Gene Symbol: Apob
Description: apolipoprotein B
Alias: AI315052, Apo B-100, apob-100, apob-48, apolipoprotein B-100
Species: mouse
Products:     Apob

Top Publications

  1. Wu D, Sharan C, Yang H, Goodwin J, Zhou L, Grabowski G, et al. Apolipoprotein E-deficient lipoproteins induce foam cell formation by downregulation of lysosomal hydrolases in macrophages. J Lipid Res. 2007;48:2571-8 pubmed
    ..Using lipoproteins obtained from wild-type mice and apoE-deficient mice expressing apoB-48 but not apoB-100, we studied apoE-deficient lipoprotein-induced changes in lipoprotein catabolism and protein ..
  2. Veniant M, Sullivan M, Kim S, Ambroziak P, Chu A, Wilson M, et al. Defining the atherogenicity of large and small lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein B100. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:1501-10 pubmed
    Apo-E-deficient apo-B100-only mice (APOE:(-/-)APOB:(100/100)) and LDL receptor-deficient apo-B100-only mice (LDLR:(-/-)APOB:(100/100)) have similar total plasma cholesterol levels, but nearly all of the plasma cholesterol in the former ..
  3. Veniant M, Zlot C, Walzem R, Pierotti V, Driscoll R, Dichek D, et al. Lipoprotein clearance mechanisms in LDL receptor-deficient "Apo-B48-only" and "Apo-B100-only" mice. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:1559-68 pubmed
    ..an "apo-B100-only" allele, or a wild-type apo-B allele (Ldlr-/- Apob48/48, Ldlr-/-Apob100/100, and Ldlr-/-Apob+/+, respectively)...
  4. Lu X, Chen D, Endresz V, Xia M, Faludi I, Burian K, et al. Immunization with a combination of ApoB and HSP60 epitopes significantly reduces early atherosclerotic lesion in Apobtm2SgyLdlrtm1Her/J mice. Atherosclerosis. 2010;212:472-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we assay whether immunizing Apobtm2SgyLdlrtm1Her/J mice with a combination of ApoB and human HSP60 peptides has an additive effect on atheroprotection compared to ApoB or HSP60 peptides applied ..
  5. Skogsberg J, Lundström J, Kovacs A, Nilsson R, Noori P, Maleki S, et al. Transcriptional profiling uncovers a network of cholesterol-responsive atherosclerosis target genes. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000036 pubmed publisher
    ..This network should be of interest for the development of novel atherosclerosis therapies. ..
  6. Lieu H, Withycombe S, Walker Q, Rong J, Walzem R, Wong J, et al. Eliminating atherogenesis in mice by switching off hepatic lipoprotein secretion. Circulation. 2003;107:1315-21 pubmed
    ..We developed mice in which hypercholesterolemia can be reversed with a genetic switch. These mice will be useful for understanding gene-expression changes that accompany the reversal of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. ..
  7. Lloyd D, McCormick J, Helmering J, Kim K, Wang M, Fordstrom P, et al. Generation and characterization of two novel mouse models exhibiting the phenotypes of the metabolic syndrome: Apob48-/-Lepob/ob mice devoid of ApoE or Ldlr. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:E496-505 pubmed
    ..Ldlr(-/-)) and express no leptin (Lep(ob/ob)) or apolipoprotein B-48 but exclusively apolipoprotein B-100 (Apob(100/100))...
  8. Leppänen P, Koota S, Kholova I, Koponen J, Fieber C, Eriksson U, et al. Gene transfers of vascular endothelial growth factor-A, vascular endothelial growth factor-B, vascular endothelial growth factor-C, and vascular endothelial growth factor-D have no effects on atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic low-density lipopr. Circulation. 2005;112:1347-52 pubmed
  9. Farese R, Veniant M, Cham C, Flynn L, Pierotti V, Loring J, et al. Phenotypic analysis of mice expressing exclusively apolipoprotein B48 or apolipoprotein B100. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:6393-8 pubmed
    ..The apo-B48-only and apo-B100-only mice should prove to be valuable models for experiments designed to understand the purpose for the two forms of apo-B in mammalian metabolism. ..

More Information


  1. Heinonen S, Leppänen P, Kholova I, Lumivuori H, Häkkinen S, Bosch F, et al. Increased atherosclerotic lesion calcification in a novel mouse model combining insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Circ Res. 2007;101:1058-67 pubmed
    ..background we used low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice synthetizing only apolipoprotein B100 (LDLR(-/-) ApoB(100/100))...
  2. Bretillon L, Acar N, Seeliger M, Santos M, Maire M, Juaneda P, et al. ApoB100,LDLR-/- mice exhibit reduced electroretinographic response and cholesteryl esters deposits in the retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:1307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings clearly suggest the role of cholesterol metabolism in the functioning of the retina and possibly in the etiology of ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration. ..
  3. Lin X, Schonfeld G, Yue P, Chen Z. Hepatic fatty acid synthesis is suppressed in mice with fatty livers due to targeted apolipoprotein B38.9 mutation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:476-82 pubmed
    ..engineered mice with hypobetalipoproteinemia due to truncation-producing mutations of the apolipoprotein B (apoB) gene frequently have fatty livers, because the apoB defect impairs the capacity of livers to export triglycerides (..
  4. Björkegren J, Hägg S, Talukdar H, Foroughi Asl H, Jain R, Cedergren C, et al. Plasma cholesterol-induced lesion networks activated before regression of early, mature, and advanced atherosclerosis. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004201 pubmed publisher
    ..In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr(-/-)Apob (100/100) Mttp (flox/flox)Mx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage...
  5. Parathath S, Grauer L, Huang L, Sanson M, Distel E, Goldberg I, et al. Diabetes adversely affects macrophages during atherosclerotic plaque regression in mice. Diabetes. 2011;60:1759-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Diabetes hindered plaque regression in atherosclerotic mice (based on CD68+ plaque content) and favorable changes in plaque macrophage characteristics after the reduction of elevated plasma LDL. ..
  6. Feig J, PARATHATH S, Rong J, Mick S, Vengrenyuk Y, Grauer L, et al. Reversal of hyperlipidemia with a genetic switch favorably affects the content and inflammatory state of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques. Circulation. 2011;123:989-98 pubmed publisher
    ..After lipid lowering, favorable changes in plaque composition were independent of changes in size. In addition, plaque CD68(+) cells became less inflammatory, an effect enhanced by treatment with pioglitazone. ..
  7. Veniant M, Pierotti V, Newland D, Cham C, Sanan D, Walzem R, et al. Susceptibility to atherosclerosis in mice expressing exclusively apolipoprotein B48 or apolipoprotein B100. J Clin Invest. 1997;100:180-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, susceptibility to atherosclerosis was dependent on total cholesterol levels. Whether mice synthesized apo-B48 or apo-B100 did not appear to have an independent effect on susceptibility to atherosclerosis. ..
  8. Homanics G, Smith T, Zhang S, Lee D, Young S, Maeda N. Targeted modification of the apolipoprotein B gene results in hypobetalipoproteinemia and developmental abnormalities in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:2389-93 pubmed
    ..We have used gene targeting to generate mice with a modified Apob allele...
  9. Deshpande V, Sharma A, Mukhopadhyay R, Thota L, Ghatge M, Vangala R, et al. Understanding the progression of atherosclerosis through gene profiling and co-expression network analysis in Apob(tm2Sgy)Ldlr(tm1Her) double knockout mice. Genomics. 2016;107:239-47 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the study was to gain molecular insights into the progression of atherosclerosis in Apob(tm2Sgy)Ldlr(tm1Her) mice, using transcriptome profiles...
  10. Yamamoto S, Yamazaki T, Komazaki S, Yamashita T, Osaki M, Matsubayashi M, et al. Contribution of calumin to embryogenesis through participation in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation activity. Dev Biol. 2014;393:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings suggested that calumin serves to maintain the yolk sac integrity through participation in the ERAD activity, contributing to embryonic development. ..
  11. Lin X, Chen Z, Yue P, Averna M, Ostlund R, Watson M, et al. A targeted apoB38.9 mutation in mice is associated with reduced hepatic cholesterol synthesis and enhanced lipid peroxidation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;290:G1170-6 pubmed
    Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) due to truncation-specifying mutations of apolipoprotein B (apoB), which impair hepatic lipid export in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, is associated with fatty liver...
  12. Chen Z, Eggerman T, Patterson A. ApoB mRNA editing is mediated by a coordinated modulation of multiple apoB mRNA editing enzyme components. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;292:G53-65 pubmed
    ..We investigated the relationship between altered apoB mRNA editing and changes in editing enzyme components to evaluate their roles in editing regulation...
  13. Brown J, Chung S, Sawyer J, Degirolamo C, Alger H, Nguyen T, et al. Combined therapy of dietary fish oil and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 inhibition prevents the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..LDLr(-/-), ApoB(100/100) mice were fed diets enriched in saturated fat or fish oil in conjunction with antisense oligonucleotide (..
  14. Villani V, Coffino P, D EUSTACHIO P. Linkage genetics of mouse ornithine decarboxylase (Odc). Genomics. 1989;5:636-8 pubmed
    ..The other ODC homologs are tentatively identified as cDNA-like pseudogenes. ..
  15. Rowe L, Sweet H, Gordon J, Birkenmeier E. The fld mutation maps near to but distinct from the Apob locus on mouse chromosome 12. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:555-7 pubmed
  16. Love K, Mahon K, Levins C, Whitehead K, Querbes W, Dorkin J, et al. Lipid-like materials for low-dose, in vivo gene silencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1864-9 pubmed publisher
    ..03 mg/kg. To our knowledge, this formulation facilitates gene silencing at orders-of-magnitude lower doses than required by any previously described siRNA liver delivery system. ..
  17. Grass D, Saini U, Felkner R, Wallace R, Lago W, Young S, et al. Transgenic mice expressing both human apolipoprotein B and human CETP have a lipoprotein cholesterol distribution similar to that of normolipidemic humans. J Lipid Res. 1995;36:1082-91 pubmed
    ..When fed a normal mouse chow diet, the apoB/CETP double transgenic animals had threefold higher serum CETP activity than humans and had human apoB levels that ..
  18. Galloway S, Takechi R, Pallebage Gamarallage M, Dhaliwal S, Mamo J. Amyloid-beta colocalizes with apolipoprotein B in absorptive cells of the small intestine. Lipids Health Dis. 2009;8:46 pubmed publisher
    ..To consider this hypothesis further, this study utilized an in vivo immunological approach to explore in lipogenic tissue whether amyloid-beta colocalizes with nascent triglyceride-rich lipoproteins...
  19. Bell T, Kelley K, Wilson M, Sawyer J, Rudel L. Dietary fat-induced alterations in atherosclerosis are abolished by ACAT2-deficiency in ApoB100 only, LDLr-/- mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:1396-402 pubmed
    ..in the liver synthesizes cholesteryl esters (CE) from cholesterol and fatty acyl-CoA, which get incorporated into apoB-containing lipoproteins that are secreted into the bloodstream...
  20. Weinstein M, Yin L, Tu Y, Wang X, Wu X, Castellani L, et al. Chylomicronemia elicits atherosclerosis in mice--brief report. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:20-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Chylomicronemia causes atherosclerosis in mice. Also, we found that GPIHBP1 is required for the lipolytic processing of both apo-B48- and apo-B100-containing lipoproteins. ..
  21. Van Dyck F, Braem C, Chen Z, Declercq J, Deckers R, Kim B, et al. Loss of the PlagL2 transcription factor affects lacteal uptake of chylomicrons. Cell Metab. 2007;6:406-13 pubmed
    ..PlagL2 thus regulates important aspects of dietary lipid absorption, and the PlagL2(-/-) animal model has implications for the amelioration of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. ..
  22. Homanics G, Maeda N, Traber M, Kayden H, Dehart D, Sulik K. Exencephaly and hydrocephaly in mice with targeted modification of the apolipoprotein B (Apob) gene. Teratology. 1995;51:1-10 pubmed
    Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a key structural component of several lipoproteins. These lipoproteins transport cholesterol, lipids, and vitamin E in the circulation...
  23. Le Quang K, Bouchareb R, Lachance D, Laplante M, El Husseini D, Boulanger M, et al. Early development of calcific aortic valve disease and left ventricular hypertrophy in a mouse model of combined dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014;34:2283-91 pubmed publisher
    ..When compared with nondiabetic LDLr(-/-)/ApoB(100/100), diabetic LDLr(-/-)/ApoB(100/100)/IGF-II mice exhibited similar dyslipidemia and obesity but developed ..
  24. Oesterreicher T, Leeper L, Finegold M, Darlington G, Henning S. Intestinal maturation in mice lacking CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EPBalpha). Biochem J. 1998;330 ( Pt 3):1165-71 pubmed
    ..However, since other C/EBP isoforms are present in the developing intestine, it is possible that there is a generic requirement for a member of the C/EBP family. ..
  25. Mu J, Naggert J, Svenson K, Collin G, Kim J, McFarland C, et al. Quantitative trait loci analysis for the differences in susceptibility to atherosclerosis and diabetes between inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J and C57BLKS/J. J Lipid Res. 1999;40:1328-35 pubmed
    ..5 and a significant likelihood ratio statistic. The gene for apolipoprotein apoB lies within the region, but apoB levels were similar in strains B6 and BKS...
  26. Voyiaziakis E, Goldberg I, Plump A, Rubin E, Breslow J, Huang L. ApoA-I deficiency causes both hypertriglyceridemia and increased atherosclerosis in human apoB transgenic mice. J Lipid Res. 1998;39:313-21 pubmed
    ..role of low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I in atherosclerosis risk, human apoB transgenic mice (HuBTg) were crossed with apoA-I-deficient (apoA-I-/-) mice...
  27. Hinder L, Vincent A, Hayes J, McLean L, Feldman E. Apolipoprotein E knockout as the basis for mouse models of dyslipidemia-induced neuropathy. Exp Neurol. 2013;239:102-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Although these models ultimately do not deliver optimal lipid profiles for translational diabetic neuropathy research, they do present glycemic and lipid profile properties of value for future therapeutic investigations. ..
  28. Young S, Cham C, Pitas R, Burri B, Connolly A, Flynn L, et al. A genetic model for absent chylomicron formation: mice producing apolipoprotein B in the liver, but not in the intestine. J Clin Invest. 1995;96:2932-46 pubmed
    ..The mice lacking intestinal apo B expression represent the first genetic model of defective absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins and provide a useful animal model for studying nutrition and lipoprotein metabolism. ..
  29. Qiu W, Federico L, Naples M, Avramoglu R, Meshkani R, Zhang J, et al. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) regulates hepatic lipogenesis, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, and the secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. Hepatology. 2008;48:1799-809 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic apolipoprotein B (apoB) lipoprotein production is metabolically regulated via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade; however, the role of the key negative regulator of this pathway, the tumor suppressor phosphatase with tensin ..
  30. Judge A, Bola G, Lee A, MacLachlan I. Design of noninflammatory synthetic siRNA mediating potent gene silencing in vivo. Mol Ther. 2006;13:494-505 pubmed
    ..We show that, coupled with an effective systemic delivery vehicle, 2'OMe-modified siRNA targeting apolipoprotein B (apoB) can mediate potent silencing of its target mRNA, causing significant decreases in serum apoB and cholesterol...
  31. Makita T, Duncan S, Sucov H. Retinoic acid, hypoxia, and GATA factors cooperatively control the onset of fetal liver erythropoietin expression and erythropoietic differentiation. Dev Biol. 2005;280:59-72 pubmed
    ..5 onward is enhancer-independent, and is driven instead by basal promoter elements that provide a sufficient level of expression to support further erythropoietic differentiation. ..
  32. Lu X, Xia M, Endresz V, Faludi I, Mundkur L, Gonczol E, et al. Immunization with a combination of 2 peptides derived from the C5a receptor significantly reduces early atherosclerotic lesion in Ldlr(tm1Her) Apob(tm2Sgy) J mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:2358-71 pubmed publisher
    The goal of this study was to assess whether immunization of Ldlr(tm1Her) Apob(tm2Sgy) J mice with 2 peptides located at the N-terminus of the C5a receptor (C5aR), either alone or in combination, is effective in reducing atherosclerotic ..
  33. Chen Z, Newberry E, Norris J, Xie Y, Luo J, Kennedy S, et al. ApoB100 is required for increased VLDL-triglyceride secretion by microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in ob/ob mice. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:2013-22 pubmed publisher
    ..triglyceride (TG) and VLDL secretion in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice, specifically in relation to apolipoproteinB (apoB) isoforms. We crossed Apobec1(-/-) mice with congenic ob/ob mice to generate apoB100-only ob/ob mice (A-ob/ob)...
  34. Mahley R, Innerarity T, Rall S, Weisgraber K. Plasma lipoproteins: apolipoprotein structure and function. J Lipid Res. 1984;25:1277-94 pubmed
    ..The major apolipoproteins include apoE, apoB, apoA-I, apoA-II, apoA-IV, apoC-I, apoC-II, and apoC-III...
  35. Andalibi A, Diep A, Quon D, Mohandas T, Taylor B, Lusis A. Mapping of multiple mouse loci related to the farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase gene. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:211-9 pubmed
    ..It is presently unclear which of these loci encode active prenyltransferases and which may correspond to pseudogenes. The strongly hybridizing loci provide convenient genetic markers for seven mouse chromosomes. ..
  36. Sun H, Samarghandi A, Zhang N, Yao Z, Xiong M, Teng B. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 interacts with apolipoprotein B and prevents its intracellular degradation, irrespective of the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:1585-95 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, the relationship between PCSK9 and metabolism of apolipoprotein B (apoB), the structural protein of LDL, has been controversial and remains to be clarified...
  37. Srivastava R, Toth L, Srivastava N, Hinsdale M, Maeda N, Cefalu A, et al. Regulation of the apolipoprotein B in heterozygous hypobetalipoproteinemic knock-out mice expressing truncated apoB, B81. Low production and enhanced clearance of apoB cause low levels of apoB. Mol Cell Biochem. 1999;202:37-46 pubmed
    ..hypobetalipoproteinemic individuals expressing truncated apolipoprotein (apo)B as a result of mutation in the apob gene have low levels of cholesterol and apoB in their plasma...
  38. Silvola J, Saraste A, Forsback S, Laine V, Saukko P, Heinonen S, et al. Detection of hypoxia by [18F]EF5 in atherosclerotic plaques in mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:1011-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite its slow blood clearance, the high uptake of [18F]EF5 in plaques suggested that plaque hypoxia is a potential target for identifying high-risk plaques noninvasively. ..
  39. Zhao Y, Thorngate F, Weisgraber K, Williams D, Parks J. Apolipoprotein E is the major physiological activator of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) on apolipoprotein B lipoproteins. Biochemistry. 2005;44:1013-25 pubmed
    ..Our previous studies have indicated that lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) contributes significantly to the apoB lipoprotein cholesteryl ester (CE) pool...
  40. Hinsdale M, Sullivan P, Mezdour H, Maeda N. ApoB-48 and apoB-100 differentially influence the expression of type-III hyperlipoproteinemia in APOE*2 mice. J Lipid Res. 2002;43:1520-8 pubmed
    ..g., editing of apolipoprotein B) enhances THL development. Since apoB-100 has an LDLR binding site absent in apoB-48, we hypothesized that the Apoe(2/2) THL phenotype would improve if ..
  41. Mundkur L, Mukhopadhyay R, Samson S, Varma M, Kale D, Chen D, et al. Mucosal tolerance to a combination of ApoB and HSP60 peptides controls plaque progression and stabilizes vulnerable plaque in Apob(tm2Sgy)Ldlr(tm1Her)/J mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58364 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the protective effect of mucosal tolerance to peptides from apolipoprotein B (ApoB; 661-680) and heat shock protein 60 (HSP60; 153-163), in combination with diet, in the prevention of ..
  42. Chen Z, Fitzgerald R, Saffitz J, Semenkovich C, Schonfeld G. Amino terminal 38.9% of apolipoprotein B-100 is sufficient to support cholesterol-rich lipoprotein production and atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:668-74 pubmed
    Carboxyl terminal truncation of apolipoprotein (apo)B-100 and apoB-48 impairs their capacity for triglyceride transport, but the ability of the resultant truncated apoB to transport cholesterol and to support atherosclerosis has not been ..
  43. Chen Z, Fitzgerald R, Averna M, Schonfeld G. A targeted apolipoprotein B-38.9-producing mutation causes fatty livers in mice due to the reduced ability of apolipoprotein B-38.9 to transport triglycerides. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:32807-15 pubmed
    ..9-producing mutation in humans. Apo B-38.9 was the sole apo B protein in homozygote (apob(38.9/38.9)) plasma. In heterozygotes (apob(+/)(38...
  44. Lusis A, Taylor B, Quon D, Zollman S, LeBoeuf R. Genetic factors controlling structure and expression of apolipoproteins B and E in mice. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:7594-604 pubmed
    ..polymorphisms among inbred strains of mice affecting several aspects of the expression of apolipoproteins B and E (apoB and apoE), the major proteins of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)...
  45. Liu M, Chung S, Shelness G, Parks J. Hepatic ABCA1 deficiency is associated with delayed apolipoprotein B secretory trafficking and augmented VLDL triglyceride secretion. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2017;1862:1035-1043 pubmed publisher
    ..TG secretion in the absence of hepatocyte ABCA1 is due to altered intracellular trafficking of apolipoprotein B (apoB), resulting in augmented TG addition to nascent VLDL...
  46. Liu J, Lu H, Howatt D, Balakrishnan A, Moorleghen J, SORCI THOMAS M, et al. Associations of ApoAI and ApoB-containing lipoproteins with AngII-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms in mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015;35:1826-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Western diet feeding of this strain provoked pronounced hypercholesterolemia because of increased apoB-containing lipoproteins with attendant increases of atherosclerosis in both sexes, but AAAs only in male mice...
  47. Song G, Tian H, Qin S, Sun X, Yao S, Zong C, et al. Hydrogen decreases athero-susceptibility in apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and aorta of apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Atherosclerosis. 2012;221:55-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, to examine the effects of hydrogen on athero-susceptibility in lipoproteins and aorta of apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice...
  48. López Parra M, Titos E, Horrillo R, Ferre N, González Périz A, Martínez Clemente M, et al. Regulatory effects of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase on hepatic microsomal TG transfer protein activity and VLDL-triglyceride and apoB secretion in obese mice. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:2513-23 pubmed publisher
    ..hepatic microsomal TG transfer protein (MTP) activity in parallel with a stimulation of hepatic VLDL-TG and apoB secretion in ob/ob mice...
  49. Yokoyama M, Yagyu H, Hu Y, Seo T, Hirata K, Homma S, et al. Apolipoprotein B production reduces lipotoxic cardiomyopathy: studies in heart-specific lipoprotein lipase transgenic mouse. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:4204-11 pubmed
    ..lipoprotein uptake was greater in hLpLGPI hearts, and this was associated with more intracellular apolipoprotein B (apoB)...
  50. Galloway C, Ashton J, Sparks J, Mooney R, Smith H. Metabolic regulation of APOBEC-1 complementation factor trafficking in mouse models of obesity and its positive correlation with the expression of ApoB protein in hepatocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1802:976-85 pubmed publisher
    APOBEC-1 Complementation Factor (ACF) is an RNA-binding protein that interacts with apoB mRNA to support RNA editing. ACF traffics between the cytoplasm and nucleus...
  51. Fossat N, Tourle K, Radziewic T, Barratt K, Liebhold D, Studdert J, et al. C to U RNA editing mediated by APOBEC1 requires RNA-binding protein RBM47. EMBO Rep. 2014;15:903-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Editing is further impaired in Rbm47-deficient mutant mice. These findings suggest that RBM47 and APOBEC1 constitute the basic machinery for C to U RNA editing. ..
  52. Broad T, Burkin D, Cambridge L, Jones C, Lewis P, Morse H, et al. Six loci mapped on to human chromosome 2p are assigned to sheep chromosome 3p. Anim Genet. 1995;26:85-90 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we predict that the other loci assigned in this study to sheep 3p are likely to be located on cattle 11. The provisional assignment of an additional locus, annexin-like to sheep chromosome 3p is also reported. ..
  53. Lloyd D, Helmering J, Kaufman S, Turk J, Silva M, Vasquez S, et al. A volumetric method for quantifying atherosclerosis in mice by using microCT: comparison to en face. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18800 pubmed publisher
    ..These data validate the use of microCT technology to provide a more exact empirical measure of ex vivo plaque volume throughout the entire intact aorta in situ for the quantification of atherosclerosis in preclinical models. ..
  54. Forrest L, Boudyguina E, Wilson M, Parks J. Echium oil reduces atherosclerosis in apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Atherosclerosis. 2012;220:118-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Echium oil contains stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4, n-3), which is metabolized to EPA in humans and mice, resulting in decreased plasma triglycerides...
  55. Durga Devi T, Babu M, Mäkinen P, Kaikkonen M, Heinaniemi M, Laakso H, et al. Aggravated Postinfarct Heart Failure in Type 2 Diabetes Is Associated with Impaired Mitophagy and Exaggerated Inflammasome Activation. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:2659-2673 pubmed publisher
  56. Morrisey E, Tang Z, Sigrist K, Lu M, Jiang F, Ip H, et al. GATA6 regulates HNF4 and is required for differentiation of visceral endoderm in the mouse embryo. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3579-90 pubmed
    ..In addition, these data demonstrate that GATA6 is required for establishment of the endodermally derived bronchial epithelium. ..
  57. Myöhänen S, Wahlfors J, Alhonen L, Janne J. Nucleotide sequence of mouse spermidine synthase cDNA. DNA Seq. 1994;4:343-6 pubmed
    ..The open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 302 amino acids, displaying 95% similarity to human and 33% similarity to E. coli spermidine synthase. The 3' flanking region contained an unusual polyadenylation signal AATACA. ..
  58. Young S. Using genetically modified mice to study apolipoprotein B. J Atheroscler Thromb. 1996;3:62-74 pubmed
  59. Kulinski A, Vance D, Vance J. A choline-deficient diet in mice inhibits neither the CDP-choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine synthesis in hepatocytes nor apolipoprotein B secretion. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23916-24 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the amount and m activity of the cytidylyltransferase and methyltransferase were increased. The reduction in plasma apoB in mice deprived of dietary choline cannot, therefore, be attributed to decreased apoB secretion.
  60. Young S, Farese R, Pierotti V, Taylor S, Grass D, Linton M. Transgenic mice expressing human apoB100 and apoB48. Curr Opin Lipidol. 1994;5:94-101 pubmed
    ..by microinjecting fertilized mouse oocytes with an 80 kb genomic DNA fragment that encompasses the entire human APOB gene...
  61. Fujihara M, Cano M, Handa J. Mice that produce ApoB100 lipoproteins in the RPE do not develop drusen yet are still a valuable experimental system. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:7285-95 pubmed publisher
    Mice typically produce apolipoprotein B (apoB)-48 and not apoB100...
  62. Kinnunen K, Heinonen S, Kalesnykas G, Laidinen S, Uusitalo Jarvinen H, Uusitalo H, et al. LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice with insulin-like growth factor II overexpression reveal a novel form of retinopathy with photoreceptor atrophy and altered morphology of the retina. Mol Vis. 2013;19:1723-33 pubmed
    ..IGF-II-negative LDLR(-/-)ApoB(100/100) littermates and C57Bl/6J mice served as controls...
  63. Lénárt N, Szegedi V, Juhasz G, Kasztner A, Horváth J, Bereczki E, et al. Increased tau phosphorylation and impaired presynaptic function in hypertriglyceridemic ApoB-100 transgenic mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46007 pubmed publisher
    b>ApoB-100 is the major protein component of cholesterol- and triglyceride-rich LDL and VLDL lipoproteins in the serum. Previously, we generated and partially described transgenic mice overexpressing the human ApoB-100 protein...
  64. Engelbertsen D, Rattik S, Knutsson A, Bjorkbacka H, Bengtsson E, Nilsson J. Induction of T helper 2 responses against human apolipoprotein B100 does not affect atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. Cardiovasc Res. 2014;103:304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunization with homologous oxidized LDL, as well as human apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB)-derived peptides, inhibits atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolaemic animal models of atherosclerosis...
  65. Lagor W, Fields D, Khetarpal S, Kumaravel A, Lin W, Weintraub N, et al. The effects of apolipoprotein F deficiency on high density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31616 pubmed publisher
    ..05). No differences were observed in ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity in either sex. Interestingly, ApoB-depleted serum from male KO mice was less effective at promoting ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from J774 ..
  66. Huang L, Voyiaziakis E, Chen H, Rubin E, Gordon J. A novel functional role for apolipoprotein B in male infertility in heterozygous apolipoprotein B knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10903-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that this genetic locus may have an important impact on male fertility and identify a previously unrecognized function for apo B. ..
  67. Tirziu D, Moodie K, Zhuang Z, Singer K, Helisch A, Dunn J, et al. Delayed arteriogenesis in hypercholesterolemic mice. Circulation. 2005;112:2501-9 pubmed
    ..on arteriogenesis, we investigated arterial growth in hypercholesterolemic low-density lipoprotein receptor(-/-)/ApoB-48(-/-) (HCE) mice...
  68. Kamagate A, Qu S, Perdomo G, Su D, Kim D, Slusher S, et al. FoxO1 mediates insulin-dependent regulation of hepatic VLDL production in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2347-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that FoxO1 mediates insulin regulation of MTP production and that augmented MTP levels may be a causative factor for VLDL overproduction and hypertriglyceridemia in diabetes. ..
  69. Chan D, Dogra G, Irish A, Ooi E, Barrett P, Chan D, et al. Chronic kidney disease delays VLDL-apoB-100 particle catabolism: potential role of apolipoprotein C-III. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:2524-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined total VLDL, VLDL(1), VLDL(2), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and LDL-apoB-100 using intravenous D3-leucine, GC-MS, and multicompartmental modeling...
  70. Zhao Y, Chen X, Yang H, Zhou L, Okoro E, Guo Z. A novel function of apolipoprotein E: upregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 expression. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21453 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ApoE on ApoB-carrying lipoprotein-induced expression of ABCA1, a protein that mediates cholesterol efflux...
  71. Leung G, Veniant M, Kim S, Zlot C, Raabe M, Bjorkegren J, et al. A deficiency of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein reduces apolipoprotein B secretion. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:7515-20 pubmed
    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) transfers lipids to apolipoprotein B (apoB) within the endoplasmic reticulum, a process that involves direct interactions between apoB and the large subunit of MTP...
  72. Kawakami A, Aikawa M, Libby P, Alcaide P, Luscinskas F, Sacks F. Apolipoprotein CIII in apolipoprotein B lipoproteins enhances the adhesion of human monocytic cells to endothelial cells. Circulation. 2006;113:691-700 pubmed
    ..VLDL CIII+ and LDL CIII+ (100 microg apoB/mL) from fasting plasma of 18 normolipidemic volunteers increased THP-1 cell adhesion to ECs under static ..
  73. Lee H, Lee G, Bhattarai K, Park B, Koo S, Kim H, et al. Bax Inhibitor-1 regulates hepatic lipid accumulation via ApoB secretion. Sci Rep. 2016;6:27799 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we explored the effects of Bax Inhibitor-1 (BI-1) on ApoB aggregation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic lipid accumulation...
  74. Miller J, Chu Y, Castaneda L, Serrano K, Brooks R, Heistad D. Vascular function during prolonged progression and regression of atherosclerosis in mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:459-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Both of these changes can be prevented by normalizing blood lipids during moderately severe or advanced atherosclerosis. ..
  75. Jiao S, Cole T, Kitchens R, Pfleger B, Schonfeld G. Genetic heterogeneity of plasma lipoproteins in the mouse: control of low density lipoprotein particle sizes by genetic factors. J Lipid Res. 1990;31:467-77 pubmed
    ..In attempting to identify a major LDL-size determining gene, we compared apoB gene restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) to the distributions of peak LDL sizes in RI strains...
  76. Sims Robinson C, Bakeman A, Glasser R, Boggs J, Pacut C, Feldman E. The role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in hippocampal insulin resistance. Exp Neurol. 2016;277:261-267 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate for the first time that thapsigargin leads to ER stress and impaired insulin signaling in human hippocampal neurons. Our results may provide a potential mechanism that links metabolic syndrome and cognitive health. ..
  77. Loh N, Ambrose H, Guay Woodford L, DasGupta S, Nawrotzki R, Blake D, et al. Genomic organization and refined mapping of the mouse beta-dystrobrevin gene. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:857-62 pubmed
    ..However, refined mapping analysis has excluded beta-dystrobrevin as a candidate gene for either disease. ..
  78. Mollmark J, Ravi S, Sun B, Shipman S, Buitendijk M, Simons M, et al. Antiangiogenic activity of rPAI-1(23) promotes vasa vasorum regression in hypercholesterolemic mice through a plasmin-dependent mechanism. Circ Res. 2011;108:1419-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The rPAI-1(23)-enhanced plasmin activity was achieved through a novel mechanism by which rPAI-1(23) and PAI-1 bound plasminogen in a cooperative manner to increase plasmin activity and reduce PAI-1 activity. ..
  79. Liu Y, Millar J, Cromley D, Graham M, Crooke R, Billheimer J, et al. Knockdown of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 with antisense oligonucleotide reduces VLDL TG and ApoB secretion in mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1781:97-104 pubmed publisher
    ..significant dose dependent decrease in VLDL TG secretion (up to 52%) and reduced plasma TG, total cholesterol, and ApoB. Similar results were obtained when DGAT1 KO mice were treated with the DGAT2 ASO...
  80. Døssing K, Zaina S. Apolipoprotein B epitopes are present in nuclear preparations of human and mouse cells. Int J Mol Med. 2009;24:29-33 pubmed
    ..The exact molecular mechanisms for this response are not yet known. Previous studies showed that apolipoprotein B (ApoB) or its fragments can be localized in nuclei following cellular uptake, thus suggesting that ApoB may have a ..
  81. Herz J, Farese R. The LDL receptor gene family, apolipoprotein B and cholesterol in embryonic development. J Nutr. 1999;129:473S-475S pubmed publisher
  82. Wang H, Wang D. Reduced susceptibility to cholesterol gallstone formation in mice that do not produce apolipoprotein B48 in the intestine. Hepatology. 2005;42:894-904 pubmed
    ..intestinal absorption and biliary secretion of cholesterol in male mice homozygous for an "APO-B48 only" allele (Apob(48/48)), an "APO-B100 only" allele (Apob(100/100)), or a wild-type APO-B allele (Apob+/+) before and during an 8-..
  83. Dimayuga P, Zhao X, Yano J, Lio W, Zhou J, Mihailovic P, et al. Identification of apoB-100 Peptide-Specific CD8+ T Cells in Atherosclerosis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Prior studies provide evidence of low-density lipoprotein and apoB-100 reactive T cells, yet specific epitopes relevant to the disease remain to be defined...
  84. Hamilton R, Wong J, Cham C, Nielsen L, Young S. Chylomicron-sized lipid particles are formed in the setting of apolipoprotein B deficiency. J Lipid Res. 1998;39:1543-57 pubmed
    ..However, several lines of evidence have suggested that the addition of core lipids to apoB to form a lipoprotein particle within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) may involve two steps: first, the addition of ..
  85. Qian X, Balestra M, Yamanaka S, Boren J, Lee I, Innerarity T. Low expression of the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing transgene in mice reduces LDL levels but does not cause liver dysplasia or tumors. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998;18:1013-20 pubmed
    ..Liver function, liver histology, editing of apoB mRNA at the normal editing site (C6666), and abnormal editing at multiple sites (hyperediting) in these mice were ..
  86. Kovacs A, Tornvall P, Nilsson R, Tegner J, Hamsten A, Björkegren J. Human C-reactive protein slows atherosclerosis development in a mouse model with human-like hypercholesterolemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:13768-73 pubmed
    ..We bred atherosclerosis-prone mice (Apob(100/100)Ldlr(-/-)), which have human-like hypercholesterolemia, with hCRP transgenic mice (hCRP(+/0)) and studied ..
  87. Terasawa Y, Cases S, Wong J, Jamil H, Jothi S, Traber M, et al. Apolipoprotein B-related gene expression and ultrastructural characteristics of lipoprotein secretion in mouse yolk sac during embryonic development. J Lipid Res. 1999;40:1967-77 pubmed
    ..We therefore analyzed the embryonic expression of apoB, MTP, and alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP), which have been associated with the assembly and secretion ..
  88. Wagener R, Kobbe B, Aszodi A, Liu Z, Beier D, Paulsson M. Structure and mapping of the mouse matrilin-3 gene (Matn3), a member of a gene family containing a U12-type AT-AC intron. Mamm Genome. 2000;11:85-90 pubmed
    ..Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis was used to map the Matn3 gene to the proximal end of Chr 12, linked to the genes Synd1, Apob, Dntb, and Kif3c.
  89. Kulinski A, Rustaeus S, Vance J. Microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein is required for lumenal accretion of triacylglycerol not associated with ApoB, as well as for ApoB lipidation. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31516-25 pubmed
    ..We examined the role of MTP in the assembly of apoB-containing lipoproteins in cultured murine primary hepatocytes using an inhibitor of MTP...
  90. Lee B, Eicher E. Segregation patterns of endogenous mouse mammary tumor viruses in five recombinant inbred strain sets. J Virol. 1990;64:4568-72 pubmed
    ..Mtv-30 was genetically mapped to chromosome 12. Additionally, two previously identified Mtv loci, Mtv-14 and Mtv-23, were genetically mapped to chromosome 4 and chromosome 6, respectively. ..