Apobec3

Summary

Gene Symbol: Apobec3
Description: apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 3
Alias: Apobec, Arp3, BC003314, Cem15, Gm20117, Rfv3, DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3, apolipoprotein B editing complex 3, apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing complex 3, recovery from Friend virus 3
Species: mouse
Products:     Apobec3

Top Publications

  1. Okeoma C, Lovsin N, Peterlin B, Ross S. APOBEC3 inhibits mouse mammary tumour virus replication in vivo. Nature. 2007;445:927-30 pubmed
    Genomes of all mammals encode apobec3 genes, which are thought to have a function in intrinsic cellular immunity to several viruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  2. Hasenkrug K, Chesebro B. Immunity to retroviral infection: the Friend virus model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:7811-6 pubmed
    ..In vivo depletion experiments demonstrate different requirements for CD8(+) T cells depending on the vaccine used. The implications of these studies for human retroviral diseases are discussed...
  3. Super H, Hasenkrug K, Simmons S, Brooks D, Konzek R, Sarge K, et al. Fine mapping of the friend retrovirus resistance gene, Rfv3, on mouse chromosome 15. J Virol. 1999;73:7848-52 pubmed
    b>Rfv3 is a host resistance gene that operates through an unknown mechanism to control the development of the virus-neutralizing antibody response required for recovery from infection with Friend retrovirus...
  4. Esnault C, Heidmann O, Delebecque F, Dewannieux M, Ribet D, Hance A, et al. APOBEC3G cytidine deaminase inhibits retrotransposition of endogenous retroviruses. Nature. 2005;433:430-3 pubmed
    ..APOBEC3G, by editing viral genetic material, provides an ancestral wide cellular defence against endogenous and exogenous invaders. ..
  5. Takeda E, Tsuji Kawahara S, Sakamoto M, Langlois M, Neuberger M, Rada C, et al. Mouse APOBEC3 restricts friend leukemia virus infection and pathogenesis in vivo. J Virol. 2008;82:10998-1008 pubmed publisher
    Several members of the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like complex 3 (APOBEC3) family in primates act as potent inhibitors of retroviral replication...
  6. Mikl M, Watt I, Lu M, Reik W, Davies S, Neuberger M, et al. Mice deficient in APOBEC2 and APOBEC3. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:7270-7 pubmed
    ..In contrast, APOBEC1, an RNA-editing enzyme in gastrointestinal cells, and APOBEC3 are restricted to mammals...
  7. Santiago M, Benitez R, Montano M, Hasenkrug K, Greene W. Innate retroviral restriction by Apobec3 promotes antibody affinity maturation in vivo. J Immunol. 2010;185:1114-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Apobec3/Rfv3 is an innate immune factor that promotes the neutralizing Ab response against Friend retrovirus (FV) in infected mice...
  8. Okeoma C, Huegel A, LINGAPPA J, Feldman M, Ross S. APOBEC3 proteins expressed in mammary epithelial cells are packaged into retroviruses and can restrict transmission of milk-borne virions. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;8:534-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, little is known about the role of mammary epithelial cells (MECs). The APOBEC3 family of retroviral restriction factors is highly expressed in macrophages and lymphoid and dendritic cells...
  9. Bhattacharya C, Aggarwal S, Kumar M, Ali A, Matin A. Mouse apolipoprotein B editing complex 3 (APOBEC3) is expressed in germ cells and interacts with dead-end (DND1). PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2315 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that DND1 interacts specifically with APOBEC3. APOBEC3 is a multi-functional protein. It inhibits retroviral replication...

More Information

Publications68

  1. Chen H, Lilley C, Yu Q, Lee D, Chou J, Narvaiza I, et al. APOBEC3A is a potent inhibitor of adeno-associated virus and retrotransposons. Curr Biol. 2006;16:480-5 pubmed
    b>APOBEC3 proteins constitute a family of cytidine deaminases that provide intracellular resistance to retrovirus replication and transposition of endogenous retroelements...
  2. Doig D, Chesebro B. Anti-Friend virus antibody is associated with recovery from viremia and loss of viral leukemia cell-surface antigens in leukemic mice. Identification of Rfv-3 as a gene locus influencing antibody production. J Exp Med. 1979;150:10-9 pubmed
    ..Rfv-3 did not influence an intrinsic ability of FV antigens to be modulated from Rfv-3s/s leukemia cells because FV antigen loss from Rfv-3s/s spleen cells occurred after transfer of cells to an immune environment...
  3. Kolokithas A, Rosenke K, Malik F, Hendrick D, Swanson L, Santiago M, et al. The glycosylated Gag protein of a murine leukemia virus inhibits the antiretroviral function of APOBEC3. J Virol. 2010;84:10933-6 pubmed publisher
    ..however, mouse retroviruses do not encode a Vif homologue, and it has not been understood how they evade mouse APOBEC3. We report here a murine leukemia virus (MuLV) that utilizes its glycosylated Gag protein (gGag) to evade APOBEC3...
  4. Tsuji Kawahara S, Chikaishi T, Takeda E, Kato M, Kinoshita S, Kajiwara E, et al. Persistence of viremia and production of neutralizing antibodies differentially regulated by polymorphic APOBEC3 and BAFF-R loci in friend virus-infected mice. J Virol. 2010;84:6082-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This locus has been mapped within a narrow segment of mouse chromosome 15 harboring the APOBEC3 and BAFF-R loci, both of which show functional polymorphisms among different strains of mice...
  5. Low A, Okeoma C, Lovsin N, de las Heras M, Taylor T, Peterlin B, et al. Enhanced replication and pathogenesis of Moloney murine leukemia virus in mice defective in the murine APOBEC3 gene. Virology. 2009;385:455-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike humans, who carry seven APOBEC3 genes, mice only carry one, mA3...
  6. Hakata Y, Landau N. Reversed functional organization of mouse and human APOBEC3 cytidine deaminase domains. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:36624-31 pubmed
    b>APOBEC3 proteins comprise a multigene family of antiviral cytidine deaminases that are active against human immunodeficiency virus, simian immunodeficiency virus, endogenous retroelements...
  7. Chesebro B, Wehrly K. Identification of a non-H-2 gene (Rfv-3) influencing recovery from viremia and leukemia induced by Friend virus complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:425-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, backcross studies indicated that Rfv-3 and Fv-2 were not linked. The Rfv-3 gene may act by influencing the specific anti-FV humoral antibody response...
  8. Cen S, Peng Z, Li X, Li Z, Ma J, Wang Y, et al. Small molecular compounds inhibit HIV-1 replication through specifically stabilizing APOBEC3G. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:16546-52 pubmed publisher
    ..LD(50) of IMB-26 in mice was >1000 mg/kg (intraperitoneally). Therefore, IMB-26 and IMB-35 are novel anti-HIV leads working through specific stabilization of hA3G. ..
  9. Okeoma C, Low A, Bailis W, FAN H, Peterlin B, Ross S. Induction of APOBEC3 in vivo causes increased restriction of retrovirus infection. J Virol. 2009;83:3486-95 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3 proteins are important cellular factors that restrict infection by a number of viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  10. Waterston R, Lindblad Toh K, Birney E, Rogers J, Abril J, Agarwal P, et al. Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome. Nature. 2002;420:520-62 pubmed
  11. Santiago M, Montano M, Benitez R, Messer R, Yonemoto W, Chesebro B, et al. Apobec3 encodes Rfv3, a gene influencing neutralizing antibody control of retrovirus infection. Science. 2008;321:1343-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Recovery from Friend virus 3 (Rfv3) is a single autosomal gene encoding a resistance trait that influences retroviral neutralizing antibody responses and viremia...
  12. Smith D, Guo K, Barrett B, Heilman K, Evans L, Hasenkrug K, et al. Noninfectious retrovirus particles drive the APOBEC3/Rfv3 dependent neutralizing antibody response. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002284 pubmed publisher
    Members of the APOBEC3 family of deoxycytidine deaminases counteract a broad range of retroviruses in vitro through an indirect mechanism that requires virion incorporation and inhibition of reverse transcription and/or hypermutation of ..
  13. Jern P, Stoye J, Coffin J. Role of APOBEC3 in genetic diversity among endogenous murine leukemia viruses. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:2014-22 pubmed
    The ability of human and murine APOBECs (specifically, APOBEC3) to inhibit infecting retroviruses and retrotransposition of some mobile elements is becoming established...
  14. Esnault C, Priet S, Ribet D, Heidmann O, Heidmann T. Restriction by APOBEC3 proteins of endogenous retroviruses with an extracellular life cycle: ex vivo effects and in vivo "traces" on the murine IAPE and human HERV-K elements. Retrovirology. 2008;5:75 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3 cytosine deaminases have been demonstrated to restrict infectivity of a series of retroviruses, with different efficiencies depending on the retrovirus...
  15. Sawyer S, Emerman M, Malik H. Ancient adaptive evolution of the primate antiviral DNA-editing enzyme APOBEC3G. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E275 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, five additional APOBEC genes in the human genome appear to be engaged in similar genetic conflicts, displaying some of the highest ..
  16. Paprotka T, Venkatachari N, Chaipan C, Burdick R, Delviks Frankenberry K, HU W, et al. Inhibition of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus by APOBEC3 proteins and antiviral drugs. J Virol. 2010;84:5719-29 pubmed publisher
    ..in human CD4(+) T cells and B cells, we sought to determine how XMRV evades suppression of replication by APOBEC3 proteins...
  17. Li J, Hakata Y, Takeda E, Liu Q, Iwatani Y, Kozak C, et al. Two genetic determinants acquired late in Mus evolution regulate the inclusion of exon 5, which alters mouse APOBEC3 translation efficiency. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002478 pubmed publisher
    ..The widespread geographic distribution of this exon 5-including genetic variant suggests that in some Mus populations the cost of maintaining an effective but mutagenic enzyme may outweigh its antiviral function...
  18. Petit V, Guetard D, Renard M, Keriel A, Sitbon M, Wain Hobson S, et al. Murine APOBEC1 is a powerful mutator of retroviral and cellular RNA in vitro and in vivo. J Mol Biol. 2009;385:65-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Two of the seven member human APOBEC3 enzymes strongly restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vitro and in vivo...
  19. Wissing S, Galloway N, Greene W. HIV-1 Vif versus the APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases: an intracellular duel between pathogen and host restriction factors. Mol Aspects Med. 2010;31:383-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the dynamic interplay of Vif with the antiviral APOBEC3 enzymes.
  20. Browne E, Littman D. Species-specific restriction of apobec3-mediated hypermutation. J Virol. 2008;82:1305-13 pubmed
    ..We have compared the antiviral activities of human and murine Apobec3 (A3) proteins, and we have found that, consistent with previous reports, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is ..
  21. Delebecque F, Susp ne R, Calattini S, Casartelli N, Sa b A, Froment A, et al. Restriction of foamy viruses by APOBEC cytidine deaminases. J Virol. 2006;80:605-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We have examined whether members of the apolipoprotein B-editing catalytic polypeptide-like subunit (APOBEC) family of antiviral cytidine deaminases restrict replication of simian FV...
  22. Wedekind J, Dance G, Sowden M, Smith H. Messenger RNA editing in mammals: new members of the APOBEC family seeking roles in the family business. Trends Genet. 2003;19:207-16 pubmed
    ..In light of the hypothesis that these proteins might represent novel mRNA editing systems that could affect proteome diversity, we consider their structure, expression and relevance to biomedically significant processes or pathologies. ..
  23. Sanville B, Dolan M, Wollenberg K, Yan Y, Martin C, Yeung M, et al. Adaptive evolution of Mus Apobec3 includes retroviral insertion and positive selection at two clusters of residues flanking the substrate groove. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000974 pubmed publisher
    Mouse APOBEC3 (mA3) is a cytidine deaminase with antiviral activity...
  24. Santiago M, Smith D, Barrett B, Montano M, Benitez R, Pelanda R, et al. Persistent Friend virus replication and disease in Apobec3-deficient mice expressing functional B-cell-activating factor receptor. J Virol. 2011;85:189-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that Rfv3 is encoded by Apobec3, an innate retrovirus restriction factor...
  25. Macmillan A, Kohli R, Ross S. APOBEC3 inhibition of mouse mammary tumor virus infection: the role of cytidine deamination versus inhibition of reverse transcription. J Virol. 2013;87:4808-17 pubmed publisher
    The apolipoprotein B editing complex 3 (APOBEC3) family of proteins is a group of intrinsic antiviral factors active against a number of retroviral pathogens, including HIV in humans and mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) in mice...
  26. Harper M, Barrett B, Smith D, Li S, Gibbert K, Dittmer U, et al. IFN-? treatment inhibits acute Friend retrovirus replication primarily through the antiviral effector molecule Apobec3. J Immunol. 2013;190:1583-90 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a dominant antiretroviral factor, Apobec3, was only minimally induced...
  27. Stavrou S, Nitta T, Kotla S, Ha D, Nagashima K, Rein A, et al. Murine leukemia virus glycosylated Gag blocks apolipoprotein B editing complex 3 and cytosolic sensor access to the reverse transcription complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:9078-83 pubmed publisher
    ..have evolved multiple means for evading host restriction factors such as apolipoprotein B editing complex (APOBEC3) proteins...
  28. Ding Q, Chang C, Xie X, Xia W, Yang J, Wang S, et al. APOBEC3G promotes liver metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of colorectal cancer and predicts human hepatic metastasis. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4526-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data elucidate key factors and mechanisms involved in colorectal cancer liver metastasis, which could be potential targets for diagnosis and treatment. ..
  29. Barrett B, Harper M, Jones S, Guo K, Heilman K, Kedl R, et al. Type I interferon signaling is required for the APOBEC3/Rfv3-dependent neutralizing antibody response but not innate retrovirus restriction. Retrovirology. 2017;14:25 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3/Rfv3 restricts acute Friend retrovirus (FV) infection and promotes virus-specific neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses...
  30. Li S, Barrett B, Harper M, Heilman K, Halemano K, Steele A, et al. Ribonuclease L is not critical for innate restriction and adaptive immunity against Friend retrovirus infection. Virology. 2013;443:134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..role of RNaseL in counteracting Friend retrovirus (FV) infection relative to a well-described restriction factor, Apobec3. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and RNaseL knock-out (KO) mice exhibited similar acute FV infection levels despite ..
  31. Warren C, Xu T, Guo K, Griffin L, Westrich J, Lee D, et al. APOBEC3A functions as a restriction factor of human papillomavirus. J Virol. 2015;89:688-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Several antiviral cytidine deaminases of the human APOBEC3 (hA3) family have been identified as potent viral DNA mutators...
  32. Nair S, Sanchez Martinez S, Ji X, Rein A. Biochemical and biological studies of mouse APOBEC3. J Virol. 2014;88:3850-60 pubmed publisher
    Many murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) are partially resistant to restriction by mouse APOBEC3 (mA3) and essentially fully resistant to induction of G-to-A mutations by mA3...
  33. Han Y, Qi Q, He Q, Sun M, Wang S, Zhou G, et al. APOBEC3 deletion increases the risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Oncotarget. 2016;7:74979-74986 pubmed publisher
    Recently, a deletion in the human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) gene cluster has been associated with a modest increased risk of breast cancer, but studies yielded inconsistent results...
  34. Chesebro B, Wehrly K, Doig D, Nishio J. Antibody-induced modulation of Friend virus cell surface antigens decreases virus production by persistent erythroleukemia cells: influence of the Rfv-3 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:5784-8 pubmed
    ..This decrease in virus release appeared to be due to interference with the virus budding process due to antibody-mediated modulation of virus-induced cell surface antigens. ..
  35. Keil K, Altmann H, Mehta V, Abler L, Elton E, Vezina C. Catalog of mRNA expression patterns for DNA methylating and demethylating genes in developing mouse lower urinary tract. Gene Expr Patterns. 2013;13:413-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Future investigation into how DNA methylation patterns are established, maintained and remodeled during the course of embryonic prostatic bud formation may provide insight into prostate morphogenesis and disease. ..
  36. Halemano K, Barrett B, Heilman K, Morrison T, Santiago M. Requirement for Fc effector mechanisms in the APOBEC3/Rfv3-dependent neutralizing antibody response. J Virol. 2015;89:4011-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In murine Friend retrovirus infection, Apobec3/Rfv3 promotes a potent polyclonal NAb response...
  37. Super H, Brooks D, Hasenkrug K, Chesebro B. Requirement for CD4(+) T cells in the Friend murine retrovirus neutralizing antibody response: evidence for functional T cells in genetic low-recovery mice. J Virol. 1998;72:9400-3 pubmed
    ..These studies revealed the first evidence for a functional T-cell response following FV infection in these low-recovery mice and showed that CD4(+) T-helper cells are required for the Rfv-3-controlled FV antibody response...
  38. Kremer M, Suezer Y, Martinez Fernandez Y, Munk C, Sutter G, Schnierle B. Vaccinia virus replication is not affected by APOBEC3 family members. Virol J. 2006;3:86 pubmed
    ..a prototype poxvirus, was not, however, inhibited in APOBEC3G-expressing cells, nor did other members of the APOBEC3 family alter vaccinia virus replication. HIV counteracts APOBEC3G by inducing its degradation...
  39. Krisko J, Martinez Torres F, Foster J, Garcia J. HIV restriction by APOBEC3 in humanized mice. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003242 pubmed publisher
    ..The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3) family of cytidine deaminases are potent immune defense molecules capable of efficiently restricting endogenous ..
  40. Miyazawa M, Nishio J, Wehrly K, David C, Chesebro B. Spontaneous recovery from Friend retrovirus-induced leukemia. Mapping of the Rfv-2 gene in the Q/TL region of mouse MHC. J Immunol. 1992;148:1964-7 pubmed
  41. Rebhandl S, Huemer M, Gassner F, Zaborsky N, Hebenstreit D, Catakovic K, et al. APOBEC3 signature mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia. 2014;28:1929-32 pubmed publisher
  42. Barrett B, Guo K, Harper M, Li S, Heilman K, Davidson N, et al. Reassessment of murine APOBEC1 as a retrovirus restriction factor in vivo. Virology. 2014;468-470:601-608 pubmed publisher
    ..in cholesterol metabolism that has been linked to retrovirus restriction, analogous to the evolutionarily-related APOBEC3 proteins...
  43. Nakaya Y, Stavrou S, Blouch K, Tattersall P, Ross S. In Vivo Examination of Mouse APOBEC3- and Human APOBEC3A- and APOBEC3G-Mediated Restriction of Parvovirus and Herpesvirus Infection in Mouse Models. J Virol. 2016;90:8005-12 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3 knockout and human APOBEC3A and -3G transgenic mice were tested for their ability to be infected by the herpesviruses herpes simplex virus 1 and murine herpesvirus 68 and the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM)...
  44. Sanchez Martinez S, Aloia A, Harvin D, Mirro J, Gorelick R, Jern P, et al. Studies on the restriction of murine leukemia viruses by mouse APOBEC3. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38190 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3 proteins function to restrict the replication of retroviruses...
  45. Zhang L, Li X, Ma J, Yu L, Jiang J, Cen S. The incorporation of APOBEC3 proteins into murine leukemia viruses. Virology. 2008;378:69-78 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3 proteins represent a group of potent intrinsic inhibitors of retroviral replication. Murine APOBEC3 (mA3) is able to inhibit HIV-1, whereas it is inactive against Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV)...
  46. Nitta T, Ha D, Galvez F, Miyazawa T, Fan H. Human and murine APOBEC3s restrict replication of koala retrovirus by different mechanisms. Retrovirology. 2015;12:68 pubmed publisher
    ..Since glyco-gag mediates resistance of Moloney murine leukemia virus to the restriction factor APOBEC3, the sensitivity of KoRV (wt or putatively mutant for glyco-gag) to restriction by murine (mA3) or human APOBEC3s ..
  47. Turelli P, Liagre Quazzola A, Mangeat B, Verp S, Jost S, Trono D. APOBEC3-independent interferon-induced viral clearance in hepatitis B virus transgenic mice. J Virol. 2008;82:6585-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that murine APOBEC3 (muA3) can also block HBV replication...
  48. Morrey J, Warren R, Okleberry K, Burger R, Johnston M, Sidwell R. Effects of zidovudine on Friend virus complex infection in Rfv-3r/s genotype-containing mice used as a model for HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1990;3:500-10 pubmed
  49. Zelinskyy G, Myers L, Dietze K, Gibbert K, Roggendorf M, Liu J, et al. Virus-specific CD8+ T cells upregulate programmed death-1 expression during acute friend retrovirus infection but are highly cytotoxic and control virus replication. J Immunol. 2011;187:3730-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, direct ex vivo analyses and in vivo experiments revealed high CD8(+) T cell functionality and indicate that PD-1 expression during acute infection is not a marker of T cell exhaustion. ..
  50. Rosales Gerpe M, Renner T, Bélanger K, Lam C, Aydin H, Langlois M. N-linked glycosylation protects gammaretroviruses against deamination by APOBEC3 proteins. J Virol. 2015;89:2342-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Host intrinsic restriction factors, such as APOBEC3 (A3) proteins, are constitutively expressed and dedicated to interfering with the replication cycle of ..
  51. Beck Engeser G, Winkelmann R, Wheeler M, Shansab M, Yu P, Wünsche S, et al. APOBEC3 enzymes restrict marginal zone B cells. Eur J Immunol. 2015;45:695-704 pubmed publisher
    ..neutralizing antibody response to Friend murine leukemia virus is contributed by an allelic form of the enzyme Apobec3 (abbreviated A3)...
  52. Demorest Z, Li M, Harris R. Phosphorylation directly regulates the intrinsic DNA cytidine deaminase activity of activation-induced deaminase and APOBEC3G protein. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:26568-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data combine to suggest a model in which this critical threonine acts as a phospho-switch that fine-tunes the adaptive and innate immune responses and helps protect mammalian genomic DNA from procarcinogenic lesions. ..
  53. Halemano K, Guo K, Heilman K, Barrett B, Smith D, Hasenkrug K, et al. Immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation by APOBEC3/Rfv3 during retroviral infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:7759-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that mouse APOBEC3 encodes Recovery from Friend virus 3 (Rfv3), a classical resistance gene in mice that promotes the neutralizing antibody response against ..
  54. Halemano K, Barrett B, Li S, Harper M, Smith D, Heilman K, et al. Fv1 restriction and retrovirus vaccine immunity in Apobec3-deficient 129P2 mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60500 pubmed publisher
    ..splenomegaly induction, and Rfv3 resistance primes a stronger neutralizing antibody response due to more potent Apobec3 activity...
  55. Mehta H, Jones P, Weiss J, Okeoma C. IFN-? and lipopolysaccharide upregulate APOBEC3 mRNA through different signaling pathways. J Immunol. 2012;189:4088-103 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3 (A3) proteins are virus-restriction factors that provide intrinsic immunity against infections by viruses like HIV-1 and mouse mammary tumor virus...
  56. Jones P, Mehta H, Okeoma C. A novel role for APOBEC3: susceptibility to sexual transmission of murine acquired immunodeficiency virus (mAIDS) is aggravated in APOBEC3 deficient mice. Retrovirology. 2012;9:50 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3 proteins are host factors that restrict infection by retroviruses like HIV, MMTV, and MLV and are variably expressed in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, dendritic, and epithelia cells...
  57. Hasenkrug K, Valenzuela A, Letts V, Nishio J, Chesebro B, Frankel W. Chromosome mapping of Rfv3, a host resistance gene to Friend murine retrovirus. J Virol. 1995;69:2617-20 pubmed
    ..In certain mouse strains, a single host gene, Rfv3, controls the ability to mount a virus-specific neutralizing antibody response which results in elimination of ..
  58. Qi G, Xiong H, Zhou C. APOBEC3 deletion polymorphism is associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk among Chinese women. Tumour Biol. 2014;35:5723-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the etiology still remains largely unknown. Previous studies identified APOBEC3 gene deletions were significantly associated with higher breast cancer risk in both European and Chinese women...
  59. Ali S, Karki N, Bhattacharya C, Zhu R, MacDuff D, Stenglein M, et al. APOBEC3 inhibits DEAD-END function to regulate microRNA activity. BMC Mol Biol. 2013;14:16 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we showed that the DNA cytosine deaminase, APOBEC3 (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide like 3), interacts with DND1...