissues examined. ..
  38. Guillemot F, Joyner A. Dynamic expression of the murine Achaete-Scute homologue Mash-1 in the developing nervous system. Mech Dev. 1993;42:171-85 pubmed
    ..The two genes show very similar expression patterns, both spatially and temporally, in the early developing brain and in the retina, suggesting that both genes may participate in the development of the same neural lineages. ..
  39. Goller T, Seibold U, Kremmer E, Voos W, Kolanus W. Atad3 function is essential for early post-implantation development in the mouse. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54799 pubmed publisher
    ..At the biochemical level, we report here that ATAD3 is present in five native mitochondrial protein complexes of different sizes, indicating complex roles of the protein in mitochondrial architecture and function. ..
  40. Bondow B, Faber M, Wojta K, Walker E, Battle M. E-cadherin is required for intestinal morphogenesis in the mouse. Dev Biol. 2012;371:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data demonstrate that E-cadherin is essential for intestinal epithelial morphogenesis and homeostasis during embryonic development. ..
  41. Sun X, Xie H, Yang J, Wang H, Bradshaw H, Dey S. Endocannabinoid signaling directs differentiation of trophoblast cell lineages and placentation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16887-92 pubmed publisher
  42. Morasso M, Grinberg A, Robinson G, Sargent T, Mahon K. Placental failure in mice lacking the homeobox gene Dlx3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:162-7 pubmed
  43. Bastian H, Gruss P. A murine even-skipped homologue, Evx 1, is expressed during early embryogenesis and neurogenesis in a biphasic manner. EMBO J. 1990;9:1839-52 pubmed
  44. Wilde J, Siegenthaler J, Dent S, Niswander L. Diencephalic Size Is Restricted by a Novel Interplay Between GCN5 Acetyltransferase Activity and Retinoic Acid Signaling. J Neurosci. 2017;37:2565-2579 pubmed publisher
  45. Dragatsis I, Efstratiadis A, Zeitlin S. Mouse mutant embryos lacking huntingtin are rescued from lethality by wild-type extraembryonic tissues. Development. 1998;125:1529-39 pubmed
  46. Ng R, Dean W, Dawson C, Lucifero D, Madeja Z, Reik W, et al. Epigenetic restriction of embryonic cell lineage fate by methylation of Elf5. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:1280-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This epigenetic restriction of cell lineage fate provides a molecular mechanism for Waddington's concept of canalization of developmental pathways. ..
  47. Hu D, Cross J. Ablation of Tpbpa-positive trophoblast precursors leads to defects in maternal spiral artery remodeling in the mouse placenta. Dev Biol. 2011;358:231-9 pubmed publisher
    ..cell ablation, suggesting that there is compensatory growth of this population and indeed a population of Ascl2 (Mash2)-positive/Tpbpa-negative cells was increased in the spongiotrophoblast layer in the Cre/DTA double ..
  48. Tanaka H, Nagaike K, Takeda N, Itoh H, Kohama K, Fukushima T, et al. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1) is required for branching morphogenesis in the chorioallantoic placenta. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:5687-98 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that mouse HAI-1 is essential for branching morphogenesis in the chorioallantoic placenta and lack of HAI-1 function may result in placental failure. ..
  49. Oh McGinnis R, Bogutz A, Lee K, Higgins M, Lefebvre L. Rescue of placental phenotype in a mechanistic model of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:50 pubmed publisher
    ..When the IC2KO mutation is paternally inherited, epigenetic silencing is lost in the region and the DelTel7 lethality is rescued in compound heterozygotes, leading to viable DelTel7/IC2KO mice...
  50. Mager J, Montgomery N, de Villena F, Magnuson T. Genome imprinting regulated by the mouse Polycomb group protein Eed. Nat Genet. 2003;33:502-7 pubmed
    ..These data identify Eed as a member of a new class of trans-acting factors that regulate parent-of-origin expression at imprinted loci. ..
  51. Parr B, Cornish V, Cybulsky M, McMahon A. Wnt7b regulates placental development in mice. Dev Biol. 2001;237:324-32 pubmed
    ..Wnt7b also is required for normal organization of cells in the chorionic plate. Thus, Wnt7b signaling is central to the early stages of placental development in mammals. ..
  52. Sirard C, de la Pompa J, Elia A, Itie A, Mirtsos C, Cheung A, et al. The tumor suppressor gene Smad4/Dpc4 is required for gastrulation and later for anterior development of the mouse embryo. Genes Dev. 1998;12:107-19 pubmed
    ..Rescued embryos show severe anterior truncations, indicating a second important role for Smad4 in anterior patterning during embryogenesis. ..
  53. Asanoma K, Kato H, Yamaguchi S, Shin C, Liu Z, Kato K, et al. HOP/NECC1, a novel regulator of mouse trophoblast differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:24065-74 pubmed
  54. Mohammad F, Mondal T, Guseva N, Pandey G, Kanduri C. Kcnq1ot1 noncoding RNA mediates transcriptional gene silencing by interacting with Dnmt1. Development. 2010;137:2493-9 pubmed publisher
  55. Georgiades P, Rossant J. Ets2 is necessary in trophoblast for normal embryonic anteroposterior axis development. Development. 2006;133:1059-68 pubmed
    ..This study provides new insights about the genetic and cellular basis of the patterning role and development of the early trophoblast. ..
  56. Firulli B, McConville D, Byers J, Vincentz J, Barnes R, Firulli A. Analysis of a Hand1 hypomorphic allele reveals a critical threshold for embryonic viability. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2748-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data define a critical threshold of Hand1 expression that is necessary for embryonic survival. ..
  57. Xu X, Weinstein M, Li C, Naski M, Cohen R, Ornitz D, et al. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2)-mediated reciprocal regulation loop between FGF8 and FGF10 is essential for limb induction. Development. 1998;125:753-65 pubmed
  58. Tilghman S. The sins of the fathers and mothers: genomic imprinting in mammalian development. Cell. 1999;96:185-93 pubmed
  59. Stemmler M, Bedzhov I. A Cdh1HA knock-in allele rescues the Cdh1-/- phenotype but shows essential Cdh1 function during placentation. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2330-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Placentas without Cdh1 expression are impaired and incapable of establishing a proper connection between the embryonic and the maternal blood vessels for efficient nutrient and oxygen transport. ..
  60. Moriyama M, Durham A, Moriyama H, Hasegawa K, Nishikawa S, Radtke F, et al. Multiple roles of Notch signaling in the regulation of epidermal development. Dev Cell. 2008;14:594-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Notch signaling induces Ascl2 expression to promote terminal differentiation, while simultaneously repressing Ascl2 through Hes1 to inhibit ..
  61. Arima T, Hata K, Tanaka S, Kusumi M, Li E, Kato K, et al. Loss of the maternal imprint in Dnmt3Lmat-/- mice leads to a differentiation defect in the extraembryonic tissue. Dev Biol. 2006;297:361-73 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we report that DNA methylation during oogenesis is essential for the establishment of imprinting Mash2. These findings provide evidence that not only is DNA methylation required for the appropriate maternal imprint in ..
  62. Kraut N, Snider L, Chen C, Tapscott S, Groudine M. Requirement of the mouse I-mfa gene for placental development and skeletal patterning. EMBO J. 1998;17:6276-88 pubmed
    ..I-mfa interacted with the bHLH protein Mash2, a negative regulator of trophoblast giant cell formation, and inhibited its transcriptional activity in cell ..
  63. Plaks V, Rinkenberger J, Dai J, Flannery M, Sund M, Kanasaki K, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 deficiency phenocopies features of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:11109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data show that fetal and maternal MMP9 play a role in the development of PE and establish the MMP9-null mice as a much-needed model to study the clinical course of this syndrome. ..
  64. Takao T, Asanoma K, Tsunematsu R, Kato K, Wake N. The maternally expressed gene Tssc3 regulates the expression of MASH2 transcription factor in mouse trophoblast stem cells through the AKT-Sp1 signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:42685-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of TSSC3 in TS cells up-regulated Gcm1 and Mash2, which are marker genes of mouse trophoblast differentiation...
  65. Suzuki A, de la Pompa J, Hakem R, Elia A, Yoshida R, Mo R, et al. Brca2 is required for embryonic cellular proliferation in the mouse. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1242-52 pubmed
    ..The similarity in phenotype between Brca1 and Brca2 mutants suggests that these genes may have cooperative roles or convergent functions during embryogenesis. ..
  66. Arsenault P, Song D, Chung Y, Khurana T, Lee F. The Zinc Finger of Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain Protein 2 Is Essential for Efficient Hydroxylation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor α. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:2328-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these findings have important implications for understanding both the molecular mechanism of the hypoxic response and human adaptation to high altitude. ..
  67. Shalom Barak T, Nicholas J, Wang Y, Zhang X, Ong E, Young T, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma controls Muc1 transcription in trophoblasts. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:10661-9 pubmed
  68. Das S, Yu S, Sakamori R, Vedula P, Feng Q, Flores J, et al. Rab8a vesicles regulate Wnt ligand delivery and Paneth cell maturation at the intestinal stem cell niche. Development. 2015;142:2147-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Rab8a thus controls Wnt delivery in producing cells and is crucial for Paneth cell maturation. Our data highlight the profound tissue plasticity that occurs in response to stress induced by depletion of a stem cell niche signal. ..
  69. Nakayama H, Scott I, Cross J. The transition to endoreduplication in trophoblast giant cells is regulated by the mSNA zinc finger transcription factor. Dev Biol. 1998;199:150-63 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that mSNA has an ESCARGOT-like function to repress the transcription of genes that promote the transition from mitotic to endoreduplicative cell cycles in rodent trophoblast. ..
  70. Wansleeben C, Feitsma H, Tertoolen L, Kroon C, Guryev V, Cuppen E, et al. A novel mutant allele of Ncx1: a single amino acid substitution leads to cardiac dysfunction. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:1465-71 pubmed publisher
    ..It provides an in vivo model for this mutation and demonstrates the potential of forward genetic screens in a mammalian system. ..
  71. Rossant J, Guillemot F, Tanaka M, Latham K, Gertenstein M, Nagy A. Mash2 is expressed in oogenesis and preimplantation development but is not required for blastocyst formation. Mech Dev. 1998;73:183-91 pubmed
    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Mash2, has been shown to be necessary for the development of the spongiotrophoblast of the mature chorioallantoic placenta of the mouse...
  72. Green K, Lewis A, Dawson C, Dean W, Reinhart B, Chaillet J, et al. A developmental window of opportunity for imprinted gene silencing mediated by DNA methylation and the Kcnq1ot1 noncoding RNA. Mamm Genome. 2007;18:32-42 pubmed
  73. Chin S, Romano R, Nagarajan P, Sinha S, Garrett Sinha L. Aberrant epidermal differentiation and disrupted ?Np63/Notch regulatory axis in Ets1 transgenic mice. Biol Open. 2013;2:1336-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the established tumor suppressive role for Notch signaling in skin tumorigenesis, the demonstrated ability of Ets1 to interfere with this signaling pathway may be important in mediating its pro-tumorigenic activities. ..
  74. Branco M, King M, Perez García V, Bogutz A, Caley M, Fineberg E, et al. Maternal DNA Methylation Regulates Early Trophoblast Development. Dev Cell. 2016;36:152-63 pubmed publisher
    ..plays a major role in regulating trophoblast development but that imprinting of the key placental regulator Ascl2 is only partially responsible for these effects...
  75. Ainscough J, John R, Surani M. Mechanism of imprinting on mouse distal chromosome 7. Genet Res. 1998;72:237-45 pubmed
    ..It is therefore possible that the mouse distal chromosome 7 imprinted domain is actually composed of two or more independently regulated subdomains. ..
  76. Salbaum J, Kruger C, Zhang X, Delahaye N, Pavlinkova G, Burk D, et al. Altered gene expression and spongiotrophoblast differentiation in placenta from a mouse model of diabetes in pregnancy. Diabetologia. 2011;54:1909-20 pubmed publisher
  77. Nakayama H, Liu Y, Stifani S, Cross J. Developmental restriction of Mash-2 expression in trophoblast correlates with potential activation of the notch-2 pathway. Dev Genet. 1997;21:21-30 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Notch signaling through activation of HES transcriptional repressors may play a role in murine placental development. ..
  78. Oudhoff M, Braam M, Freeman S, Wong D, Rattray D, Wang J, et al. SETD7 Controls Intestinal Regeneration and Tumorigenesis by Regulating Wnt/?-Catenin and Hippo/YAP Signaling. Dev Cell. 2016;37:47-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results define a methyltransferase-dependent regulatory mechanism that links the Wnt/?-catenin and Hippo/YAP pathways during intestinal regeneration and tumorigenesis. ..
  79. Wagschal A, Sutherland H, Woodfine K, Henckel A, Chebli K, Schulz R, et al. G9a histone methyltransferase contributes to imprinting in the mouse placenta. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1104-13 pubmed
    ..These findings provide the first evidence for the involvement of an HMT and suggest that histone methylation contributes to imprinted gene repression in the trophoblast. ..