Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Araf
Description: Araf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase
Alias: 1200013E08Rik, A-Raf, AW495444, Araf1, serine/threonine-protein kinase A-Raf, A-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase, proto-oncogene A-Raf, raf-related oncogene, v-raf murine sarcoma 3611 viral oncogene homolog 1
- Danial N, Gramm C, Scorrano L, Zhang C, Krauss S, Ranger A, et al. BAD and glucokinase reside in a mitochondrial complex that integrates glycolysis and apoptosis. Nature. 2003;424:952-6 pubmed..This combination of proteomics, genetics and physiology indicates an unanticipated role for BAD in integrating pathways of glucose metabolism and apoptosis. ..
- Wojnowski L, Stancato L, Larner A, Rapp U, Zimmer A. Overlapping and specific functions of Braf and Craf-1 proto-oncogenes during mouse embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 2000;91:97-104 pubmed..The molecular and developmental mechanisms for this redundancy were investigated by monitoring the expression of Raf genes throughout embryogenesis and by biochemical studies in mutant cell lines. ..
- Gerits N, Kostenko S, Moens U. In vivo functions of mitogen-activated protein kinases: conclusions from knock-in and knock-out mice. Transgenic Res. 2007;16:281-314 pubmed..Moreover, examples of the application of MAP kinase transgenic mice for validating therapeutic properties of specific MAP kinase inhibitors, and for investigating the role of MAP kinase in pathogen-host interactions will be discussed. ..
- Galabova Kovacs G, Matzen D, Piazzolla D, Meissl K, Plyushch T, Chen A, et al. Essential role of B-Raf in ERK activation during extraembryonic development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1325-30 pubmed..The data demonstrate that B-Raf plays a nonredundant role in ERK activation during extraembyronic mammalian development in vivo. ..
- Storm S, Cleveland J, Rapp U. Expression of raf family proto-oncogenes in normal mouse tissues. Oncogene. 1990;5:345-51 pubmed..We found no effect of gender on raf expression in non-sex related tissues, nor does tissue germline of origin correlate with levels of expression for any of the three genes. ..
- van der Lugt N, Domen J, Verhoeven E, Linders K, van der Gulden H, Allen J, et al. Proviral tagging in E mu-myc transgenic mice lacking the Pim-1 proto-oncogene leads to compensatory activation of Pim-2. EMBO J. 1995;14:2536-44 pubmed..These data show that the described strategy of 'complementation tagging' represents a powerful new tool to identify components of pathways involved in processes as complex as multistep tumorigenesis. ..
- Rosahl T, Spillane D, Missler M, Herz J, Selig D, Wolff J, et al. Essential functions of synapsins I and II in synaptic vesicle regulation. Nature. 1995;375:488-93 pubmed
- Huebner K, ar Rushdi A, Griffin C, Isobe M, Kozak C, Emanuel B, et al. Actively transcribed genes in the raf oncogene group, located on the X chromosome in mouse and human. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:3934-8 pubmed..The mA-raf locus and the hA-raf-1 locus are actively transcribed in several mouse and human cell lines. ..
- Chen X, Chen J, Zhang Y, Hsiao W, Yu A. 14-3-3gamma is upregulated by in vitro ischemia and binds to protein kinase Raf in primary cultures of astrocytes. Glia. 2003;42:315-24 pubmed
- Watanabe Takano H, Takano K, Sakamoto A, Matsumoto K, Tokuhisa T, Endo T, et al. DA-Raf-dependent inhibition of the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in type 2 alveolar epithelial cells controls alveolar formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E2291-300 pubmed publisher..These findings reveal a pivotal role of the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in the dynamic regulation of alveolar development. ..
- Vavvas D, Li X, Avruch J, Zhang X. Identification of Nore1 as a potential Ras effector. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:5439-42 pubmed..Nore1 becomes associated with Ras in situ following activation of epidermal growth factor receptor in COS-7 and in KB cells. ..
- Derry J, Barnard P. Physical linkage of the A-raf-1, properdin, synapsin I, and TIMP genes on the human and mouse X chromosomes. Genomics. 1992;12:632-8 pubmed..synapsin I (SYN1), the glycoprotein tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP), the proto-oncogene A-raf-1 (ARAF1), and properdin (PFC), a positive regulator of the alternative pathway of human complement, lie within a conserved ..
- Wilson J, Ferguson M, Jenkins N, Lock L, Copeland N, Levine A. Transgenic mouse model of X-linked cleft palate. Cell Growth Differ. 1993;4:67-76 pubmed..The disrupted cellular sequences have been mapped to the proximal region of the mouse X chromosome. The disrupted locus may represent the mouse counterpart to a human locus mutated in an X-linked cleft secondary palate syndrome. ..
- Pritchard C, Bolin L, Slattery R, Murray R, McMahon M. Post-natal lethality and neurological and gastrointestinal defects in mice with targeted disruption of the A-Raf protein kinase gene. Curr Biol. 1996;6:614-7 pubmed
- Wojnowski L, Zimmer A, Beck T, Hahn H, Bernal R, Rapp U, et al. Endothelial apoptosis in Braf-deficient mice. Nat Genet. 1997;16:293-7 pubmed..However, genetic studies of C. elegans and Drosophila, as well as the targeted mutagenesis of the murine Araf gene, have failed to support such a role...
- Zhang Q, Matsui H, Horiuchi H, Liang X, Sasaki K. A-Raf and C-Raf differentially regulate mechanobiological response of osteoblasts to guide mechanical stress-induced differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;476:438-444 pubmed publisher..These results suggested that A-Raf and C-Raf were involved in mechanobiological osteogenesis in a distinct way: A-Raf was responsible for osteogenesis while C-Raf for anti-apoptotic protection and promotion. ..
- Li L, Chin L, Shupliakov O, Brodin L, Sihra T, Hvalby O, et al. Impairment of synaptic vesicle clustering and of synaptic transmission, and increased seizure propensity, in synapsin I-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:9235-9 pubmed..These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that synapsin I plays a key role in the regulation of nerve terminal function in mature synapses. ..
- Provot S, Nachtrab G, Paruch J, Chen A, Silva A, Kronenberg H. A-raf and B-raf are dispensable for normal endochondral bone development, and parathyroid hormone-related peptide suppresses extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in hypertrophic chondrocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:344-57 pubmed
- Grant S, Chapman V. Detailed genetic mapping of the A-raf proto-oncogene on the mouse X chromosome. Oncogene. 1991;6:397-402 pubmed..0 +/- 2.0 cM distal to the Otc gene at the proximal end of the mouse X chromosome, for a partial gene order in this region of: centromere-Cybb-Otc-Timp/A-raf/Syn-1-Xlr-1-Hprt. ..
- Vojtek A, Hollenberg S, Cooper J. Mammalian Ras interacts directly with the serine/threonine kinase Raf. Cell. 1993;74:205-14 pubmed..Using purified bacterially expressed fusion proteins, we show, furthermore, that Ras and the N-terminal region of Raf associate directly in vitro and that this interaction is dependent on GTP bound to Ras. ..
- Osawa M, Miyoshi S, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Hiroyama T, et al. Characterization of the mouse interleukin-13 receptor alpha1 gene. Immunogenetics. 2000;51:974-81 pubmed
- Li Z, Mulligan M, Wang X, Miles M, Lu L, Williams R. A transposon in Comt generates mRNA variants and causes widespread expression and behavioral differences among mice. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12181 pubmed publisher..The recent fixation of the variant in a subset of strains may have contributed to the rapid divergence of inbred strains. ..