Gene Symbol: Apobec1
Description: apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1
Alias: Cdar1, C->U-editing enzyme APOBEC-1, apolipoprotein B editing complex 1, mRNA(cytosine(6666)) deaminase 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Apobec1

Top Publications

  1. Morrison J, Paszty C, Stevens M, Hughes S, Forte T, Scott J, et al. Apolipoprotein B RNA editing enzyme-deficient mice are viable despite alterations in lipoprotein metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:7154-9 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that neither apobec-1 nor apo-B48 is essential for viability and suggest that the major role of apobec-1 may be confined to the modulation of lipid transport. ..
  2. Hassan M, Butty V, Jensen K, Saeij J. The genetic basis for individual differences in mRNA splicing and APOBEC1 editing activity in murine macrophages. Genome Res. 2014;24:377-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we show that individual genetic variability at the Apobec1 locus results in differential rates of C-to-U(T) editing in murine macrophages; with mouse strains expressing ..
  3. Nakamuta M, Oka K, Krushkal J, Kobayashi K, Yamamoto M, Li W, et al. Alternative mRNA splicing and differential promoter utilization determine tissue-specific expression of the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing protein (Apobec1) gene in mice. Structure and evolution of Apobec1 and related nucleoside/nucleotide deaminases. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:13042-56 pubmed
    ..We have cloned the cDNA for the mouse apoB mRNA editing protein, apobec1. Expression of mouse apobec1 cDNA in HepG2 cells results in the editing of the intracellular apoB mRNA...
  4. Ikeda T, Ohsugi T, Kimura T, Matsushita S, Maeda Y, Harada S, et al. The antiretroviral potency of APOBEC1 deaminase from small animal species. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:6859-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data reveal that A1 may function as a defense mechanism, regulating retroelements in a wide range of mammalian species...
  5. Petit V, Guetard D, Renard M, Keriel A, Sitbon M, Wain Hobson S, et al. Murine APOBEC1 is a powerful mutator of retroviral and cellular RNA in vitro and in vivo. J Mol Biol. 2009;385:65-78 pubmed publisher
    ..that ssDNA hyperediting of an infectious exogenous gammaretrovirus, the Friend-murine leukemia virus, by murine APOBEC1 and APOBEC3 deaminases occurs in vitro...
  6. Rosenberg B, Hamilton C, Mwangi M, Dewell S, Papavasiliou F. Transcriptome-wide sequencing reveals numerous APOBEC1 mRNA-editing targets in transcript 3' UTRs. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:230-6 pubmed publisher
    Apolipoprotein B-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-1 (APOBEC1) is a cytidine deaminase initially identified by its activity in converting a specific cytidine (C) to uridine (U) in apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA transcripts in the small ..
  7. Kendrick J, Chan L, Higgins J. Superior role of apolipoprotein B48 over apolipoprotein B100 in chylomicron assembly and fat absorption: an investigation of apobec-1 knock-out and wild-type mice. Biochem J. 2001;356:821-7 pubmed
    ..apo-B mRNA editing may result in more efficient fat absorption, specifically under conditions of food shortage or low-fat content, and thus provide an evolutionary advantage. ..
  8. Blanc V, Xie Y, Luo J, Kennedy S, Davidson N. Intestine-specific expression of Apobec-1 rescues apolipoprotein B RNA editing and alters chylomicron production in Apobec1 -/- mice. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:2643-55 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Apobec1(-/-) mice produce only apoB100 and secrete larger chylomicron particles than those observed in wild-type (WT) ..
  9. Hirano K, Min J, Funahashi T, Davidson N. Cloning and characterization of the rat apobec-1 gene: a comparative analysis of gene structure and promoter usage in rat and mouse. J Lipid Res. 1997;38:1103-19 pubmed
    ..These data serve as a basis for an understanding of the regulation of apobec-1 gene expression, in particular the mechanisms that serve to restrict its expression to the gastrointestinal tract in higher mammals. ..

More Information


  1. Nakamuta M, Chang B, Zsigmond E, Kobayashi K, Lei H, Ishida B, et al. Complete phenotypic characterization of apobec-1 knockout mice with a wild-type genetic background and a human apolipoprotein B transgenic background, and restoration of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing by somatic gene transfer of Apobec-1. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:25981-8 pubmed
    ..5 +/- 329.5 microg/ml) that is 373% that of apobec1(+/+)/TgB+/- mice (139.0 +/- 87.0 microg/ml) (p < 0.05)...
  2. Kaufmann B, Carr C, Belcik J, Xie A, Yue Q, Chadderdon S, et al. Molecular imaging of the initial inflammatory response in atherosclerosis: implications for early detection of disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:54-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Noninvasive ultrasound molecular imaging of endothelial activation can detect lesion-prone vascular phenotype before the appearance of obstructive atherosclerotic lesions. ..
  3. Liao W, Hong S, Chan B, Rudolph F, Clark S, Chan L. APOBEC-2, a cardiac- and skeletal muscle-specific member of the cytidine deaminase supergene family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;260:398-404 pubmed
  4. Xie Y, Nassir F, Luo J, Buhman K, Davidson N. Intestinal lipoprotein assembly in apobec-1-/- mice reveals subtle alterations in triglyceride secretion coupled with a shift to larger lipoproteins. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;285:G735-46 pubmed
  5. Yamanaka S, Poksay K, Arnold K, Innerarity T. A novel translational repressor mRNA is edited extensively in livers containing tumors caused by the transgene expression of the apoB mRNA-editing enzyme. Genes Dev. 1997;11:321-33 pubmed
    ..NAT1 is likely to be a fundamental translational repressor, and its aberrant editing could contribute to the potent oncogenesis induced by overexpression of APOBEC-1. ..
  6. Powell Braxton L, Veniant M, Latvala R, Hirano K, Won W, Ross J, et al. A mouse model of human familial hypercholesterolemia: markedly elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and severe atherosclerosis on a low-fat chow diet. Nat Med. 1998;4:934-8 pubmed
    ..This authentic model of human familial hypercholesterolemia will provide a new tool for studying atherosclerosis. ..
  7. Hirano K, Young S, Farese R, Ng J, Sande E, Warburton C, et al. Targeted disruption of the mouse apobec-1 gene abolishes apolipoprotein B mRNA editing and eliminates apolipoprotein B48. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:9887-90 pubmed
    ..The apobec-1-/- mice lacked detectable levels of Apobec-1 mRNA, expressed only unedited apoB mRNA in all tissues, and contained no apoB48 in their serum, demonstrating that there is no functional duplication of this gene. ..
  8. Sun H, Samarghandi A, Zhang N, Yao Z, Xiong M, Teng B. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 interacts with apolipoprotein B and prevents its intracellular degradation, irrespective of the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:1585-95 pubmed publisher
    ..apoB synthesis and secretion in 3 mouse models: wild-type C57BL/6 mice and LDLR-null mice (Ldlr(-/-) and Ldlr(-/-)Apobec1(-/-))...
  9. Chen Z, Newberry E, Norris J, Xie Y, Luo J, Kennedy S, et al. ApoB100 is required for increased VLDL-triglyceride secretion by microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in ob/ob mice. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:2013-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We crossed Apobec1(-/-) mice with congenic ob/ob mice to generate apoB100-only ob/ob mice (A-ob/ob)...
  10. Anant S, Murmu N, Houchen C, Mukhopadhyay D, Riehl T, Young S, et al. Apobec-1 protects intestine from radiation injury through posttranscriptional regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Gastroenterology. 2004;127:1139-49 pubmed
    ..Lipopolysaccharide increases intestinal stem cell survival through apobec-1-mediated regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 messenger RNA stability. ..
  11. Kassim S, Li H, Vandenberghe L, Hinderer C, Bell P, Marchadier D, et al. Gene therapy in a humanized mouse model of familial hypercholesterolemia leads to marked regression of atherosclerosis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13424 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice with germ line interruptions in the Ldlr and Apobec1 genes (Ldlr(-/-)Apobec1(-/-)) simulate metabolic and clinical aspects of hoFH, including atherogenesis on a chow ..
  12. Krause K, Marcu K, Greeve J. The cytidine deaminases AID and APOBEC-1 exhibit distinct functional properties in a novel yeast selectable system. Mol Immunol. 2006;43:295-307 pubmed
    ..In contrast to APOBEC-1, AID alone does not exhibit an intrinsic specificity for its target sequences. ..
  13. Moore R, Navab M, Millar J, Zimetti F, Hama S, Rothblat G, et al. Increased atherosclerosis in mice lacking apolipoprotein A-I attributable to both impaired reverse cholesterol transport and increased inflammation. Circ Res. 2005;97:763-71 pubmed
  14. Xu L, Dai Perrard X, Perrard J, Yang D, Xiao X, Teng B, et al. Foamy monocytes form early and contribute to nascent atherosclerosis in mice with hypercholesterolemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015;35:1787-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Foamy monocytes also formed early in blood of Ldlr(-/-)Apobec1(-/-) (LDb) mice on WD...
  15. Wedekind J, Dance G, Sowden M, Smith H. Messenger RNA editing in mammals: new members of the APOBEC family seeking roles in the family business. Trends Genet. 2003;19:207-16 pubmed
    ..In light of the hypothesis that these proteins might represent novel mRNA editing systems that could affect proteome diversity, we consider their structure, expression and relevance to biomedically significant processes or pathologies. ..
  16. Hendrich B, Abbott C, McQueen H, Chambers D, Cross S, Bird A. Genomic structure and chromosomal mapping of the murine and human Mbd1, Mbd2, Mbd3, and Mbd4 genes. Mamm Genome. 1999;10:906-12 pubmed
    ..The Mbd1 and Mbd2 genes, in contrast, map together to murine and human Chromosomes (Chrs)18. The Mbd3 and Mbd4 genes map to murine Chrs 10 and 6, respectively, while the human MBD3 and MBD4 genes map to Chrs 19 and 3, respectively. ..
  17. Lau P, Chan L. Involvement of a chaperone regulator, Bcl2-associated athanogene-4, in apolipoprotein B mRNA editing. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52988-96 pubmed
  18. Zhao L, Cuff C, Moss E, Wille U, Cyrus T, Klein E, et al. Selective interleukin-12 synthesis defect in 12/15-lipoxygenase-deficient macrophages associated with reduced atherosclerosis in a mouse model of familial hypercholesterolemia. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:35350-6 pubmed
    ..The data provide support for a novel mechanism linking the 12/15-lipoxygenase pathway to a known immunomodulatory Th1 cytokine in atherogenesis. ..
  19. Singh U, Zhong S, Xiong M, Li T, Sniderman A, Teng B. Increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase are associated with susceptibility to atherosclerosis in mice. Clin Sci (Lond). 2004;106:421-32 pubmed
    ..lacking the LDL (low-density lipoprotein) receptor (LDLR) and the ability to edit apo (apolipoprotein) B mRNA (Apobec1; designated LDb : LDLR-/- Apobec1-/-), and (ii) mice with the LDb background, who also overexpressed human ..
  20. Oka K, Kobayashi K, Sullivan M, Martinez J, Teng B, Ishimura Oka K, et al. Tissue-specific inhibition of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing in the liver by adenovirus-mediated transfer of a dominant negative mutant APOBEC-1 leads to increased low density lipoprotein in mice. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:1456-60 pubmed
    ..Liver-specific inhibition of apoB mRNA editing is an important component of any strategy to enhance the value of mice as a model for human lipoprotein metabolism. ..
  21. Bhattacharya C, Aggarwal S, Kumar M, Ali A, Matin A. Mouse apolipoprotein B editing complex 3 (APOBEC3) is expressed in germ cells and interacts with dead-end (DND1). PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2315 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction of DND1 and APOBEC3 could be one mechanism for maintaining viability of germ cells and for preventing germ cell tumor development. ..
  22. Naik S, Wang X, Da Silva J, Jaye M, Macphee C, Reilly M, et al. Pharmacological activation of liver X receptors promotes reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Circulation. 2006;113:90-7 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that administration of the LXR agonist GW3965 increases the rate of RCT from macrophages to feces in vivo. ..
  23. Lo C, Nordskog B, Nauli A, Zheng S, Vonlehmden S, Yang Q, et al. Why does the gut choose apolipoprotein B48 but not B100 for chylomicron formation?. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G344-52 pubmed
    ..We propose that apo B48 is the preferred protein for the gut to coat chylomicrons to ensure efficient chylomicron formation and lipid absorption. ..
  24. Ikeda T, Abd El Galil K, Tokunaga K, Maeda K, Sata T, Sakaguchi N, et al. Intrinsic restriction activity by apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme APOBEC1 against the mobility of autonomous retrotransposons. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:5538-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The RNA editing family member apolipoprotein B (apo B)-editing catalytic subunit 1 (APOBEC1; A1) from a variety of mammalian species, a protein involved in lipid transport and which mediates C-U ..
  25. Fossat N, Tourle K, Radziewic T, Barratt K, Liebhold D, Studdert J, et al. C to U RNA editing mediated by APOBEC1 requires RNA-binding protein RBM47. EMBO Rep. 2014;15:903-10 pubmed publisher
    ..C) to Uridine (U) RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification that is accomplished by the deaminase APOBEC1 and its partnership with the RNA-binding protein A1CF...
  26. Innerarity T, Boren J, Yamanaka S, Olofsson S. Biosynthesis of apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins. Regulation by novel post-transcriptional mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:2353-6 pubmed
  27. Mak S, Sun H, Acevedo F, Shimmin L, Zhao L, Teng B, et al. Differential expression of genes in the calcium-signaling pathway underlies lesion development in the LDb mouse model of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2010;213:40-51 pubmed publisher
    ..modified mice lacking both genes of the LDL receptor and the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme (LDb; Ldlr(-/-)Apobec1(-/-)). Risk factors including hyperlipidemic genotype (LDb vs. C57BL/6 wildtype), shear stress (lesion-prone vs...
  28. Osuga J, Inaba T, Harada K, Yagyu H, Shimada M, Yazaki Y, et al. Cloning and structural analysis of the mouse apolipoprotein B mRNA editing protein gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;214:653-62 pubmed
    ..The gene spans 12 kb and contains 5 exons and 4 introns. Sequencing of the 5'-flanking region revealed that a canonical TATA box is absent and the consensus recognition sequences for several transcription factors have been identified. ..
  29. Cole D, Chung Y, Gagnidze K, Hajdarovic K, Rayon Estrada V, Harjanto D, et al. Loss of APOBEC1 RNA-editing function in microglia exacerbates age-related CNS pathophysiology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:13272-13277 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that APOBEC1-mediated RNA editing occurs within MG and is key to maintaining their resting status...
  30. Hinsdale M, Sullivan P, Mezdour H, Maeda N. ApoB-48 and apoB-100 differentially influence the expression of type-III hyperlipoproteinemia in APOE*2 mice. J Lipid Res. 2002;43:1520-8 pubmed
    ..Apobec(-/-) mice, because apoB-48 and apoB-100 differentially influence the catabolism of lipoproteins. ..
  31. Mehrabian M, Wong J, Wang X, Jiang Z, Shi W, Fogelman A, et al. Genetic locus in mice that blocks development of atherosclerosis despite extreme hyperlipidemia. Circ Res. 2001;89:125-30 pubmed
    ..The locus contains the candidate gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, and the congenic mice exhibited significantly reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. ..
  32. Blanc V, Henderson J, Newberry R, Xie Y, Cho S, Newberry E, et al. Deletion of the AU-rich RNA binding protein Apobec-1 reduces intestinal tumor burden in Apc(min) mice. Cancer Res. 2007;67:8565-73 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that deletion of apobec-1, by modulating expression of AU-rich RNA targets, provides an important mechanism for attenuating a dominant genetic restriction point in intestinal adenoma formation. ..
  33. Smallwood T, Gatti D, Quizon P, Weinstock G, Jung K, Zhao L, et al. High-resolution genetic mapping in the diversity outbred mouse population identifies Apobec1 as a candidate gene for atherosclerosis. G3 (Bethesda). 2014;4:2353-63 pubmed publisher
    ..One candidate gene within the Chromosome 6 peak region associated with atherosclerosis is Apobec1, the apolipoprotein B (ApoB) mRNA-editing enzyme, which plays a role in the regulation of ApoB, a critical ..
  34. Morgan H, Dean W, Coker H, Reik W, Petersen Mahrt S. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase deaminates 5-methylcytosine in DNA and is expressed in pluripotent tissues: implications for epigenetic reprogramming. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52353-60 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Aid and Apobec1 are 5-methylcytosine deaminases resulting in a thymine base opposite a guanine...
  35. Lim H, Kim Y, Sun H, Lee J, Reynolds J, Hanabuchi S, et al. Proatherogenic conditions promote autoimmune T helper 17 cell responses in vivo. Immunity. 2014;40:153-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that proatherogenic factors promote the polarization and inflammatory function of autoimmune Th17 cells, which could be critical for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and other related autoimmune diseases. ..
  36. Blanc V, Kennedy S, Davidson N. A novel nuclear localization signal in the auxiliary domain of apobec-1 complementation factor regulates nucleocytoplasmic import and shuttling. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:41198-204 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that directed nuclear localization and compartmentalization of the core complex of the apoB RNA editing enzyme is regulated through a dominant targeting sequence (ANS) contained within ACF. ..
  37. Footz T, Birren B, Minoshima S, Asakawa S, Shimizu N, Riazi M, et al. The gene for death agonist BID maps to the region of human 22q11.2 duplicated in cat eye syndrome chromosomes and to mouse chromosome 6. Genomics. 1998;51:472-5 pubmed
    ..Bid and adjacent gene Atp6e were found to map to mousechromosome 6, while the region homologous to the DGSCR is known to map to mouse chromosome 16. ..
  38. Nassir F, Xie Y, Patterson B, Luo J, Davidson N. Hepatic secretion of small lipoprotein particles in apobec-1-/- mice is regulated by the LDL receptor. J Lipid Res. 2004;45:1649-59 pubmed
    ..These results directly support the suggestion that the LDLR regulates hepatic apoB-100 production and modulates secretion of small, triglyceride-rich particles, both in vivo and in vitro. ..
  39. Ramirez C, Sierra S, Tercero I, Vazquez J, Pineda A, Manrique T, et al. ApoB100/LDLR-/- hypercholesterolaemic mice as a model for mild cognitive impairment and neuronal damage. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22712 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings confirm hypercholesterolaemia as a key biomarker for monitoring mild cognitive impairment, and shows these transgenic mice can be used as a model for cognitive and psycho-motor decline. ..
  40. Xie Y, Luo J, Kennedy S, Davidson N. Conditional intestinal lipotoxicity in Apobec-1-/- Mttp-IKO mice: a survival advantage for mammalian intestinal apolipoprotein B mRNA editing. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:33043-51 pubmed
    ..Together the data provide the first plausible biological evidence for a survival advantage for mammalian intestinal apoB mRNA editing. ..
  41. Osuga J, Yagyu H, Ohashi K, Harada K, Yazaki Y, Yamada N, et al. Effects of apo E deficiency on plasma lipid levels in mice lacking APOBEC-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;236:375-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that APOBEC-1(-/-) mice are a valuable model for experiments designed to understand a role of apo B mRNA editing. ..
  42. Harkins S, Whitton J. Chromosomal mapping of the ?MHC-MerCreMer transgene in mice reveals a large genomic deletion. Transgenic Res. 2016;25:639-48 pubmed publisher
    ..deletion of a 19,500 bp fragment of genomic DNA that contains the promoter, exon 1 and part of intron 1 of the APOBEC1 complementation factor (A1cf) gene, as well as several elements that are predicted to regulate chromosomal ..
  43. Kang E, Wu G, Ma H, Li Y, Tippner Hedges R, Tachibana M, et al. Nuclear reprogramming by interphase cytoplasm of two-cell mouse embryos. Nature. 2014;509:101-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability to use interphase cytoplasm in SCNT could aid efforts to generate autologous human ES cells for regenerative applications, as donated or discarded embryos are more accessible than unfertilized MII oocytes. ..
  44. Millar J, Maugeais C, Fuki I, Rader D. Normal production rate of apolipoprotein B in LDL receptor-deficient mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:989-94 pubmed
    ..Experiments were also conducted in apobec1-/- mice, which make only apoB-100, the form of apoB that binds to the LDL receptor...
  45. Tanigawa H, Billheimer J, Tohyama J, Zhang Y, Rothblat G, Rader D. Expression of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in mice promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport. Circulation. 2007;116:1267-73 pubmed
  46. Snyder E, McCarty C, Mehalow A, Svenson K, Murray S, Korstanje R, et al. APOBEC1 complementation factor (A1CF) is dispensable for C-to-U RNA editing in vivo. RNA. 2017;23:457-465 pubmed publisher
    Editing of the human and murine ApoB mRNA by APOBEC1, the catalytic enzyme of the protein complex that catalyzes C-to-U RNA editing, creates an internal stop codon within the APOB coding sequence, generating two protein isoforms...
  47. Nabel C, Lee J, Wang L, Kohli R. Nucleic acid determinants for selective deamination of DNA over RNA by activation-induced deaminase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:14225-30 pubmed publisher
    ..AID's closely related homolog APOBEC1 is similarly sensitive to RNA-like substitutions at the target cytosine...
  48. Chirieac D, Davidson N, Sparks C, Sparks J. PI3-kinase activity modulates apo B available for hepatic VLDL production in apobec-1-/- mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;291:G382-8 pubmed
  49. Chen Z, Fitzgerald R, Li G, Davidson N, Schonfeld G. Hepatic secretion of apoB-100 is impaired in hypobetalipoproteinemic mice with an apoB-38.9-specifying allele. J Lipid Res. 2004;45:155-63 pubmed
    ..The greater-than-expected decreases in apoB-100 production rates of FHBL heterozygous humans appear to be attributable to a defect in secretion rather than in the synthesis of apoB-100 from the unaffected apoB allele. ..
  50. Iwaki T, Sandoval Cooper M, Brechmann M, Ploplis V, Castellino F. A fibrinogen deficiency accelerates the initiation of LDL cholesterol-driven atherosclerosis via thrombin generation and platelet activation in genetically predisposed mice. Blood. 2006;107:3883-91 pubmed
    ..low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR(-/-)) and the catalytic component of an apolipoprotein B-edisome complex (APOBEC1(-/-)) that converts apoB-100 to apoB-48 have been characterized, and this model of LDL cholesterol-driven ..
  51. Barrett B, Guo K, Harper M, Li S, Heilman K, Davidson N, et al. Reassessment of murine APOBEC1 as a retrovirus restriction factor in vivo. Virology. 2014;468-470:601-608 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC1 is a cytidine deaminase involved in cholesterol metabolism that has been linked to retrovirus restriction, analogous to the evolutionarily-related APOBEC3 proteins...
  52. Ko C, Lee T, Lau P, Li J, Davis B, Voyiaziakis E, et al. Two novel quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 6 and 4 independently and synergistically regulate plasma apoB levels. J Lipid Res. 2001;42:844-55 pubmed
    ..The human orthologs for the Abrg loci are strong candidates for human disorders characterized by altered plasma apoB levels, such as FCHL and familial hypobetalipoproteinemia. ..
  53. Nelson V, Heaney J, Tesar P, Davidson N, Nadeau J. Transgenerational epigenetic effects of the Apobec1 cytidine deaminase deficiency on testicular germ cell tumor susceptibility and embryonic viability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E2766-73 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA-binding subunit of the ApoB editing complex, raises the possibility that the function of Dnd1 is related to Apobec1 activity as a cytidine deaminase...
  54. Conlon D, Thomas T, Fedotova T, Hernandez Ono A, Di Paolo G, Chan R, et al. Inhibition of apolipoprotein B synthesis stimulates endoplasmic reticulum autophagy that prevents steatosis. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:3852-3867 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of this pathway indicates that inhibition of VLDL secretion remains a viable target for therapies aiming to reduce circulating levels of atherogenic apoB lipoproteins. ..
  55. Sparks J, Chamberlain J, O Dell C, Khatun I, Hussain M, Sparks C. Acute suppression of apo B secretion by insulin occurs independently of MTP. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;406:252-6 pubmed publisher
    ..0±12.4% in control transfected hepatocytes. Results indicate that even under conditions of increased hepatic apo B secretion mediated by MTP, responsiveness of hepatocytes to insulin to suppress apo B secretion is maintained. ..
  56. Johnson L, Altenburg M, Walzem R, Scanga L, Maeda N. Absence of hyperlipidemia in LDL receptor-deficient mice having apolipoprotein B100 without the putative receptor-binding sequences. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:1745-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Ldlr(-/-)Apobec1(-/-) mice lacking the LDLR and apoB editing enzyme accumulated LDL in plasma and developed severe atherosclerosis ..
  57. Eto T, Kinoshita K, Yoshikawa K, Muramatsu M, Honjo T. RNA-editing cytidine deaminase Apobec-1 is unable to induce somatic hypermutation in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:12895-8 pubmed
    ..Unlike AID, Apobec-1 was unable to induce somatic hypermutation or class switching. The results force a reevaluation of the physiological significance of the DNA deaminase activities of AID and Apobec-1 in E. coli and in vitro. ..
  58. Nakamuta M, Taniguchi S, Ishida B, Kobayashi K, Chan L. Phenotype interaction of apobec-1 and CETP, LDLR, and apoE gene expression in mice: role of apoB mRNA editing in lipoprotein phenotype expression. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998;18:747-55 pubmed
  59. Pinkaew D, Le R, Chen Y, Eltorky M, Teng B, Fujise K. Fortilin reduces apoptosis in macrophages and promotes atherosclerosis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013;305:H1519-29 pubmed publisher
    ..fortilin(+/+)) on a LDL receptor (Ldlr)(-/-) apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1 (Apobec1)(-/-) hypercholesterolemic genetic background, incubated them for 10 mo on a normal chow diet, and assessed the ..
  60. Khanicheh E, Mitterhuber M, Xu L, Haeuselmann S, Kuster G, Kaufmann B. Noninvasive ultrasound molecular imaging of the effect of statins on endothelial inflammatory phenotype in early atherosclerosis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58761 pubmed publisher
    ..This easily accessible, low-cost technique may be useful in assessing treatment effects in preclinical research and in patients. ..
  61. Blanc V, Park E, Schaefer S, Miller M, Lin Y, Kennedy S, et al. Genome-wide identification and functional analysis of Apobec-1-mediated C-to-U RNA editing in mouse small intestine and liver. Genome Biol. 2014;15:R79 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies define selective, tissue-specific targets of Apobec-1-dependent RNA editing and show the functional consequences of editing are both transcript- and tissue-specific. ..
  62. Hersberger M, Patarroyo White S, Arnold K, Innerarity T. Phylogenetic analysis of the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing region. Evidence for a secondary structure between the mooring sequence and the 3' efficiency element. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:34590-7 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, a model is proposed in which the mooring sequence and the 3' efficiency element form a double-stranded stem, thus suggesting a mechanism of how the 3' efficiency element enhances editing. ..
  63. Reaves S, Wu J, Wu Y, Fanzo J, Wang Y, Lei P, et al. Regulation of intestinal apolipoprotein B mRNA editing levels by a zinc-deficient diet and cDNA cloning of editing protein in hamsters. J Nutr. 2000;130:2166-73 pubmed
    ..Data derived from these studies contribute to the understanding of lipoprotein metabolism in hamsters, a suitable model for the study of atherosclerosis. ..
  64. Nadeau J. Do Gametes Woo? Evidence for Their Nonrandom Union at Fertilization. Genetics. 2017;207:369-387 pubmed publisher
  65. Guo J, Su Y, Zhong C, Ming G, Song H. Hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine by TET1 promotes active DNA demethylation in the adult brain. Cell. 2011;145:423-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Tet1 and Apobec1 are involved in neuronal activity-induced, region-specific, active DNA demethylation and subsequent gene ..