Ar

Summary

Gene Symbol: Ar
Description: androgen receptor
Alias: AW320017, Tfm, androgen receptor, dihydrotestosterone receptor, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4, testicular feminization
Species: mouse
Products:     Ar

Top Publications

  1. De Gendt K, Atanassova N, Tan K, de França L, Parreira G, McKinnell C, et al. Development and function of the adult generation of Leydig cells in mice with Sertoli cell-selective or total ablation of the androgen receptor. Endocrinology. 2005;146:4117-26 pubmed
    ..We evaluated adult LC development and function in SC-selective androgen receptor (AR) knockout (SCARKO) and complete AR knockout (ARKO) mice...
  2. Merlet J, Racine C, Moreau E, Moreno S, Habert R. Male fetal germ cells are targets for androgens that physiologically inhibit their proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3615-20 pubmed
    ..Using testicular feminized (Tfm) mice, we investigated the effects of a lack of functional androgen receptor (AR) on fetal germ cells, also named gonocytes...
  3. Iwahana E, Karatsoreos I, Shibata S, Silver R. Gonadectomy reveals sex differences in circadian rhythms and suprachiasmatic nucleus androgen receptors in mice. Horm Behav. 2008;53:422-30 pubmed publisher
    ..steroid receptors are localized to a specific compartment of the brain clock, with the discovery that the androgen receptor (AR) is concentrated in the SCN core in male mice...
  4. O Shaughnessy P, Verhoeven G, De Gendt K, Monteiro A, Abel M. Direct action through the sertoli cells is essential for androgen stimulation of spermatogenesis. Endocrinology. 2010;151:2343-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific ablation of the AR in either cell type will cause a severe disruption of spermatogenesis...
  5. Kang H, Shyr C, Huang C, Tsai M, Orimo H, Lin P, et al. Altered TNSALP expression and phosphate regulation contribute to reduced mineralization in mice lacking androgen receptor. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:7354-67 pubmed publisher
    While androgen receptor (AR)-deficient mice developed osteopenia in endochondral bones due to the high bone turnover with increased bone resorption by osteoclasts, little is known about the mechanism of intramembranous bone loss ..
  6. Pawlowski J, Ertel J, Allen M, Xu M, Butler C, Wilson E, et al. Liganded androgen receptor interaction with beta-catenin: nuclear co-localization and modulation of transcriptional activity in neuronal cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20702-10 pubmed
    A yeast two-hybrid assay was employed to identify androgen receptor (AR) protein partners in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal cells...
  7. Yu Z, Dadgar N, Albertelli M, Gruis K, Jordan C, Robins D, et al. Androgen-dependent pathology demonstrates myopathic contribution to the Kennedy disease phenotype in a mouse knock-in model. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2663-72 pubmed
    ..by androgen-dependent neuromuscular weakness, is caused by a CAG/glutamine tract expansion in the androgen receptor (Ar) gene...
  8. Yu I, Lin H, Liu N, Wang R, Sparks J, Yeh S, et al. Hyperleptinemia without obesity in male mice lacking androgen receptor in adipose tissue. Endocrinology. 2008;149:2361-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In previous studies we demonstrated that whole body androgen receptor (AR) knockout (AR(-/y)) mice develop obesity and exhibit insulin and leptin resistance at advanced age...
  9. Kerkhofs S, Dubois V, De Gendt K, Helsen C, Clinckemalie L, Spans L, et al. A role for selective androgen response elements in the development of the epididymis and the androgen control of the 5? reductase II gene. FASEB J. 2012;26:4360-72 pubmed publisher
    The androgen receptor (AR) recognizes two types of DNA elements that are dimers of 5'-AGAACA-3'-like hexamers, either organized as inverted or direct repeats...
  10. Malik B, Nirmalananthan N, Bilsland L, La Spada A, Hanna M, Schiavo G, et al. Absence of disturbed axonal transport in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:1776-86 pubmed publisher
    ..disease, is a late-onset motor neuron disease (MND) caused by an abnormal expansion of the CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene on the X-chromosome, encoding a polyglutamine (poly-Q) sequence in the protein product...

Detail Information

Publications89

  1. De Gendt K, Atanassova N, Tan K, de França L, Parreira G, McKinnell C, et al. Development and function of the adult generation of Leydig cells in mice with Sertoli cell-selective or total ablation of the androgen receptor. Endocrinology. 2005;146:4117-26 pubmed
    ..We evaluated adult LC development and function in SC-selective androgen receptor (AR) knockout (SCARKO) and complete AR knockout (ARKO) mice...
  2. Merlet J, Racine C, Moreau E, Moreno S, Habert R. Male fetal germ cells are targets for androgens that physiologically inhibit their proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3615-20 pubmed
    ..Using testicular feminized (Tfm) mice, we investigated the effects of a lack of functional androgen receptor (AR) on fetal germ cells, also named gonocytes...
  3. Iwahana E, Karatsoreos I, Shibata S, Silver R. Gonadectomy reveals sex differences in circadian rhythms and suprachiasmatic nucleus androgen receptors in mice. Horm Behav. 2008;53:422-30 pubmed publisher
    ..steroid receptors are localized to a specific compartment of the brain clock, with the discovery that the androgen receptor (AR) is concentrated in the SCN core in male mice...
  4. O Shaughnessy P, Verhoeven G, De Gendt K, Monteiro A, Abel M. Direct action through the sertoli cells is essential for androgen stimulation of spermatogenesis. Endocrinology. 2010;151:2343-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific ablation of the AR in either cell type will cause a severe disruption of spermatogenesis...
  5. Kang H, Shyr C, Huang C, Tsai M, Orimo H, Lin P, et al. Altered TNSALP expression and phosphate regulation contribute to reduced mineralization in mice lacking androgen receptor. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:7354-67 pubmed publisher
    While androgen receptor (AR)-deficient mice developed osteopenia in endochondral bones due to the high bone turnover with increased bone resorption by osteoclasts, little is known about the mechanism of intramembranous bone loss ..
  6. Pawlowski J, Ertel J, Allen M, Xu M, Butler C, Wilson E, et al. Liganded androgen receptor interaction with beta-catenin: nuclear co-localization and modulation of transcriptional activity in neuronal cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20702-10 pubmed
    A yeast two-hybrid assay was employed to identify androgen receptor (AR) protein partners in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal cells...
  7. Yu Z, Dadgar N, Albertelli M, Gruis K, Jordan C, Robins D, et al. Androgen-dependent pathology demonstrates myopathic contribution to the Kennedy disease phenotype in a mouse knock-in model. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2663-72 pubmed
    ..by androgen-dependent neuromuscular weakness, is caused by a CAG/glutamine tract expansion in the androgen receptor (Ar) gene...
  8. Yu I, Lin H, Liu N, Wang R, Sparks J, Yeh S, et al. Hyperleptinemia without obesity in male mice lacking androgen receptor in adipose tissue. Endocrinology. 2008;149:2361-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In previous studies we demonstrated that whole body androgen receptor (AR) knockout (AR(-/y)) mice develop obesity and exhibit insulin and leptin resistance at advanced age...
  9. Kerkhofs S, Dubois V, De Gendt K, Helsen C, Clinckemalie L, Spans L, et al. A role for selective androgen response elements in the development of the epididymis and the androgen control of the 5? reductase II gene. FASEB J. 2012;26:4360-72 pubmed publisher
    The androgen receptor (AR) recognizes two types of DNA elements that are dimers of 5'-AGAACA-3'-like hexamers, either organized as inverted or direct repeats...
  10. Malik B, Nirmalananthan N, Bilsland L, La Spada A, Hanna M, Schiavo G, et al. Absence of disturbed axonal transport in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:1776-86 pubmed publisher
    ..disease, is a late-onset motor neuron disease (MND) caused by an abnormal expansion of the CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene on the X-chromosome, encoding a polyglutamine (poly-Q) sequence in the protein product...
  11. Gao N, Ishii K, Mirosevich J, Kuwajima S, Oppenheimer S, Roberts R, et al. Forkhead box A1 regulates prostate ductal morphogenesis and promotes epithelial cell maturation. Development. 2005;132:3431-43 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that Foxa1 plays a pivotal role in controlling prostate morphogenesis and cell differentiation. ..
  12. Doi H, Adachi H, Katsuno M, Minamiyama M, Matsumoto S, Kondo N, et al. p62/SQSTM1 differentially removes the toxic mutant androgen receptor via autophagy and inclusion formation in a spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy mouse model. J Neurosci. 2013;33:7710-27 pubmed publisher
    ..SBMA) is an inherited motor neuron disease that is caused by the expansion of a polyQ tract within the androgen receptor (AR)...
  13. Lin H, Wang L, Hu Y, Altuwaijri S, Chang C. Phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitylation and degradation of androgen receptor by Akt require Mdm2 E3 ligase. EMBO J. 2002;21:4037-48 pubmed
    The androgen receptor (AR) controls several biological functions including prostate cell growth and apoptosis. However, the mechanism by which AR maintains its stability to function properly remains largely unknown...
  14. Welsh M, Sharpe R, Moffat L, Atanassova N, Saunders P, Kilter S, et al. Androgen action via testicular arteriole smooth muscle cells is important for Leydig cell function, vasomotion and testicular fluid dynamics. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13632 pubmed publisher
    ..One possibility is by signalling via androgen receptors (AR) expressed in testicular arteriole smooth muscle cells...
  15. Ranganathan S, Harmison G, Meyertholen K, Pennuto M, Burnett B, Fischbeck K. Mitochondrial abnormalities in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:27-42 pubmed publisher
    ..bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by polyglutamine expansion mutation in the androgen receptor (AR). We investigated whether the mutant protein alters mitochondrial function...
  16. Wu C, Altuwaijri S, Ricke W, Huang S, Yeh S, Zhang C, et al. Increased prostate cell proliferation and loss of cell differentiation in mice lacking prostate epithelial androgen receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12679-84 pubmed
    ..cytodifferentiation, and proliferation/apoptosis are regulated by androgens acting through stromal androgen receptor (AR)...
  17. Wang G, Weng C, Shao S, Zhou W, De Gendt K, Braun R, et al. Androgen receptor in Sertoli cells is not required for testosterone-induced suppression of spermatogenesis, but contributes to Sertoli cell organization in Utp14b jsd mice. J Androl. 2009;30:338-48 pubmed publisher
    Testosterone acting through the androgen receptor (AR) maintains the arrest of spermatogonial differentiation in juvenile spermatogonial depletion (jsd mutation in the Utp14b gene) mutant adult male mice...
  18. Ophoff J, Van Proeyen K, Callewaert F, De Gendt K, De Bock K, Vanden Bosch A, et al. Androgen signaling in myocytes contributes to the maintenance of muscle mass and fiber type regulation but not to muscle strength or fatigue. Endocrinology. 2009;150:3558-66 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the exact role of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in muscle remains unclear...
  19. Lin H, Yu I, Wang R, Chen Y, Liu N, Altuwaijri S, et al. Increased hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice lacking hepatic androgen receptor. Hepatology. 2008;47:1924-35 pubmed publisher
    Early studies demonstrated that whole-body androgen receptor (AR)-knockout mice with hypogonadism exhibit insulin resistance...
  20. Buaas F, Gardiner J, Clayton S, Val P, Swain A. In vivo evidence for the crucial role of SF1 in steroid-producing cells of the testis, ovary and adrenal gland. Development. 2012;139:4561-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to show the in vivo requirements of SF1 in steroidogenesis and provides novel data on the cellular consequences of the loss of this protein specifically within steroid-producing cells. ..
  21. Ophoff J, Callewaert F, Venken K, De Gendt K, Ohlsson C, Gayan Ramirez G, et al. Physical activity in the androgen receptor knockout mouse: evidence for reversal of androgen deficiency on cancellous bone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:139-44 pubmed publisher
    Disruption of the androgen receptor (AR) in male mice reduces cortical bone expansion and muscle mass during puberty and results in high bone turnover-related cancellous osteopenia...
  22. Willems A, Batlouni S, Esnal A, Swinnen J, Saunders P, Sharpe R, et al. Selective ablation of the androgen receptor in mouse sertoli cells affects sertoli cell maturation, barrier formation and cytoskeletal development. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14168 pubmed publisher
    The observation that mice with a selective ablation of the androgen receptor (AR) in Sertoli cells (SC) (SCARKO mice) display a complete block in meiosis supports the contention that SC play a pivotal role in the control of germ cell ..
  23. De Gendt K, Swinnen J, Saunders P, Schoonjans L, Dewerchin M, Devos A, et al. A Sertoli cell-selective knockout of the androgen receptor causes spermatogenic arrest in meiosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1327-32 pubmed
    Androgens control spermatogenesis, but germ cells themselves do not express a functional androgen receptor (AR)...
  24. Lin H, Xu Q, Yeh S, Wang R, Sparks J, Chang C. Insulin and leptin resistance with hyperleptinemia in mice lacking androgen receptor. Diabetes. 2005;54:1717-25 pubmed
    ..Thus, lacking androgen receptor (AR) in male individuals may promote insulin resistance...
  25. MacLean H, Moore A, Sastra S, Morris H, Ghasem Zadeh A, Rana K, et al. DNA-binding-dependent androgen receptor signaling contributes to gender differences and has physiological actions in males and females. J Endocrinol. 2010;206:93-103 pubmed publisher
    We used our genomic androgen receptor (AR) knockout (ARKO) mouse model, in which the AR is unable to bind DNA to: 1) document gender differences between males and females; 2) identify the genomic (DNA-binding-dependent) AR-mediated ..
  26. O Hara L, Welsh M, Saunders P, Smith L. Androgen receptor expression in the caput epididymal epithelium is essential for development of the initial segment and epididymal spermatozoa transit. Endocrinology. 2011;152:718-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Formation and function of the epididymis is androgen-dependent. The androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in both the stromal and epithelial compartments of the epididymis, and androgen action ..
  27. Sato T, Matsumoto T, Kawano H, Watanabe T, Uematsu Y, Sekine K, et al. Brain masculinization requires androgen receptor function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1673-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the role of androgen receptor (AR) in perinatal brain masculinization underlying the expression of male-typical behaviors remains unclear ..
  28. Xu Q, Lin H, Yeh S, Yu I, Wang R, Chen Y, et al. Infertility with defective spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in male mice lacking androgen receptor in Leydig cells. Endocrine. 2007;32:96-106 pubmed
    Androgen and the androgen receptor (AR) have been shown to play critical roles in male fertility...
  29. Young J, Garden G, Martinez R, Tanaka F, Sandoval C, Smith A, et al. Polyglutamine-expanded androgen receptor truncation fragments activate a Bax-dependent apoptotic cascade mediated by DP5/Hrk. J Neurosci. 2009;29:1987-97 pubmed publisher
    ..SBMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR)...
  30. Meng J, Holdcraft R, Shima J, Griswold M, Braun R. Androgens regulate the permeability of the blood-testis barrier. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:16696-700 pubmed
    ..Sertoli cell-specific ablation of androgen receptor results in increased permeability of the blood-testis barrier to biotin, suggesting claudin 3 regulates the ..
  31. Chambon C, Duteil D, Vignaud A, Ferry A, Messaddeq N, Malivindi R, et al. Myocytic androgen receptor controls the strength but not the mass of limb muscles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14327-32 pubmed publisher
    The anabolic effects of androgens on skeletal muscles are thought to be mediated predominantly through the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the ligand-dependent nuclear receptor superfamily...
  32. Yu S, Yeh C, Niu Y, Chang H, Tsai Y, Moses H, et al. Altered prostate epithelial development in mice lacking the androgen receptor in stromal fibroblasts. Prostate. 2012;72:437-49 pubmed publisher
    Androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) play important roles in the development of male urogenital organs...
  33. Monks D, Johansen J, Mo K, Rao P, Eagleson B, Yu Z, et al. Overexpression of wild-type androgen receptor in muscle recapitulates polyglutamine disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:18259-64 pubmed
    We created transgenic mice that overexpress WT androgen receptor (AR) exclusively in their skeletal muscle fibers...
  34. Mulholland D, Tran L, Li Y, Cai H, Morim A, Wang S, et al. Cell autonomous role of PTEN in regulating castration-resistant prostate cancer growth. Cancer Cell. 2011;19:792-804 pubmed publisher
    ..PTEN loss suppresses androgen-responsive gene expressions by modulating androgen receptor (AR) transcription factor activity...
  35. Yu S, Zhang C, Lin C, Niu Y, Lai K, Chang H, et al. Altered prostate epithelial development and IGF-1 signal in mice lacking the androgen receptor in stromal smooth muscle cells. Prostate. 2011;71:517-24 pubmed publisher
    Androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) play critical roles in the prostate development via mesenchymal-epithelial interactions...
  36. Welsh M, Moffat L, McNeilly A, BROWNSTEIN D, Saunders P, Sharpe R, et al. Smooth muscle cell-specific knockout of androgen receptor: a new model for prostatic disease. Endocrinology. 2011;152:3541-51 pubmed publisher
    ..smooth muscle (SM) androgen signaling in normal adult prostate homeostasis and function using mice in which androgen receptor was selectively ablated from prostatic SM cells...
  37. Yu Z, Wang A, Robins D, Lieberman A. Altered RNA splicing contributes to skeletal muscle pathology in Kennedy disease knock-in mice. Dis Model Mech. 2009;2:500-7 pubmed publisher
    ..we used a mouse model of Kennedy disease, a degenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, to explore pathways leading to cellular dysfunction...
  38. Singh R, Bhasin S, Braga M, Artaza J, Pervin S, Taylor W, et al. Regulation of myogenic differentiation by androgens: cross talk between androgen receptor/ beta-catenin and follistatin/transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathways. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..multipotent C3H 10T1/2 cells with testosterone and dihydrotestosterone promoted nuclear translocation of androgen receptor (AR)/beta-catenin complex and physical interaction of AR, beta-catenin, and T-cell factor-4 (TCF-4)...
  39. Welsh M, Saunders P, Atanassova N, Sharpe R, Smith L. Androgen action via testicular peritubular myoid cells is essential for male fertility. FASEB J. 2009;23:4218-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this controversy, we generated PTM-specific AR-knockout (PTM-ARKO) mice in which gross reproductive development was normal, but all PTM-ARKO males were azoospermic ..
  40. Laguë E, Tremblay J. Antagonistic effects of testosterone and the endocrine disruptor mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on INSL3 transcription in Leydig cells. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4688-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the testosterone-stimulating effects on Insl3 mRNA levels and promoter activity require the androgen receptor. We have mapped the testosterone-responsive element to the proximal Insl3 promoter region...
  41. Tsai M, Yeh S, Wang R, Yeh S, Zhang C, Lin H, et al. Differential effects of spermatogenesis and fertility in mice lacking androgen receptor in individual testis cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:18975-80 pubmed
    Using a Cre-Lox conditional knockout strategy, we generated a germ cell-specific androgen receptor (AR) knockout mouse (G-AR(-/y)) with normal spermatogenesis...
  42. Lai K, Yamashita S, Huang C, Yeh S, Chang C. Loss of stromal androgen receptor leads to suppressed prostate tumourigenesis via modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. EMBO Mol Med. 2012;4:791-807 pubmed publisher
    ..The indispensable roles of mesenchymal/stromal androgen receptor (AR) for the prostate organogenesis have been demonstrated by using tissue recombination from wild-type and ..
  43. Niu Y, Altuwaijri S, Lai K, Wu C, Ricke W, Messing E, et al. Androgen receptor is a tumor suppressor and proliferator in prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12182-7 pubmed publisher
    Targeting androgens/androgen receptor (AR) functions via androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the standard treatment for prostate cancer. However, most tumors eventually recur despite ADT...
  44. Juntti S, Tollkuhn J, Wu M, Fraser E, Soderborg T, Tan S, et al. The androgen receptor governs the execution, but not programming, of male sexual and territorial behaviors. Neuron. 2010;66:260-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Circulating testosterone activates the androgen receptor (AR) and also serves as the source of estrogen in the brain...
  45. MacLean H, Chiu W, Notini A, Axell A, Davey R, McManus J, et al. Impaired skeletal muscle development and function in male, but not female, genomic androgen receptor knockout mice. FASEB J. 2008;22:2676-89 pubmed publisher
    To identify mechanisms of anabolic androgen action in muscle, we generated male and female genomic androgen receptor (AR) knockout (ARKO) mice, and characterized muscle mass, contractile function, and gene expression...
  46. MacLean H, Chiu W, Ma C, McManus J, Davey R, Cameron R, et al. A floxed allele of the androgen receptor gene causes hyperandrogenization in male mice. Physiol Genomics. 2008;33:133-7 pubmed publisher
    We previously generated a conditional floxed mouse line to study androgen action, in which exon 3 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene is flanked by loxP sites, with the neomycin resistance gene present in intron 3...
  47. Ye X, Han S, Tsai S, DeMayo F, Xu J, Tsai M, et al. Roles of steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 and transcriptional intermediary factor (TIF) 2 in androgen receptor activity in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:9487-92 pubmed
    ..To quantify their roles in the function of androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity in vivo, we generated a unique transgenic AR-reporter mouse and analyzed the ..
  48. Carver B, Chapinski C, Wongvipat J, Hieronymus H, Chen Y, Chandarlapaty S, et al. Reciprocal feedback regulation of PI3K and androgen receptor signaling in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer. Cancer Cell. 2011;19:575-86 pubmed publisher
    Prostate cancer is characterized by its dependence on androgen receptor (AR) and frequent activation of PI3K signaling...
  49. Sopher B, Thomas P, LaFevre Bernt M, Holm I, Wilke S, Ware C, et al. Androgen receptor YAC transgenic mice recapitulate SBMA motor neuronopathy and implicate VEGF164 in the motor neuron degeneration. Neuron. 2004;41:687-99 pubmed
    ..SBMA is caused by polyglutamine repeat expansions in the androgen receptor (AR)...
  50. Shiina H, Matsumoto T, Sato T, Igarashi K, Miyamoto J, Takemasa S, et al. Premature ovarian failure in androgen receptor-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:224-9 pubmed
    ..Using the Cre/LoxP system, we have disrupted the mouse X chromosome androgen receptor (Ar) gene...
  51. Denolet E, De Gendt K, Allemeersch J, Engelen K, Marchal K, Van Hummelen P, et al. The effect of a sertoli cell-selective knockout of the androgen receptor on testicular gene expression in prepubertal mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:321-34 pubmed
    ..of androgens on spermatogenesis, testicular gene expression was compared in mice with Sertoli cell-selective androgen receptor knockout (SCARKO) and littermate controls on postnatal d 10...
  52. Kurita T, Medina R, Mills A, Cunha G. Role of p63 and basal cells in the prostate. Development. 2004;131:4955-64 pubmed
    ..However, regressed p63(-/-) prostate did regenerate in response to androgen administration, indicating that basal cells were not essential for prostatic regeneration. ..
  53. Welsh M, Sharpe R, Walker M, Smith L, Saunders P. New insights into the role of androgens in wolffian duct stabilization in male and female rodents. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2472-80 pubmed publisher
    ..5-postnatal d0 in male and female androgen receptor knockout mice, and in rats treated from e14...
  54. Hu Y, Wang P, Yeh S, Wang R, Xie C, Xu Q, et al. Subfertility and defective folliculogenesis in female mice lacking androgen receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11209-14 pubmed
    The roles of the androgen receptor (AR) in female fertility and ovarian function remain largely unknown. Here we report on the generation of female mice lacking AR (AR(-/-)) and the resulting influences on the reproductive system...
  55. Schauwaers K, De Gendt K, Saunders P, Atanassova N, Haelens A, Callewaert L, et al. Loss of androgen receptor binding to selective androgen response elements causes a reproductive phenotype in a knockin mouse model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:4961-6 pubmed
    Androgens influence transcription of their target genes through the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) that subsequently interacts with specific DNA motifs in these genes...
  56. Chua J, Reddy S, Merry D, Adachi H, Katsuno M, Sobue G, et al. Transcriptional activation of TFEB/ZKSCAN3 target genes underlies enhanced autophagy in spinobulbar muscular atrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:1376-86 pubmed publisher
    ..disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat encoding a polyglutamine tract in exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene...
  57. Venken K, De Gendt K, Boonen S, Ophoff J, Bouillon R, Swinnen J, et al. Relative impact of androgen and estrogen receptor activation in the effects of androgens on trabecular and cortical bone in growing male mice: a study in the androgen receptor knockout mouse model. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:576-85 pubmed
    ..Moreover, optimal periosteal bone expansion is only observed in the presence of both AR and ER activation. Androgen receptor (AR)-mediated androgen action has traditionally been considered a key determinant of male skeletal growth...
  58. Johnston D, Russell L, Friel P, Griswold M. Murine germ cells do not require functional androgen receptors to complete spermatogenesis following spermatogonial stem cell transplantation. Endocrinology. 2001;142:2405-8 pubmed
  59. Waza M, Adachi H, Katsuno M, Minamiyama M, Sang C, Tanaka F, et al. 17-AAG, an Hsp90 inhibitor, ameliorates polyglutamine-mediated motor neuron degeneration. Nat Med. 2005;11:1088-95 pubmed
    ..b>Androgen receptor (AR), a pathogenic gene product in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), is one of the Hsp90 client ..
  60. Yu I, Lin H, Liu N, Sparks J, Yeh S, Fang L, et al. Neuronal androgen receptor regulates insulin sensitivity via suppression of hypothalamic NF-?B-mediated PTP1B expression. Diabetes. 2013;62:411-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies using global androgen receptor (AR) knockout mice demonstrate that AR deficiency results in the development of insulin resistance in males...
  61. Notini A, Davey R, McManus J, Bate K, Zajac J. Genomic actions of the androgen receptor are required for normal male sexual differentiation in a mouse model. J Mol Endocrinol. 2005;35:547-55 pubmed
    Androgens mediate their effects in target cells via the androgen receptor (AR), which acts predominantly as a ligand-dependent transcription factor...
  62. O Hara L, Smith L. Androgen receptor signalling in Vascular Endothelial cells is dispensable for spermatogenesis and male fertility. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5:16 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the adult testis, Germ cells (GC) do not express androgen receptor (AR) suggesting androgen-mediated promotion of spermatogenesis must act via AR-expressing somatic cell-types...
  63. O Hara L, York J, Zhang P, Smith L. Targeting of GFP-Cre to the mouse Cyp11a1 locus both drives cre recombinase expression in steroidogenic cells and permits generation of Cyp11a1 knock out mice. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e84541 pubmed publisher
    ..normal, and Cre Recombinase functions to recombine floxed alleles of both a YFP reporter gene and the Androgen Receptor (AR) in steroidogenic cells of the testis, ovary, adrenal and hindbrain...
  64. Zhang C, Yeh S, Chen Y, Wu C, Chuang K, Lin H, et al. Oligozoospermia with normal fertility in male mice lacking the androgen receptor in testis peritubular myoid cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:17718-23 pubmed
    Androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) play important roles in the testes...
  65. Yu Z, Dadgar N, Albertelli M, Scheller A, Albin R, Robins D, et al. Abnormalities of germ cell maturation and sertoli cell cytoskeleton in androgen receptor 113 CAG knock-in mice reveal toxic effects of the mutant protein. Am J Pathol. 2006;168:195-204 pubmed
    ..cell cytoskeleton, changes that are distinct from those produced by AR loss-of-function mutation in testicular feminization mutant mice...
  66. Eacker S, Shima J, Connolly C, Sharma M, Holdcraft R, Griswold M, et al. Transcriptional profiling of androgen receptor (AR) mutants suggests instructive and permissive roles of AR signaling in germ cell development. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:895-907 pubmed
    The androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in male sexual development, spermatogenesis, and maintenance of hormonal homeostasis...
  67. Simons B, Hurley P, Huang Z, Ross A, Miller R, Marchionni L, et al. Wnt signaling though beta-catenin is required for prostate lineage specification. Dev Biol. 2012;371:246-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of beta-catenin in the adult prostate did not significantly affect organ homeostasis. Collectively, these data establish that beta-catenin and Wnt signaling play key roles in prostate lineage specification and bud outgrowth. ..
  68. Chuang K, Altuwaijri S, Li G, Lai J, Chu C, Lai K, et al. Neutropenia with impaired host defense against microbial infection in mice lacking androgen receptor. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1181-99 pubmed publisher
    ..supplement can restore neutrophil counts via stabilizing AR in castrated mice, but not in ARKO and testicular feminization mutant (Tfm) mice...
  69. Shah N, Pisapia D, Maniatis S, Mendelsohn M, Nemes A, Axel R. Visualizing sexual dimorphism in the brain. Neuron. 2004;43:313-9 pubmed
    Sexually dimorphic behaviors are likely to involve neural pathways that express the androgen receptor (AR). We have genetically modified the AR locus to visualize dimorphisms in neuronal populations that express AR...
  70. Yeh S, Hu Y, Wang P, Xie C, Xu Q, Tsai M, et al. Abnormal mammary gland development and growth retardation in female mice and MCF7 breast cancer cells lacking androgen receptor. J Exp Med. 2003;198:1899-908 pubmed
    Phenotype analysis of female mice lacking androgen receptor (AR) deficient (AR-/-) indicates that the development of mammary glands is retarded with reduced ductal branching in the prepubertal stages, and fewer Cap cells in the terminal ..
  71. Miyamoto J, Matsumoto T, Shiina H, Inoue K, Takada I, Ito S, et al. The pituitary function of androgen receptor constitutes a glucocorticoid production circuit. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4807-14 pubmed
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) mediates diverse androgen actions, particularly reproductive processes in males and females...
  72. Sato T, Matsumoto T, Yamada T, Watanabe T, Kawano H, Kato S. Late onset of obesity in male androgen receptor-deficient (AR KO) mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;300:167-71 pubmed
    ..The male (AR(L-/Y)) (KO) mice exhibited typical features of testicular feminization mutant (Tfm) disease in external reproductive organs with growth retardation...
  73. Markova M, Zeskand J, McEntee B, Rothstein J, Jimenez S, Siracusa L. A role for the androgen receptor in collagen content of the skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;123:1052-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, male mice with an X-linked mutation in the androgen receptor gene (formerly called testicular feminization and abbreviated as Ar(Tfm)) showed decreased levels of collagen, indicating that the androgen receptor ..
  74. Raskin K, De Gendt K, Duittoz A, Liere P, Verhoeven G, Tronche F, et al. Conditional inactivation of androgen receptor gene in the nervous system: effects on male behavioral and neuroendocrine responses. J Neurosci. 2009;29:4461-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In the brain, T signals either directly through androgen receptor (AR) or indirectly through estrogen receptor (ER) following aromatization into E2 (17-beta-estradiol)...
  75. Matsumoto T, Shiina H, Kawano H, Sato T, Kato S. Androgen receptor functions in male and female physiology. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;109:236-41 pubmed publisher
    ..actions of androgens are mediated by transcriptional control of target genes through binding to the androgen receptor (AR)...
  76. Simanainen U, McNamara K, Gao Y, McPherson S, Desai R, Jimenez M, et al. Anterior prostate epithelial AR inactivation modifies estrogen receptor expression and increases estrogen sensitivity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;301:E727-35 pubmed publisher
    ..androgen withdrawal in the prostate stromal and epithelial compartments with a prostate epithelial androgen receptor (AR) knockout (PEARKO) mouse model of selective epithelial AR inactivation...
  77. Montie H, Cho M, Holder L, Liu Y, Tsvetkov A, Finkbeiner S, et al. Cytoplasmic retention of polyglutamine-expanded androgen receptor ameliorates disease via autophagy in a mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1937-50 pubmed publisher
    ..by the critical role for disease of androgens, which promote the nuclear translocation of the mutant androgen receptor (AR)...
  78. Tan K, De Gendt K, Atanassova N, Walker M, Sharpe R, Saunders P, et al. The role of androgens in sertoli cell proliferation and functional maturation: studies in mice with total or Sertoli cell-selective ablation of the androgen receptor. Endocrinology. 2005;146:2674-83 pubmed
    ..We evaluated these functions in complete androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) and SC-selective androgen receptor knockout (SCARKO) mice...
  79. Chang C, Chen Y, Yeh S, Xu Q, Wang R, Guillou F, et al. Infertility with defective spermatogenesis and hypotestosteronemia in male mice lacking the androgen receptor in Sertoli cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:6876-81 pubmed
    Androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) play important roles in male fertility, although the detailed mechanisms, particularly how androgen/AR influences spermatogenesis in particular cell types, remain unclear...
  80. Wang R, Yeh S, Chen L, Lin H, Zhang C, Ni J, et al. Androgen receptor in sertoli cell is essential for germ cell nursery and junctional complex formation in mouse testes. Endocrinology. 2006;147:5624-33 pubmed
    To examine the role of androgen receptor (AR) in Sertoli cells (SC), we used a SC-specific AR knockout (S-AR-/y) mouse to further evaluate the chronological changes of seminiferous tubules and the molecular mechanisms of SC androgen/AR ..
  81. Jeong B, Hong C, Chattopadhyay S, Park J, Gong E, Kim H, et al. Androgen receptor corepressor-19 kDa (ARR19), a leucine-rich protein that represses the transcriptional activity of androgen receptor through recruitment of histone deacetylase. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:13-25 pubmed
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) that mediates androgen action is a crucial factor in male reproductive functions...
  82. Thomas P, Fraley G, Damian V, Damien V, Woodke L, Zapata F, et al. Loss of endogenous androgen receptor protein accelerates motor neuron degeneration and accentuates androgen insensitivity in a mouse model of X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2225-38 pubmed
    ..transgenic mouse model with 100 glutamines (AR100) and a corresponding control (AR20) onto an AR null (testicular feminization; Tfm) background...
  83. Lai J, Lai K, Chuang K, Chang P, Yu I, Lin W, et al. Monocyte/macrophage androgen receptor suppresses cutaneous wound healing in mice by enhancing local TNF-alpha expression. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:3739-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling has been shown to inhibit cutaneous wound healing...
  84. Abel M, Baker P, Charlton H, Monteiro A, Verhoeven G, De Gendt K, et al. Spermatogenesis and sertoli cell activity in mice lacking sertoli cell receptors for follicle-stimulating hormone and androgen. Endocrinology. 2008;149:3279-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the Sertoli cell retains a significant capacity for activity, which is independent of direct hormonal regulation. ..