Gene Symbol: Araf
Description: Araf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase
Alias: 1200013E08Rik, A-Raf, AW495444, Araf1, serine/threonine-protein kinase A-Raf, A-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase, proto-oncogene A-Raf, raf-related oncogene, v-raf murine sarcoma 3611 viral oncogene homolog 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Araf

Top Publications

  1. Huleihel M, Goldsborough M, Cleveland J, Gunnell M, Bonner T, Rapp U. Characterization of murine A-raf, a new oncogene related to the v-raf oncogene. Mol Cell Biol. 1986;6:2655-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, A-raf represents a new proto-oncogene. Transformation by A-raf is independent of ras gene function, as is the case for raf and mos but not other oncogenes. ..
  2. Avner P, Bucan M, Arnaud D, Lehrach H, Rapp U. A-raf oncogene localizes on mouse X chromosome to region some 10-17 centimorgans proximal to hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1987;13:267-72 pubmed
    ..This localization on the mouse X chromosome is compatible with the presence of the A-raf oncogene on the short arm of the human X chromosome between the centromere and Xp21. ..
  3. Papaioannou G, Petit E, Liu E, Baccarini M, Pritchard C, Demay M. Raf Kinases Are Essential for Phosphate Induction of ERK1/2 Phosphorylation in Hypertrophic Chondrocytes and Normal Endochondral Bone Development. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:3164-3171 pubmed publisher
    ..These data further demonstrated that Raf kinases are required for phosphate-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cultured hypertrophic chondrocytes and perform essential, but partially redundant roles in growth plate maturation. ..
  4. Odvody J, Vincent T, Arrate M, Grieb B, Wang S, Garriga J, et al. A deficiency in Mdm2 binding protein inhibits Myc-induced B-cell proliferation and lymphomagenesis. Oncogene. 2010;29:3287-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Mtbp functioned independent of Mdm2 and was a limiting factor for the proliferative and transforming functions of Myc. Thus, Mtbp is a previously unrecognized regulator of Myc-induced tumorigenesis. ..
  5. Yokoyama T, Takano K, Yoshida A, Katada F, Sun P, Takenawa T, et al. DA-Raf1, a competent intrinsic dominant-negative antagonist of the Ras-ERK pathway, is required for myogenic differentiation. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:781-93 pubmed
    ..These results imply that DA-Raf1 is the first identified competent, intrinsic, dominant-negative antagonist of the Ras-ERK pathway. ..
  6. Gan X, Wang C, Patel M, Kreutz B, Zhou M, Kozasa T, et al. Different Raf protein kinases mediate different signaling pathways to stimulate E3 ligase RFFL gene expression in cell migration regulation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:33978-84 pubmed publisher
    ..a G?12-specific signaling pathway that stimulates the transcription of the E3 ligase RFFL via the protein kinase ARAF and ERK. This pathway leads to persistent PKC activation and is important for sustaining fibroblast migration...
  7. Camarero G, Tyrsin O, Xiang C, Pfeiffer V, Pleiser S, Wiese S, et al. Cortical migration defects in mice expressing A-RAF from the B-RAF locus. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7103-15 pubmed
    ..Our data reveal that B-RAF is an important mediator of neuronal survival, migration, and dendrite formation and that A-RAF cannot fully compensate for these functions. ..
  8. Mercer K, Giblett S, Oakden A, Brown J, Marais R, Pritchard C. A-Raf and Raf-1 work together to influence transient ERK phosphorylation and Gl/S cell cycle progression. Oncogene. 2005;24:5207-17 pubmed
    ..Levels of sustained ERK phosphorylation are not significantly altered. Thus, Raf-1 and A-Raf have a combined role in controlling physiological transient ERK activation and in maintenance of cell cycle progression at its usual rate. ..
  9. Winer M, Wadewitz A, Wolgemuth D. Members of the raf gene family exhibit segment-specific patterns of expression in mouse epididymis. Mol Reprod Dev. 1993;35:16-23 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that each raf gene exhibits a characteristic pattern of expression in the epididymis; A-raf in particular may play a unique regulatory role in the regionalized functions of the epididymis. ..

More Information


  1. Danial N, Gramm C, Scorrano L, Zhang C, Krauss S, Ranger A, et al. BAD and glucokinase reside in a mitochondrial complex that integrates glycolysis and apoptosis. Nature. 2003;424:952-6 pubmed
    ..This combination of proteomics, genetics and physiology indicates an unanticipated role for BAD in integrating pathways of glucose metabolism and apoptosis. ..
  2. Wojnowski L, Stancato L, Larner A, Rapp U, Zimmer A. Overlapping and specific functions of Braf and Craf-1 proto-oncogenes during mouse embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 2000;91:97-104 pubmed
    ..The molecular and developmental mechanisms for this redundancy were investigated by monitoring the expression of Raf genes throughout embryogenesis and by biochemical studies in mutant cell lines. ..
  3. Gerits N, Kostenko S, Moens U. In vivo functions of mitogen-activated protein kinases: conclusions from knock-in and knock-out mice. Transgenic Res. 2007;16:281-314 pubmed
    ..Moreover, examples of the application of MAP kinase transgenic mice for validating therapeutic properties of specific MAP kinase inhibitors, and for investigating the role of MAP kinase in pathogen-host interactions will be discussed. ..
  4. Galabova Kovacs G, Matzen D, Piazzolla D, Meissl K, Plyushch T, Chen A, et al. Essential role of B-Raf in ERK activation during extraembryonic development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1325-30 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrate that B-Raf plays a nonredundant role in ERK activation during extraembyronic mammalian development in vivo. ..
  5. Storm S, Cleveland J, Rapp U. Expression of raf family proto-oncogenes in normal mouse tissues. Oncogene. 1990;5:345-51 pubmed
    ..We found no effect of gender on raf expression in non-sex related tissues, nor does tissue germline of origin correlate with levels of expression for any of the three genes. ..
  6. van der Lugt N, Domen J, Verhoeven E, Linders K, van der Gulden H, Allen J, et al. Proviral tagging in E mu-myc transgenic mice lacking the Pim-1 proto-oncogene leads to compensatory activation of Pim-2. EMBO J. 1995;14:2536-44 pubmed
    ..These data show that the described strategy of 'complementation tagging' represents a powerful new tool to identify components of pathways involved in processes as complex as multistep tumorigenesis. ..
  7. Rosahl T, Spillane D, Missler M, Herz J, Selig D, Wolff J, et al. Essential functions of synapsins I and II in synaptic vesicle regulation. Nature. 1995;375:488-93 pubmed
  8. Huebner K, ar Rushdi A, Griffin C, Isobe M, Kozak C, Emanuel B, et al. Actively transcribed genes in the raf oncogene group, located on the X chromosome in mouse and human. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:3934-8 pubmed
    ..The mA-raf locus and the hA-raf-1 locus are actively transcribed in several mouse and human cell lines. ..
  9. Chen X, Chen J, Zhang Y, Hsiao W, Yu A. 14-3-3gamma is upregulated by in vitro ischemia and binds to protein kinase Raf in primary cultures of astrocytes. Glia. 2003;42:315-24 pubmed
  10. Watanabe Takano H, Takano K, Sakamoto A, Matsumoto K, Tokuhisa T, Endo T, et al. DA-Raf-dependent inhibition of the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in type 2 alveolar epithelial cells controls alveolar formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E2291-300 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a pivotal role of the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in the dynamic regulation of alveolar development. ..
  11. Vavvas D, Li X, Avruch J, Zhang X. Identification of Nore1 as a potential Ras effector. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:5439-42 pubmed
    ..Nore1 becomes associated with Ras in situ following activation of epidermal growth factor receptor in COS-7 and in KB cells. ..
  12. Derry J, Barnard P. Physical linkage of the A-raf-1, properdin, synapsin I, and TIMP genes on the human and mouse X chromosomes. Genomics. 1992;12:632-8 pubmed
    ..synapsin I (SYN1), the glycoprotein tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP), the proto-oncogene A-raf-1 (ARAF1), and properdin (PFC), a positive regulator of the alternative pathway of human complement, lie within a conserved ..
  13. Wilson J, Ferguson M, Jenkins N, Lock L, Copeland N, Levine A. Transgenic mouse model of X-linked cleft palate. Cell Growth Differ. 1993;4:67-76 pubmed
    ..The disrupted cellular sequences have been mapped to the proximal region of the mouse X chromosome. The disrupted locus may represent the mouse counterpart to a human locus mutated in an X-linked cleft secondary palate syndrome. ..
  14. Pritchard C, Bolin L, Slattery R, Murray R, McMahon M. Post-natal lethality and neurological and gastrointestinal defects in mice with targeted disruption of the A-Raf protein kinase gene. Curr Biol. 1996;6:614-7 pubmed
  15. Wojnowski L, Zimmer A, Beck T, Hahn H, Bernal R, Rapp U, et al. Endothelial apoptosis in Braf-deficient mice. Nat Genet. 1997;16:293-7 pubmed
    ..However, genetic studies of C. elegans and Drosophila, as well as the targeted mutagenesis of the murine Araf gene, have failed to support such a role...
  16. Zhang Q, Matsui H, Horiuchi H, Liang X, Sasaki K. A-Raf and C-Raf differentially regulate mechanobiological response of osteoblasts to guide mechanical stress-induced differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;476:438-444 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that A-Raf and C-Raf were involved in mechanobiological osteogenesis in a distinct way: A-Raf was responsible for osteogenesis while C-Raf for anti-apoptotic protection and promotion. ..
  17. Li L, Chin L, Shupliakov O, Brodin L, Sihra T, Hvalby O, et al. Impairment of synaptic vesicle clustering and of synaptic transmission, and increased seizure propensity, in synapsin I-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:9235-9 pubmed
    ..These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that synapsin I plays a key role in the regulation of nerve terminal function in mature synapses. ..
  18. Provot S, Nachtrab G, Paruch J, Chen A, Silva A, Kronenberg H. A-raf and B-raf are dispensable for normal endochondral bone development, and parathyroid hormone-related peptide suppresses extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in hypertrophic chondrocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:344-57 pubmed
  19. Grant S, Chapman V. Detailed genetic mapping of the A-raf proto-oncogene on the mouse X chromosome. Oncogene. 1991;6:397-402 pubmed
    ..0 +/- 2.0 cM distal to the Otc gene at the proximal end of the mouse X chromosome, for a partial gene order in this region of: centromere-Cybb-Otc-Timp/A-raf/Syn-1-Xlr-1-Hprt. ..
  20. Vojtek A, Hollenberg S, Cooper J. Mammalian Ras interacts directly with the serine/threonine kinase Raf. Cell. 1993;74:205-14 pubmed
    ..Using purified bacterially expressed fusion proteins, we show, furthermore, that Ras and the N-terminal region of Raf associate directly in vitro and that this interaction is dependent on GTP bound to Ras. ..
  21. Osawa M, Miyoshi S, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Hiroyama T, et al. Characterization of the mouse interleukin-13 receptor alpha1 gene. Immunogenetics. 2000;51:974-81 pubmed
  22. Li Z, Mulligan M, Wang X, Miles M, Lu L, Williams R. A transposon in Comt generates mRNA variants and causes widespread expression and behavioral differences among mice. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12181 pubmed publisher
    ..The recent fixation of the variant in a subset of strains may have contributed to the rapid divergence of inbred strains. ..