Gene Symbol: Arrb2
Description: arrestin, beta 2
Alias: AI326910, AW122872, Arr3, beta-arrestin-2, arrestin 3, beta arr2
Species: mouse
Products:     Arrb2

Top Publications

  1. Groer C, Schmid C, Jaeger A, Bohn L. Agonist-directed interactions with specific beta-arrestins determine mu-opioid receptor trafficking, ubiquitination, and dephosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:31731-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the selective interactions between the MOR and ?-arrestin1 facilitate receptor dephosphorylation, which may play a role in the resensitization of the MOR and thereby contribute to overall development of opioid tolerance. ..
  2. Hara M, Kovacs J, Whalen E, Rajagopal S, Strachan R, Grant W, et al. A stress response pathway regulates DNA damage through ?2-adrenoreceptors and ?-arrestin-1. Nature. 2011;477:349-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the emerging role of ARRB1 as an E3-ligase adaptor in the nucleus, and reveal how DNA damage may accumulate in response to chronic stress. ..
  3. Sun J, Lin X. Beta-arrestin 2 is required for lysophosphatidic acid-induced NF-kappaB activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:17085-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results provide the genetic evidence that beta-arrestin 2 serves as a positive regulator in NF-kappaB signaling pathway by connecting CARMA3 to GPCRs. ..
  4. Scott M, Le Rouzic E, Perianin A, Pierotti V, Enslen H, Benichou S, et al. Differential nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of beta-arrestins. Characterization of a leucine-rich nuclear export signal in beta-arrestin2. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:37693-701 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of betaarr2 controls the subcellular distribution of JNK3. ..
  5. Wang Y, Tang Y, Teng L, Wu Y, Zhao X, Pei G. Association of beta-arrestin and TRAF6 negatively regulates Toll-like receptor-interleukin 1 receptor signaling. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:139-47 pubmed
    ..Thus, beta-arrestins are essential negative regulators of innate immune activation via TLR-IL-1R signaling. ..
  6. Chen W, Kirkbride K, How T, Nelson C, Mo J, Frederick J, et al. Beta-arrestin 2 mediates endocytosis of type III TGF-beta receptor and down-regulation of its signaling. Science. 2003;301:1394-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, the regulatory actions of beta-arrestins are broader than previously appreciated, extending to the TGF-beta receptor family as well. ..
  7. Lattin J, Greenwood K, Daly N, Kelly G, Zidar D, Clark R, et al. Beta-arrestin 2 is required for complement C1q expression in macrophages and constrains factor-independent survival. Mol Immunol. 2009;47:340-7 pubmed publisher
    The beta-arrestins (ARRB1 and ARRB2) regulate G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) dependent- and independent-signaling pathways and are ubiquitously expressed...
  8. Raehal K, Bohn L. The role of beta-arrestin2 in the severity of antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence induced by different opioid pain therapeutics. Neuropharmacology. 2011;60:58-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results lend further evidence that distinct agonists can differentially impact on opioid-mediated responses in vivo in a ?arrestin2-dependent manner. ..
  9. Fong A, Premont R, Richardson R, Yu Y, Lefkowitz R, Patel D. Defective lymphocyte chemotaxis in beta-arrestin2- and GRK6-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:7478-83 pubmed
    ..Thus, these results indicate that beta-arrestin2 and GRK6 actually play positive regulatory roles in mediating the chemotactic responses of T and B lymphocytes to CXCL12. ..

More Information


  1. Walker J, Fong A, Lawson B, Savov J, Patel D, Schwartz D, et al. Beta-arrestin-2 regulates the development of allergic asthma. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:566-74 pubmed
    ..Because beta-arrestin-2 regulates the development of allergic inflammation at a proximal step in the inflammatory cascade, novel therapies focused on this protein may prove useful in the treatment of asthma. ..
  2. Por E, Bierbower S, Berg K, Gomez R, Akopian A, Wetsel W, et al. ?-Arrestin-2 desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:37552-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, inhibition of PDE4D5 activity reversed ?-arrestin-2 desensitization of TRPV1. Together, these results identify a new endogenous scaffolding mechanism that regulates TRPV1 ligand binding and activation. ..
  3. Kovacs J, Whalen E, Liu R, Xiao K, Kim J, Chen M, et al. Beta-arrestin-mediated localization of smoothened to the primary cilium. Science. 2008;320:1777-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest roles for beta-arrestins in mediating the intracellular transport of a 7TMR to its obligate subcellular location for signaling. ..
  4. Kumar P, Lau C, Mathur M, Wang P, Defea K. Differential effects of beta-arrestins on the internalization, desensitization and ERK1/2 activation downstream of protease activated receptor-2. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C346-57 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest distinct temporal and functional roles for beta-arrestins in PAR-2 signaling, desensitization, and internalization. ..
  5. Fan H, Luttrell L, Tempel G, Senn J, Halushka P, Cook J. Beta-arrestins 1 and 2 differentially regulate LPS-induced signaling and pro-inflammatory gene expression. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:3092-9 pubmed
    ..Understanding the role of beta-arrestins in regulation of TLR signaling pathways may provide novel insights into control mechanisms for inflammatory gene expression. ..
  6. Kang J, Shi Y, Xiang B, Qu B, Su W, Zhu M, et al. A nuclear function of beta-arrestin1 in GPCR signaling: regulation of histone acetylation and gene transcription. Cell. 2005;123:833-47 pubmed
  7. Trivedi D, Loftin C, Clark J, Myers P, Degraff L, Cheng J, et al. β-Arrestin-2 deficiency attenuates abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in mice. Circ Res. 2013;112:1219-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that for the AngII type 1a receptor, G-protein-independent, βarr2-dependent signaling plays a major role in AngII-induced AAA formation. ..
  8. Bohn L, Lefkowitz R, Caron M. Differential mechanisms of morphine antinociceptive tolerance revealed in (beta)arrestin-2 knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2002;22:10494-500 pubmed
  9. Kohout T, Lin F, Perry S, Conner D, Lefkowitz R. beta-Arrestin 1 and 2 differentially regulate heptahelical receptor signaling and trafficking. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:1601-6 pubmed
    ..we prepared mouse embryonic fibroblasts from knockout mice that lack one of the beta-arrestins (beta arr1-KO and beta arr2-KO) or both (beta arr1/2-KO), as well as their wild-type (WT) littermate controls...
  10. Fan H, Bitto A, Zingarelli B, Luttrell L, Borg K, Halushka P, et al. Beta-arrestin 2 negatively regulates sepsis-induced inflammation. Immunology. 2010;130:344-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that beta-arrestin 2 functions to negatively regulate the inflammatory response in polymicrobial sepsis. ..
  11. Zhang M, Liu X, Zhang Y, Zhao J. Loss of betaarrestin1 and betaarrestin2 contributes to pulmonary hypoplasia and neonatal lethality in mice. Dev Biol. 2010;339:407-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our study demonstrates that betaarrestin1 and betaarrestin2 collaborate in embryonic development processes for epithelial pneumocyte differentiation and lung maturation. ..
  12. Kim J, Zhang L, Peppel K, Wu J, Zidar D, Brian L, et al. Beta-arrestins regulate atherosclerosis and neointimal hyperplasia by controlling smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Circ Res. 2008;103:70-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify inhibition of beta-arrestin2 as a novel therapeutic strategy for combating atherosclerosis and arterial restenosis after angioplasty. ..
  13. Yang X, Zhou G, Ren T, Li H, Zhang Y, Yin D, et al. ?-Arrestin prevents cell apoptosis through pro-apoptotic ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs and anti-apoptotic Akt pathways. Apoptosis. 2012;17:1019-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study thus demonstrates that ?-arrestin inhibits cell apoptosis through pro-apoptotic ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs and anti-apoptotic Akt signaling pathways. ..
  14. Porter K, Gonipeta B, Parvataneni S, Appledorn D, Patial S, Sharma D, et al. Regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response and endotoxemia by beta-arrestins. J Cell Physiol. 2010;225:406-16 pubmed publisher
  15. Shenoy S, McDonald P, Kohout T, Lefkowitz R. Regulation of receptor fate by ubiquitination of activated beta 2-adrenergic receptor and beta-arrestin. Science. 2001;294:1307-13 pubmed
  16. Rajagopal K, Whalen E, Violin J, Stiber J, Rosenberg P, Premont R, et al. Beta-arrestin2-mediated inotropic effects of the angiotensin II type 1A receptor in isolated cardiac myocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16284-9 pubmed
    ..Such ligands may have potential as a novel class of therapeutic agents. ..
  17. Bohn L, Gainetdinov R, Lin F, Lefkowitz R, Caron M. Mu-opioid receptor desensitization by beta-arrestin-2 determines morphine tolerance but not dependence. Nature. 2000;408:720-3 pubmed
    ..Using a knockout mouse lacking beta-arrestin-2 (beta arr2-/-), we have assessed the contribution of desensitization of the mu-opioid receptor to the development of ..
  18. Bohn L, Lefkowitz R, Gainetdinov R, Peppel K, Caron M, Lin F. Enhanced morphine analgesia in mice lacking beta-arrestin 2. Science. 1999;286:2495-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, they suggest that inhibition of beta-arrestin 2 function might lead to enhanced analgesic effectiveness of morphine and provide potential new avenues for the study and treatment of pain, narcotic tolerance, and dependence. ..
  19. Quack I, Woznowski M, Potthoff S, Palmer R, Königshausen E, Sivritas S, et al. PKC alpha mediates beta-arrestin2-dependent nephrin endocytosis in hyperglycemia. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:12959-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we have provided a molecular model of hyperglycemia-induced nephrin endocytosis and subsequent proteinuria and highlighted PKC? and PICK1 as promising therapeutic targets for diabetic nephropathy. ..
  20. Esposito G, Perrino C, Cannavo A, Schiattarella G, Borgia F, Sannino A, et al. EGFR trans-activation by urotensin II receptor is mediated by ?-arrestin recruitment and confers cardioprotection in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Basic Res Cardiol. 2011;106:577-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show, for the first time in vivo, a new UTR signalling pathway which is mediated by EGFR trans-activation, dependent by ?-arrestin 1/2, promoting cell survival and cardioprotection. ..
  21. Oh D, Talukdar S, Bae E, Imamura T, Morinaga H, Fan W, et al. GPR120 is an omega-3 fatty acid receptor mediating potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects. Cell. 2010;142:687-98 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, GPR120 is a functional omega-3 FA receptor/sensor and mediates potent insulin sensitizing and antidiabetic effects in vivo by repressing macrophage-induced tissue inflammation. ..
  22. Sneddon W, Friedman P. Beta-arrestin-dependent parathyroid hormone-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and parathyroid hormone type 1 receptor internalization. Endocrinology. 2007;148:4073-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the betaAr-dependent late phase of ERK activation by PTH requires the participation of betaAr2 and PTH1R internalization. ..
  23. Mangmool S, Shukla A, Rockman H. beta-Arrestin-dependent activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase II after beta(1)-adrenergic receptor stimulation. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:573-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The essential role for beta-arrestin and identification of the molecular mechanism by which only beta(1)-ARs and not beta(2)-ARs activate CaMKII significantly advances our understanding of this important cellular pathway. ..
  24. Yan Y, Jiang W, Spinetti T, Tardivel A, Castillo R, Bourquin C, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent inflammation and metabolic disorder through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Immunity. 2013;38:1154-63 pubmed publisher
  25. Tan M, Walwyn W, Evans C, Xie C. p38 MAPK and beta-arrestin 2 mediate functional interactions between endogenous micro-opioid and alpha2A-adrenergic receptors in neurons. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6270-81 pubmed publisher
  26. Gesty Palmer D, Flannery P, Yuan L, Corsino L, Spurney R, Lefkowitz R, et al. A beta-arrestin-biased agonist of the parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R) promotes bone formation independent of G protein activation. Sci Transl Med. 2009;1:1ra1 pubmed publisher
    ..Ligands with these properties may form the basis for improved 7TMR-directed pharmacologic agents with enhanced therapeutic specificity. ..
  27. Vines C, Revankar C, Maestas D, LaRusch L, Cimino D, Kohout T, et al. N-formyl peptide receptors internalize but do not recycle in the absence of arrestins. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:41581-4 pubmed
    ..stably expressed the FPR in a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line (MEF) that lacked endogenous arrestin 2 and arrestin 3 (arrestin-deficient)...
  28. Zhang M, Zhu Y, Mu K, Li L, Lu J, Zhao J, et al. Loss of ?-arrestin2 mediates pancreatic-islet dysfunction in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;435:345-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study establishes a new role for ?-arrestin2 in beta-cell functions, and suggests that the down regulation of ?-arrestin2 may contribute to impaired insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes. ..
  29. Urs N, Jones K, Salo P, Severin J, Trejo J, Radhakrishna H. A requirement for membrane cholesterol in the beta-arrestin- and clathrin-dependent endocytosis of LPA1 lysophosphatidic acid receptors. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:5291-304 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that although LPA(1) is internalized by clathrin- and beta-arrestin dependent endocytosis, membrane cholesterol is critical for LPA(1) signaling, membrane recruitment of beta-arrestins and LPA(1) endocytosis. ..
  30. Seregin S, Appledorn D, Patial S, Bujold M, Nance W, Godbehere S, et al. beta-Arrestins modulate Adenovirus-vector-induced innate immune responses: differential regulation by beta-arrestin-1 and beta-arrestin-2. Virus Res. 2010;147:123-34 pubmed publisher
  31. Li H, Sun X, Lesage G, Zhang Y, Liang Z, Chen J, et al. ?-arrestin 2 regulates Toll-like receptor 4-mediated apoptotic signalling through glycogen synthase kinase-3?. Immunology. 2010;130:556-63 pubmed publisher
  32. Li H, Hu D, Fan H, Zhang Y, Lesage G, Caudle Y, et al. ?-Arrestin 2 negatively regulates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-triggered inflammatory signaling via targeting p38 MAPK and interleukin 10. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:23075-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a novel mechanism by which ?-arrestin 2 negatively regulates TLR4-mediated inflammatory reactions. ..
  33. Pontrello C, Sun M, Lin A, Fiacco T, DeFea K, Ethell I. Cofilin under control of ?-arrestin-2 in NMDA-dependent dendritic spine plasticity, long-term depression (LTD), and learning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E442-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies demonstrate unique functions of ?-arrestin-2 in NMDAR-mediated dendritic spine and synapse plasticity through spatial control over cofilin activation. ..
  34. Moorman J, Zhang Y, Liu B, Lesage G, Chen Y, Stuart C, et al. HIV-1 gp120 primes lymphocytes for opioid-induced, beta-arrestin 2-dependent apoptosis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1793:1366-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest a novel mechanism by which HIV-1 gp120 and opioids induce lymphocyte cell death. ..
  35. Zhu L, Rossi M, Cui Y, Lee R, Sakamoto W, Perry N, et al. Hepatic β-arrestin 2 is essential for maintaining euglycemia. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:2941-2945 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the concept that strategies aimed at enhancing hepatic β-arrestin 2 activity could prove useful for suppressing HGP for therapeutic purposes. ..
  36. Bouxsein M, Pierroz D, Glatt V, Goddard D, Cavat F, Rizzoli R, et al. beta-Arrestin2 regulates the differential response of cortical and trabecular bone to intermittent PTH in female mice. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:635-43 pubmed
    ..We therefore infer that arrestin-mediated regulation of intracellular signaling contributes to the differential effects of PTH on cancellous and cortical bone. ..
  37. Zhu L, Almaca J, Dadi P, Hong H, Sakamoto W, Rossi M, et al. β-arrestin-2 is an essential regulator of pancreatic β-cell function under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Nat Commun. 2017;8:14295 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data identify barr2 as an important regulator of β-cell function, which may serve as a new target to improve β-cell function. ..
  38. Daigle T, Wetsel W, Caron M. Opposite function of dopamine D1 and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in striatal cannabinoid-mediated signaling. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;34:1378-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that dopamine D1 receptors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors act in an opposite manner to regulate striatal CB1 cannabinoid receptor signal transduction. ..
  39. Bivi N, Lezcano V, Romanello M, Bellido T, Plotkin L. Connexin43 interacts with ?arrestin: a pre-requisite for osteoblast survival induced by parathyroid hormone. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:2920-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that ?arrestin is a novel Cx43-interacting protein and suggest that, by sequestering ?arrestin, Cx43 facilitates cAMP signaling, thereby exerting a permissive role on osteoblast survival induced by PTH. ..
  40. Fereshteh M, Ito T, Kovacs J, Zhao C, Kwon H, Tornini V, et al. ?-Arrestin2 mediates the initiation and progression of myeloid leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:12532-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data cumulatively show that ?-arrestin2 is essential for CML disease propagation and indicate that ?-arrestins and the Wnt/?-catenin pathway lie in a signaling hierarchy in the context of CML cancer stem cell maintenance...
  41. Hegde A, Strachan R, Walker J. Quantification of beta adrenergic receptor subtypes in beta-arrestin knockout mouse airways. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0116458 pubmed publisher
  42. Raghuwanshi S, Smith N, Rivers E, Thomas A, Sutton N, Hu Y, et al. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 deficiency promotes angiogenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis. J Immunol. 2013;190:5329-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Because GRK6(-/-)/?arr2(-/-) showed greater tumor growth relative to GRK6(-/-) or ?arr2(-/-) mice, the data further suggest that CXCR2 couples to different mechanisms to mediate tumor progression and metastasis. ..
  43. Walwyn W, Evans C, Hales T. Beta-arrestin2 and c-Src regulate the constitutive activity and recycling of mu opioid receptors in dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Neurosci. 2007;27:5092-104 pubmed
    ..In beta-arrestin2-/- (beta arr2-/-) mice, a complex phenotype is observed that includes altered sensitivity to morphine...
  44. Zhuang L, Hu W, Xin S, Zhao J, Pei G. Beta-arrestin-1 protein represses adipogenesis and inflammatory responses through its interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). J Biol Chem. 2011;286:28403-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our findings not only reveal a molecular mechanism for the modulation of obesity by ?-arrestin-1 but also suggest a potential tactical approach against obesity and its associated metabolic disorders. ..
  45. Liu C, Gong Z, Liang Z, Liu Z, Yang F, Sun Y, et al. Arrestin-biased AT1R agonism induces acute catecholamine secretion through TRPC3 coupling. Nat Commun. 2017;8:14335 pubmed publisher
    ..This fast communication pathway might be a common mechanism of several cellular processes. ..
  46. Wang H, Dong J, Li Q, Hu Q, Ning S, Zheng W, et al. A stress response pathway in mice upregulates somatostatin level and transcription in pancreatic delta cells through Gs and ?-arrestin 1. Diabetologia. 2014;57:1899-910 pubmed publisher
    ..Arrestin1, ERK and PAX6 are important pancreatic delta cell regulators in addition to cAMP, PKA and CREB. Dysfunction of ?-adrenergic agonism may impair pancreatic delta cell function. ..
  47. Green J, Schmid C, Bley E, Monsma P, Brown A, Bohn L, et al. Recruitment of β-Arrestin into Neuronal Cilia Modulates Somatostatin Receptor Subtype 3 Ciliary Localization. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:223-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results implicate β-arrestin in the modulation of Sstr3 ciliary localization and further suggest a role for β-arrestin in the mediation of Sstr3 ciliary signaling. ..
  48. Liu X, Ma L, Li H, Huang B, Li Y, Tao Y, et al. β-Arrestin-biased signaling mediates memory reconsolidation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:4483-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that β-arrestin-biased signaling regulates memory reconsolidation and reveal the potential for β-arrestin-biased ligands in the treatment of memory-related disorders. ..
  49. Mancini A, Bertrand G, Vivot K, Carpentier Ã, Tremblay C, Ghislain J, et al. β-Arrestin Recruitment and Biased Agonism at Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:21131-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations expose previously unrecognized complexity for GPR40 signal transduction and may guide the development of biased agonists showing improved clinical profile in type 2 diabetes. ..
  50. Chen J, Simon M, Matthes M, Yasumura D, LaVail M. Increased susceptibility to light damage in an arrestin knockout mouse model of Oguchi disease (stationary night blindness). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40:2978-82 pubmed
  51. Pierroz D, Rufo A, Bianchi E, Glatt V, Capulli M, Rucci N, et al. Beta-Arrestin2 regulates RANKL and ephrins gene expression in response to bone remodeling in mice. J Bone Miner Res. 2009;24:775-84 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, beta-arrestins should be considered an important mechanism for the control of bone remodeling in response to PTH and estrogen deprivation. ..
  52. Campo G, Avenoso A, D Ascola A, Scuruchi M, Calatroni A, Campo S. Beta-arrestin-2 negatively modulates inflammation response in mouse chondrocytes induced by 4-mer hyaluronan oligosaccharide. Mol Cell Biochem. 2015;399:201-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results could be useful for future anti-inflammatory strategies. ..
  53. Dang V, Chieng B, Christie M. Prolonged stimulation of ?-opioid receptors produces ?-arrestin-2-mediated heterologous desensitization of ?(2)-adrenoceptor function in locus ceruleus neurons. Mol Pharmacol. 2012;82:473-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which ?arr-2 can regulate postsynaptic responsiveness to neurotransmitter release. ..
  54. Mittal N, Tan M, Egbuta O, Desai N, Crawford C, Xie C, et al. Evidence that behavioral phenotypes of morphine in ?-arr2-/- mice are due to the unmasking of JNK signaling. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:1953-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, removing ?-arrestin 2 reveals mu receptor activation of the JNK cascade in a ligand-specific manner explaining several behavioral phenotypes of ?-arr2-/- mice. ..
  55. Bonnans C, Flacelière M, Grillet F, Dantec C, Desvignes J, Pannequin J, et al. Essential requirement for ?-arrestin2 in mouse intestinal tumors with elevated Wnt signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3047-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice with Arrb2 depletion (knockout and siRNA) developed only 33% of the tumors detected in their Arrb2-WT littermates, whereas ..
  56. Shinohara T, Kikuchi T, Tsuda M, Yamaki K. A family of retinal S-antigens (arrestins) and their genes: comparative analysis of human, mouse, rat, bovine and Drosophila. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1992;103:505-9 pubmed
  57. Gaffal E, Jakobs M, Glodde N, Schröder R, Kostenis E, Tüting T. ?-arrestin 2 inhibits proinflammatory chemokine production and attenuates contact allergic inflammation in the skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:2131-2137 pubmed publisher
    ..Arrestin 2-deficient (Arrb2(-/-)) mice show decreased T-cell recruitment into allergic lung tissue but increased neutrophil infiltration into ..
  58. Chen M, Hegde A, Choi Y, Theriot B, Premont R, Chen W, et al. Genetic Deletion of β-Arrestin-2 and the Mitigation of Established Airway Hyperresponsiveness in a Murine Asthma Model. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2015;53:346-54 pubmed publisher
  59. Schmid C, Bohn L. Serotonin, but not N-methyltryptamines, activates the serotonin 2A receptor via a ß-arrestin2/Src/Akt signaling complex in vivo. J Neurosci. 2010;30:13513-24 pubmed publisher
  60. Ahn K, Mahmoud M, Shim J, Kendall D. Distinct roles of ?-arrestin 1 and ?-arrestin 2 in ORG27569-induced biased signaling and internalization of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). J Biol Chem. 2013;288:9790-800 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate for the first time the involvement of ?-arrestin in CB1-biased signaling by a CB1 allosteric modulator and also define the differential role of the two ?-arrestin isoforms in CB1 signaling and internalization. ..
  61. Connor M, Bagley E, Chieng B, Christie M. ?-Arrestin-2 knockout prevents development of cellular ?-opioid receptor tolerance but does not affect opioid-withdrawal-related adaptations in single PAG neurons. Br J Pharmacol. 2015;172:492-500 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit ..
  62. Bianchi E, Ferrari S. Beta-arrestin2 regulates parathyroid hormone effects on a p38 MAPK and NFkappaB gene expression network in osteoblasts. Bone. 2009;45:716-25 pubmed publisher
    ..and continuous (c.) PTH on bone are altered in beta-arrestin2-deficient (Arrb2(-/-)) mice...
  63. Mittal N, Minasyan A, Romaneschi N, Hakimian J, Gonzalez Fernandez G, Albert R, et al. Beta-arrestin 1 regulation of reward-motivated behaviors and glutamatergic function. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185796 pubmed publisher
    ..This intervention substantially reduced food-motivated behavior. Together these findings identify a previously unknown role of ?arr1 in regulating specific reward-motivated behaviors and glutamatergic function. ..
  64. Stoppel L, Auerbach B, Senter R, Preza A, Lefkowitz R, Bear M. β-Arrestin2 Couples Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 to Neuronal Protein Synthesis and Is a Potential Target to Treat Fragile X. Cell Rep. 2017;18:2807-2814 pubmed publisher
  65. Huet E, Boulay F, Barral S, Rabiet M. The role of beta-arrestins in the formyl peptide receptor-like 1 internalization and signaling. Cell Signal. 2007;19:1939-48 pubmed
    ..Since beta-arrestin-mediated signaling has been observed essentially for receptors coupled to G proteins other than G(i), this may be a characteristic of G(i) protein-coupled chemoattractant receptors. ..
  66. Jiang Y, Li Y, Tian H, Ma M, Matsunami H. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 modulates odorant receptor activity via inhibition of β-arrestin-2 recruitment. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6448 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a role for acetylcholine in modulating olfactory processing at the initial stages of signal transduction in the olfactory system. ..
  67. Kim K, Abraham D, Williams B, Violin J, Mao L, Rockman H. ?-Arrestin-biased AT1R stimulation promotes cell survival during acute cardiac injury. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012;303:H1001-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that this novel class of drugs may provide an advantage over conventional ARBs by supporting cardiac function and reducing cellular injury during acute cardiac injury. ..
  68. Li H, Smalligan D, Xie N, Javer A, Zhang Y, Hanley G, et al. ?-arrestin 2-mediated immune suppression induced by chronic stress. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2011;18:142-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates that a deficiency in ?-arrestin 2 augments stress-induced immune suppression. ..
  69. Xu C, Zheng H, Loh H, Law P. Morphine Promotes Astrocyte-Preferential Differentiation of Mouse Hippocampal Progenitor Cells via PKCε-Dependent ERK Activation and TRBP Phosphorylation. Stem Cells. 2015;33:2762-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, morphine modulates the lineage-specific differentiation of NPCs by PKCε-dependent ERK activation with subsequent TRBP phosphorylation and miR-181a maturation. ..
  70. Bjork K, Rimondini R, Hansson A, Terasmaa A, Hyytia P, Heilig M, et al. Modulation of voluntary ethanol consumption by beta-arrestin 2. FASEB J. 2008;22:2552-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified elevated expression of the beta-arrestin 2 gene (Arrb2) in the striatum and the hippocampus of ethanol-preferring AA rats compared to their nonpreferring counterpart ANA ..
  71. Taguchi K, Matsumoto T, Kamata K, Kobayashi T. Inhibitor of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 normalizes vascular endothelial function in type 2 diabetic mice by improving ?-arrestin 2 translocation and ameliorating Akt/eNOS signal dysfunction. Endocrinology. 2012;153:2985-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the GRK2 inhibitor may be a promising therapeutic agent for cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes. ..
  72. Bradaia A, Berton F, Ferrari S, Lüscher C. beta-Arrestin2, interacting with phosphodiesterase 4, regulates synaptic release probability and presynaptic inhibition by opioids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:3034-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, beta-arrestin2 attenuates presynaptic inhibition by opioids independent of mu-opioid receptor-driven recruitment, which may make beta-arrestin2 a promising target for regulating analgesia. ..
  73. McAlees J, Sanders V. Hematopoietic protein tyrosine phosphatase mediates beta2-adrenergic receptor-induced regulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in B lymphocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:675-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, beta(2)AR stimulation on a B cell phosphorylates and inactivates HePTP in a Gs/cAMP/PKA-dependent manner to release bound p38 MAPK, making more available for phosphorylation and subsequent IgE regulation. ..
  74. Skinbjerg M, Ariano M, Thorsell A, Heilig M, Halldin C, Innis R, et al. Arrestin3 mediates D(2) dopamine receptor internalization. Synapse. 2009;63:621-4 pubmed publisher
  75. Morgenweck J, Frankowski K, Prisinzano T, Aubé J, Bohn L. Investigation of the role of βarrestin2 in kappa opioid receptor modulation in a mouse model of pruritus. Neuropharmacology. 2015;99:600-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1 was as effective as U50,488H in suppressing the itch response induced by KOR antagonist NorBNI or CP in C57BL/6J mice. Together these data suggest that the antipruritic effects of KOR agonists may not require βarrestins. ..
  76. Nichols H, Saffeddine M, Theriot B, Hegde A, Polley D, El Mays T, et al. ?-Arrestin-2 mediates the proinflammatory effects of proteinase-activated receptor-2 in the airway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16660-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the PAR(2)-enhanced inflammatory process is ?-arrestin-2 dependent, whereas the protective anticonstrictor effect of bronchial epithelial PAR(2) may be ?-arrestin independent. ..
  77. Urs N, Caron M. The physiological relevance of functional selectivity in dopamine signalling. Int J Obes Suppl. 2014;4:S5-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely that G-protein-dependent signalling through DA receptors mediates the CPP response. ..
  78. Chen G, Xie R, Gao Y, Xu Z, Zhao L, Bang S, et al. ?-arrestin-2 regulates NMDA receptor function in spinal lamina II neurons and duration of persistent pain. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12531 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate an active role of ?-arrestin 2 (Arrb2) in regulating spinal cord NMDA receptor (NMDAR) function and the duration of pain...