Gene Symbol: Apoa1
Description: apolipoprotein A-I
Alias: Alp-1, Apoa-1, Brp-14, Ltw-1, Lvtw-1, Sep-1, Sep-2, Sep2, apo-AI, apoA-I, apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein A1
Species: mouse
Products:     Apoa1

Top Publications

  1. Plump A, Azrolan N, Odaka H, Wu L, Jiang X, Tall A, et al. ApoA-I knockout mice: characterization of HDL metabolism in homozygotes and identification of a post-RNA mechanism of apoA-I up-regulation in heterozygotes. J Lipid Res. 1997;38:1033-47 pubmed
    ..In the apoA-I knockout mouse model it appears that low HDL levels create a new steady state in which decreased cholesterol is delivered to both peripheral tissues and the liver. ..
  2. Hopkins P, Huang Y, McGuire J, Pitas R. Evidence for differential effects of apoE3 and apoE4 on HDL metabolism. J Lipid Res. 2002;43:1881-9 pubmed
  3. Wang W, Xu H, Shi Y, Nandedkar S, Zhang H, Gao H, et al. Genetic deletion of apolipoprotein A-I increases airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and collagen deposition in the lung. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:2560-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that apoA-I plays important roles in limiting pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, which if not prevented, will decrease pulmonary artery vasodilatation and increase airway hyperresponsiveness. ..
  4. Moore R, Navab M, Millar J, Zimetti F, Hama S, Rothblat G, et al. Increased atherosclerosis in mice lacking apolipoprotein A-I attributable to both impaired reverse cholesterol transport and increased inflammation. Circ Res. 2005;97:763-71 pubmed
  5. Nuño Ayala M, Guillen N, Navarro M, Lou Bonafonte J, Arnal C, Gascón S, et al. Cysteinemia, rather than homocysteinemia, is associated with plasma apolipoprotein A-I levels in hyperhomocysteinemia: lipid metabolism in cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. Atherosclerosis. 2010;212:268-73 pubmed publisher
    Genetic and dietary hyperhomocysteinemia has been found to decrease high density lipoproteins (HDL) and their apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1)...
  6. Lund Katz S, Nguyen D, Dhanasekaran P, Kono M, Nickel M, Saito H, et al. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of the mechanism of binding of apoA-I to high density lipoprotein particles. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:606-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This K(d) value does not apply to all of the apoA-I molecules on the HDL particle but only to a relatively small, labile pool. ..
  7. Wang Y, Sawashita J, Qian J, Zhang B, Fu X, Tian G, et al. ApoA-I deficiency in mice is associated with redistribution of apoA-II and aggravated AApoAII amyloidosis. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:1461-70 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the influence of apoA-I on apoA-II and AApoAII amyloidosis, apoA-I-deficient (C57BL/6J.Apoa1?/?) mice were used...
  8. Zamanian Daryoush M, Lindner D, Tallant T, Wang Z, Buffa J, Klipfell E, et al. The cardioprotective protein apolipoprotein A1 promotes potent anti-tumorigenic effects. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:21237-52 pubmed publisher
    Here, we show that apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), the major protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL), through both innate and adaptive immune processes, potently suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in multiple animal tumor ..
  9. Lorenzi I, von Eckardstein A, Cavelier C, Radosavljevic S, Rohrer L. Apolipoprotein A-I but not high-density lipoproteins are internalised by RAW macrophages: roles of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 and scavenger receptor BI. J Mol Med (Berl). 2008;86:171-83 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, blocking apoA-I uptake inhibits cholesterol efflux to apoA-I but not to HDL. Taken together, these data suggest that apoA-I- but not HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux may involve retroendocytosis...

More Information


  1. Li H, Reddick R, Maeda N. Lack of apoA-I is not associated with increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis in mice. Arterioscler Thromb. 1993;13:1814-21 pubmed
    ..Inbred strain 129 mice homozygous for the inactive Apoa1 gene and maintained on regular mouse chow had markedly reduced total cholesterol (26% normal) and high-density ..
  2. Reschly E, Sorci Thomas M, Davidson W, Meredith S, Reardon C, Getz G. Apolipoprotein A-I alpha -helices 7 and 8 modulate high density lipoprotein subclass distribution. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:9645-54 pubmed
    ..Human apoA-I self-associates more and activates human lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase better than mouse apoA-I. These differential characteristics of human and mouse apoA-I are not dependent on helices 7/8. ..
  3. Koyama M, Tanaka M, Dhanasekaran P, Lund Katz S, Phillips M, Saito H. Interaction between the N- and C-terminal domains modulates the stability and lipid binding of apolipoprotein A-I. Biochemistry. 2009;48:2529-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that interaction between the N- and C-terminal tertiary structure domains in apoA-I modulates the stability and lipid-binding properties of the N-terminal helix bundle. ..
  4. Denis M, Landry Y, Zha X. ATP-binding cassette A1-mediated lipidation of apolipoprotein A-I occurs at the plasma membrane and not in the endocytic compartments. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:16178-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that the plasma membrane is the main platform where ABCA1-mediated lipidation of apoA-I occurs...
  5. Sontag T, Carnemolla R, Vaisar T, Reardon C, Getz G. Naturally occurring variant of mouse apolipoprotein A-I alters the lipid and HDL association properties of the protein. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:951-63 pubmed publisher
  6. Martinez L, Agerholm Larsen B, Wang N, Chen W, Tall A. Phosphorylation of a pest sequence in ABCA1 promotes calpain degradation and is reversed by ApoA-I. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:37368-74 pubmed
  7. Provost P, Boucher E, Tremblay Y. Apolipoprotein A-I, A-II, C-II, and H expression in the developing lung and sex difference in surfactant lipids. J Endocrinol. 2009;200:321-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are compatible with a role for apolipoproteins in lipid metabolism and transport in the developing lung in association with the sex difference in surfactant lipid synthesis. ..
  8. Cabana V, Feng N, Reardon C, Lukens J, Webb N, de Beer F, et al. Influence of apoA-I and apoE on the formation of serum amyloid A-containing lipoproteins in vivo and in vitro. J Lipid Res. 2004;45:317-25 pubmed
    ..In the absence of both apoA-I and apoE, SAA-HDL is not formed and SAA associates with any available lipoprotein. ..
  9. Tanaka M, Koyama M, Dhanasekaran P, Nguyen D, Nickel M, Lund Katz S, et al. Influence of tertiary structure domain properties on the functionality of apolipoprotein A-I. Biochemistry. 2008;47:2172-80 pubmed publisher
    ..It is clear that the stability of the N-terminal helix bundle, and the hydrophobicity and alpha-helix content of the C-terminal domain, are critical factors in determining the overall properties of the apoA-I molecule. ..
  10. Ji Y, Wang N, Ramakrishnan R, Sehayek E, Huszar D, Breslow J, et al. Hepatic scavenger receptor BI promotes rapid clearance of high density lipoprotein free cholesterol and its transport into bile. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:33398-402 pubmed
    ..Thus, in the mouse, a major portion of the clearance of HDL FC from plasma is mediated by SR-BI. ..
  11. Kim B, Mao J, Taketo M, Shivdasani R. Phases of canonical Wnt signaling during the development of mouse intestinal epithelium. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:529-38 pubmed
    ..The canonical Wnt pathway has independent, albeit possibly overlapping, functions in early intestinal villi and adult crypts. These observations advance understanding of Wnt functions in intestinal development and disease. ..
  12. Voyiaziakis E, Goldberg I, Plump A, Rubin E, Breslow J, Huang L. ApoA-I deficiency causes both hypertriglyceridemia and increased atherosclerosis in human apoB transgenic mice. J Lipid Res. 1998;39:313-21 pubmed
    ..This mouse model mimics human conditions associated with low HDL levels and provides additional evidence for the anti-atherogenic role of apoA-I. ..
  13. Dai C, Yao X, Keeran K, Zywicke G, Qu X, Yu Z, et al. Apolipoprotein A-I attenuates ovalbumin-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation via a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-dependent mechanism. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012;47:186-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, these findings suggest that apoA-I may play an important role in modulating the severity of neutrophilic airway inflammation in asthma. ..
  14. Wiltshire S, Diez E, Miao Q, Dube M, Gagné M, Paquette O, et al. Genetic control of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in AcB/BcA recombinant congenic strains of mice. Physiol Genomics. 2012;44:843-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence analysis of these candidates identified a de novo, loss-of-function mutation in the ApoA1 gene of BcA68 that prematurely truncates the ApoA1 protein...
  15. Sontag T, Krishack P, Lukens J, Bhanvadia C, Getz G, Reardon C. Apolipoprotein A-I protection against atherosclerosis is dependent on genetic background. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014;34:262-9 pubmed publisher
    ..ApoA-I is atheroprotective only in certain genetic contexts. In the C57BL/6 context, but not FVB/N, apoA-I decreases inflammatory macrophage recruitment and monocytosis, contributors to lesion formation. ..
  16. Lawn R, Pearle A, Kunz L, Rubin E, Reckless J, Metcalfe J, et al. Feedback mechanism of focal vascular lesion formation in transgenic apolipoprotein(a) mice. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:31367-71 pubmed
    ..Breaking the feedback loop prevents smooth muscle cell activation and therefore lipid lesion development. ..
  17. Liu J, Lu H, Howatt D, Balakrishnan A, Moorleghen J, SORCI THOMAS M, et al. Associations of ApoAI and ApoB-containing lipoproteins with AngII-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms in mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015;35:1826-34 pubmed publisher
    ..ApoB-containing lipoproteins contribute to augmentation of AngII-induced AAA in male mice. However, unlike atherosclerosis, AAA occurrence was not correlated with increases in plasma apoB-containing lipoprotein concentrations. ..
  18. Antonucci T, von Deimling O, Rosenblum B, Skow L, Meisler M. Conserved linkage within a 4-cM region of mouse chromosome 9 and human chromosome 11. Genetics. 1984;107:463-75 pubmed
    ..Evidence is presented for the homology of this chromosome region with the ESA4 - UPS - APO-AI region on the long arm of human chromosome 11. ..
  19. Ramagli L, Womack J, Rodriguez L. Genetic analysis of nonhistone chromosomal protein inheritance in recombinant inbred mouse strains using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Biochem Genet. 1990;28:123-36 pubmed
    ..These 16 NHCP genetic marker inheritance differences detected in RIs add to the 23 previously established genetic marker differences between the progenitors. ..
  20. Morrisey E, Tang Z, Sigrist K, Lu M, Jiang F, Ip H, et al. GATA6 regulates HNF4 and is required for differentiation of visceral endoderm in the mouse embryo. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3579-90 pubmed
    ..In addition, these data demonstrate that GATA6 is required for establishment of the endodermally derived bronchial epithelium. ..
  21. Lefterov I, Fitz N, Cronican A, Fogg A, Lefterov P, Kodali R, et al. Apolipoprotein A-I deficiency increases cerebral amyloid angiopathy and cognitive deficits in APP/PS1DeltaE9 mice. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:36945-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that lack of apoA-I aggravates the memory deficits in APP/PS1?E9 mice in parallel to significantly increased cerebral amyloid angiopathy. ..
  22. Quan G, Xie C, Dietschy J, Turley S. Ontogenesis and regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the central nervous system of the mouse. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2003;146:87-98 pubmed
    ..In the adult, however, synthesis exceeds the need for structural cholesterol so that there is a constant excretion of sterol from the CNS into the plasma at a rate of about 0.023 mg/day...
  23. Duka A, Fotakis P, Georgiadou D, Kateifides A, Tzavlaki K, von Eckardstein L, et al. ApoA-IV promotes the biogenesis of apoA-IV-containing HDL particles with the participation of ABCA1 and LCAT. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:107-15 pubmed publisher
  24. Gkouskou K, Ioannou M, Pavlopoulos G, Georgila K, Siganou A, Nikolaidis G, et al. Apolipoprotein A-I inhibits experimental colitis and colitis-propelled carcinogenesis. Oncogene. 2016;35:2496-505 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data demonstrate a novel protective role for ApoA-I in colitis and CAC and unravel an unprecedented link between lipid metabolic processes and intestinal pathologies. ..
  25. Scanu A, Toth J, Edelstein C, Koga S, Stiller E. Fractionation of human serum high density lipoprotein in urea solutions. Evidence for polypeptide heterogeneity. Biochemistry. 1969;8:3309-16 pubmed
  26. Kypreos K, Zannis V. Pathway of biogenesis of apolipoprotein E-containing HDL in vivo with the participation of ABCA1 and LCAT. Biochem J. 2007;403:359-67 pubmed
    ..HDL particles generated by this pathway may account at least for some of the atheroprotective functions of apoE...
  27. Wanderling S, Simen B, Ostrovsky O, Ahmed N, Vogen S, Gidalevitz T, et al. GRP94 is essential for mesoderm induction and muscle development because it regulates insulin-like growth factor secretion. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3764-75 pubmed
    ..The data identify insulin-like growth factor II as one developmentally important protein whose production depends on the activity of GRP94. ..
  28. Norata G, Marchesi P, Pirillo A, Uboldi P, Chiesa G, Maina V, et al. Long pentraxin 3, a key component of innate immunity, is modulated by high-density lipoproteins in endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:925-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that part of the atheroprotective effects of HDL could result from the modulation of molecules that act as sensors of the immunoinflammatory balance in the vascular wall. ..
  29. Håkansson E, Juneja R, Lundin L. Gene for a serum protein on chromosome 9 in the mouse. Genet Res. 1979;33:147-52 pubmed
  30. Williamson R, Lee D, Hagaman J, Maeda N. Marked reduction of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in mice genetically modified to lack apolipoprotein A-I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:7134-8 pubmed
  31. Major A, Dove D, Ishiguro H, Su Y, Brown A, Liu L, et al. Increased cholesterol efflux in apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI)-producing macrophages as a mechanism for reduced atherosclerosis in ApoAI((-/-)) mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001;21:1790-5 pubmed
    ..This protection is likely mediated by increased cholesterol efflux and decreased foam cell formation in vivo. ..
  32. Allen Jennings A, Hartman M, Kociba G, Hai T. The roles of ATF3 in glucose homeostasis. A transgenic mouse model with liver dysfunction and defects in endocrine pancreas. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:29507-14 pubmed
    ..Because ATF3 is a stress-inducible gene, these mice may represent a model to investigate the molecular mechanisms for some stress-associated diseases. ..
  33. Callow M, Dudoit S, Gong E, Speed T, Rubin E. Microarray expression profiling identifies genes with altered expression in HDL-deficient mice. Genome Res. 2000;10:2022-9 pubmed
    ..These studies illustrate the use of multiple-testing methods for the identification of genes with altered expression in replicated microarray experiments. ..
  34. Blair H, Kalyvioti E, Papachristou N, Tourkova I, Syggelos S, Deligianni D, et al. Apolipoprotein A-1 regulates osteoblast and lipoblast precursor cells in mice. Lab Invest. 2016;96:763-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the apoA-1 deficiency generates changes in the bone cell precursor population that increase adipoblast, and decrease osteoblast production resulting in reduced bone mass and impaired bone quality in mice. ..
  35. Gharavi A, Ahmad T, Wong R, Hooshyar R, Vaughn J, Oller S, et al. Mapping a locus for susceptibility to HIV-1-associated nephropathy to mouse chromosome 3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:2488-93 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate a strong genetic influence on HIVAN and demonstrate a major renal disease susceptibility locus on mouse chromosome 3A1-3. ..
  36. Shimano H, Horton J, Hammer R, Shimomura I, Brown M, Goldstein J. Overproduction of cholesterol and fatty acids causes massive liver enlargement in transgenic mice expressing truncated SREBP-1a. J Clin Invest. 1996;98:1575-84 pubmed
    ..The amount of white adipose tissue decreased progressively as the liver enlarged. These studies indicate that the NH2-terminal domain of SREBP-1a can produce major effects on lipid synthesis and storage in the liver. ..
  37. Zannis V, Koukos G, Drosatos K, Vezeridis A, Zanni E, Kypreos K, et al. Discrete roles of apoA-I and apoE in the biogenesis of HDL species: lessons learned from gene transfer studies in different mouse models. Ann Med. 2008;40 Suppl 1:14-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The apoE-containing HDL particles formed in the circulation may have atheroprotective properties. ApoE-containing HDL may also have important biological functions in the brain that confer protection from Alzheimer's disease...
  38. Youngblood G, Nesbitt M, Payne A. The structural genes encoding P450scc and P450arom are closely linked on mouse chromosome 9. Endocrinology. 1989;125:2784-6 pubmed
    ..The information presented in this report, along with other studies, indicate conservation between homologous human and mouse chromosomal regions and suggest that human P450SCC will be found to be closely linked with human P450arom. ..
  39. Zhao Y, Thorngate F, Weisgraber K, Williams D, Parks J. Apolipoprotein E is the major physiological activator of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) on apolipoprotein B lipoproteins. Biochemistry. 2005;44:1013-25 pubmed
    ..We conclude that apoE is a more significant activator of LCAT than apoA-I on mouse apoB lipoproteins. ..
  40. Srivastava R, Tang J, Krul E, Pfleger B, Kitchens R, Schonfeld G. Dietary fatty acids and dietary cholesterol differ in their effect on the in vivo regulation of apolipoprotein A-I and A-II gene expression in inbred strains of mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1125:251-61 pubmed
    ..This study identifies potential loci of regulation and forms the basis for future studies investigating specific genetic and molecular regulatory mechanisms. ..
  41. Liu W, Qin L, Yu H, Lv F, Wang Y. Apolipoprotein A-I and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 expression alleviates lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;29:614-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of apoA-I or ABCA1 can reduce steatosis by decreasing lipid storage in hepatocytes through lipid transport and may also reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress, further lessening hepatic steatosis. ..
  42. Durliat M, Andr M, Babin P. Conserved protein motifs and structural organization of a fish gene homologous to mammalian apolipoprotein E. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:549-59 pubmed
    ..These results will serve as a basis for comparative studies on transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms of APOE regulation in vertebrates...
  43. Burgess J, Kiss R, Zheng H, Zachariah S, Marcel Y. Trypsin-sensitive and lipid-containing sites of the macrophage extracellular matrix bind apolipoprotein A-I and participate in ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31318-26 pubmed
    ..These studies establish a novel binding site for apoA-I on the macrophage ECM that may function together with ABCA1 in promoting cholesterol efflux...
  44. Yue P, Chen Z, Nassir F, Bernal Mizrachi C, Finck B, Azhar S, et al. Enhanced hepatic apoA-I secretion and peripheral efflux of cholesterol and phospholipid in CD36 null mice. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9906 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, CD36 influences reverse cholesterol transport and hepatic ApoA-I production. Both pathways are enhanced in CD36 deficiency, increasing HDL concentrations, which suggests the potential benefit of CD36 inhibition...
  45. Okon M, Frank P, Marcel Y, Cushley R. Heteronuclear NMR studies of human serum apolipoprotein A-I. Part I. Secondary structure in lipid-mimetic solution. FEBS Lett. 2002;517:139-43 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the apoA-I and apoA-I(1-186) [Okon et al., FEBS Lett. 487 (2001) 390-396] solution structures revealed that apoA-I undergoes a conformational change around Pro121. ..
  46. Petropoulou P, Berbee J, Theodoropoulos V, Hatziri A, Stamou P, Karavia E, et al. Lack of LCAT reduces the LPS-neutralizing capacity of HDL and enhances LPS-induced inflammation in mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1852:2106-15 pubmed publisher
    ..HDL lacks significant amounts of ApoA-I and ApoA-II and is primarily composed of ApoE, while HDL from Apoa1(-/-) mice is highly enriched in ApoE and ApoA-II...
  47. Cavigiolio G, Jayaraman S. Proteolysis of apolipoprotein A-I by secretory phospholipase A?: a new link between inflammation and atherosclerosis. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:10011-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies a previously unknown proteolytic activity of PLA2 that is specific to apoA-I and may contribute to the enhanced catabolism of apoA-I in inflammation and atherosclerosis. ..
  48. Hajri T, Elliott Bryant R, Sipe J, Liang J, Hayes K, Cathcart E. The acute phase response in apolipoprotein A-1 knockout mice: apolipoprotein serum amyloid A and lipid distribution in plasma high density lipoproteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1394:209-18 pubmed
    ..a positive acute phase reactant protein, is transported in high density lipoproteins (HDL), especially HDLH (apoA1-rich HDL)...
  49. Carnicer R, Guzman M, Acin S, Surra J, Navarro M, Arbones Mainar J, et al. Genetic background in apolipoprotein A-I and cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. Front Biosci. 2008;13:5155-62 pubmed
    Double heterozygous mice lacking one allele of Cbs and Apoa1 develop hyperhomocysteinemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia together with moderate hypertension...
  50. Miller R, Ozaki J, Riblet R, Gold D. Genetic mapping of mouse T3d and T3e between Apoa1 and Ncam. Immunogenetics. 1989;30:511-4 pubmed
  51. Berisha S, Brubaker G, Kasumov T, Hung K, DiBello P, Huang Y, et al. HDL from apoA1 transgenic mice expressing the 4WF isoform is resistant to oxidative loss of function. J Lipid Res. 2015;56:653-64 pubmed publisher
    HDL functions are impaired by myeloperoxidase (MPO), which selectively targets and oxidizes human apoA1. We previously found that the 4WF isoform of human apoA1, in which the four tryptophan residues are substituted with phenylalanine, ..
  52. Kingsley D. Encyclopedia of the mouse genome III. October 1993. Mouse chromosome 9. Mamm Genome. 1993;4 Spec No:S136-53 pubmed
  53. Elliott Bryant R, Cathcart E. Apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein A-1 knock-out mice readily develop amyloid A protein amyloidosis. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1997;85:104-8 pubmed
    ..The findings clearly demonstrate that generation of AA fibrils can occur independently of apoE and ApoA-1 expression. ..
  54. Maric J, Kiss R, Franklin V, Marcel Y. Intracellular lipidation of newly synthesized apolipoprotein A-I in primary murine hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39942-9 pubmed
    ..Kiss, R. S., Franklin, V., Wang, M. D., Haidar, B., and Marcel, Y. L. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 21612-21621) occurs after secretion at the cell surface...
  55. Combes V, Coltel N, Alibert M, Van Eck M, Raymond C, Juhan Vague I, et al. ABCA1 gene deletion protects against cerebral malaria: potential pathogenic role of microparticles in neuropathology. Am J Pathol. 2005;166:295-302 pubmed
  56. Wool G, Vaisar T, Reardon C, Getz G. An apoA-I mimetic peptide containing a proline residue has greater in vivo HDL binding and anti-inflammatory ability than the 4F peptide. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:1889-900 pubmed publisher
    ..bPro, however, specifically binds to moHDL in vivo. In addition, the number of amphipathic alpha-helices and their linker influences the anti-inflammatory effects of apoA-I mimetic peptides in vivo. ..
  57. Ritter M, Buechler C, Boettcher A, Barlage S, Schmitz Madry A, Orso E, et al. Cloning and characterization of a novel apolipoprotein A-I binding protein, AI-BP, secreted by cells of the kidney proximal tubules in response to HDL or ApoA-I. Genomics. 2002;79:693-702 pubmed
    ..The stimulation of cells derived from the kidney proximal tubules with apoA-I or HDL induces a concentration-dependent secretion of AI-BP indicating an important role for AI-BP, in the renal tubular degradation or resorption of apoA-I. ..
  58. Sontag T, Reardon C. Polymorphisms of mouse apolipoprotein A-II alter its physical and functional nature. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e88705 pubmed publisher
    ..FVB apoA-II is able to form an HDL particle in the absence of apoE or apoA-I. ..
  59. Januzzi J, Azrolan N, O CONNELL A, Aalto Setala K, Breslow J. Characterization of the mouse apolipoprotein Apoa-1/Apoc-3 gene locus: genomic, mRNA, and protein sequences with comparisons to other species. Genomics. 1992;14:1081-8 pubmed
    ..Significant sequence homologies between species exist for the proximal promoter and exonic regions of each gene, but not for the intronic or intergenic regions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  60. Parolini C, Caligari S, Gilio D, Manzini S, Busnelli M, Montagnani M, et al. Reduced biliary sterol output with no change in total faecal excretion in mice expressing a human apolipoprotein A-I variant. Liver Int. 2012;32:1363-71 pubmed publisher
  61. Chroni A, Duka A, Kan H, Liu T, Zannis V. Point mutations in apolipoprotein A-I mimic the phenotype observed in patients with classical lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency. Biochemistry. 2005;44:14353-66 pubmed
    ..The findings indicate a critical contribution of residue 160 of apoA-I to the in vivo activity of LCAT and the subsequent maturation of HDL and explain the low HDL levels in heterozygous subjects carrying this mutation. ..
  62. Guo Y, Fan Y, Zhang J, Lomberk G, Zhou Z, Sun L, et al. Perhexiline activates KLF14 and reduces atherosclerosis by modulating ApoA-I production. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:3819-30 pubmed publisher
  63. Stukas S, May S, Wilkinson A, Chan J, Donkin J, Wellington C. The LXR agonist GW3965 increases apoA-I protein levels in the central nervous system independent of ABCA1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1821:536-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in High Density Lipoprotein Formation and Metabolism: A Tribute to John F. Oram (1945-2010)...
  64. Wang G, Zhang J, Moskophidis D, Mivechi N. Targeted disruption of the heat shock transcription factor (hsf)-2 gene results in increased embryonic lethality, neuronal defects, and reduced spermatogenesis. Genesis. 2003;36:48-61 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that hsf2 has a major function in controlling expression of genes important for embryonic development and maintenance of sperm production. ..
  65. Duncan S. Transcriptional regulation of liver development. Dev Dyn. 2000;219:131-42 pubmed
    ..The picture that emerges is that specific transcription factors use novel mechanisms to orchestrate changes in gene expression patterns that ultimately direct cell differentiation. ..
  66. Xu B, Gillard B, Gotto A, Rosales C, Pownall H. ABCA1-Derived Nascent High-Density Lipoprotein-Apolipoprotein AI and Lipids Metabolically Segregate. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:2260-2270 pubmed publisher
    ..model by identifying the fates of nHDL-[3H]FC, [14C] phospholipid (PL), and [125I]apo AI in serum in vitro and in vivo...
  67. Chroni A, Liu T, Gorshkova I, Kan H, Uehara Y, von Eckardstein A, et al. The central helices of ApoA-I can promote ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-mediated lipid efflux. Amino acid residues 220-231 of the wild-type ApoA-I are required for lipid efflux in vitro and high density lipoprotein formation in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:6719-30 pubmed
  68. Wang X, Paigen B. Quantitative trait loci and candidate genes regulating HDL cholesterol: a murine chromosome map. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:1390-401 pubmed
    ..Murine QTL for HDL-C levels may predict their homologous location in humans, and their underlying genes may be appropriate genes to test in humans. ..
  69. Wang Y, Zhu X, Wu G, Shen L, Chen B. Effect of lipid-bound apoA-I cysteine mutants on lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia in mice. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:1640-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, compared with rHDLwt, rHDL74 and rHDL52 exhibit higher anti-inflammation capabilities, whereas rHDL228 shows hyper-proinflammation by exacerbating LPS-induced endotoxemia in mice. ..
  70. Miller J, Barth R, Shaw P, Elliott R, Hastie N. Identification of a cDNA clone for mouse apoprotein A-1 (apo A-1) and its use in characterization of apo A-1 mRNA expression in liver and small intestine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:1511-5 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that there is a differential effect of a diet high in saturated fat and cholesterol on apo A-1 mRNA levels in liver and small intestine. ..
  71. Gong E, Tan C, Shoukry M, Rubin E, Nichols A. Structural and functional properties of human and mouse apolipoprotein A-I. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1213:335-42 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate differences between apo A-Im and apo A-Ih that may contribute to the major changes in plasma HDL distribution and function observed in apo A-Ih transgenic mice. ..
  72. Stein O, Dabach Y, Hollander G, Ben Naim M, Halperin G, Breslow J, et al. Delayed loss of cholesterol from a localized lipoprotein depot in apolipoprotein A-I-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:9820-4 pubmed
    ..These results provide support for the thesis that anti-atherogenicity of high density lipoprotein is related in part to its role in cholesterol removal. ..
  73. Webb N, De Beer M, van der Westhuyzen D, Kindy M, Banka C, Tsukamoto K, et al. Adenoviral vector-mediated overexpression of serum amyloid A in apoA-I-deficient mice. J Lipid Res. 1997;38:1583-90 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SAA is unable to substitute for apoA-I in HDL particle formation. ..
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    ..We conclude that residues D89, E91, and E92 of apoA-I are important for plasma cholesterol and triglyceride homeostasis as well as for the maturation of HDL. ..
  75. Sorci Thomas M, Thomas M, Curtiss L, Landrum M. Single repeat deletion in ApoA-I blocks cholesterol esterification and results in rapid catabolism of delta6 and wild-type ApoA-I in transgenic mice. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:12156-63 pubmed
    ..Deletion of apoA-I repeat 6 not only blocks normal levels of cholesterol esterification but also exerts a dominant inhibition on the ability of wild-type apoA-I to activate LCAT in vivo. ..
  76. Tao R, Acquati F, Marcovina S, Hobbs H. Human growth hormone increases apo(a) expression in transgenic mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999;19:2439-47 pubmed
    ..The coordinate changes in apo(a) mRNA and plasma levels of apo(a) in response to rhGH and IGF-1 strongly suggest that these 2 hormones have independent effects on the transcription of the apo(a) gene. ..
  77. Boisvert W, Black A, Curtiss L. ApoA1 reduces free cholesterol accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE-deficient mice transplanted with ApoE-expressing macrophages. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999;19:525-30 pubmed
    Along with apolipoprotein (apo) E, which promotes cholesterol efflux from foam cells, apoA1-containing high density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to facilitate the transport of cholesterol from lesions...
  78. Chiesa G, Parolini C, Canavesi M, Colombo N, Sirtori C, Fumagalli R, et al. Human apolipoproteins A-I and A-II in cell cholesterol efflux: studies with transgenic mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998;18:1417-23 pubmed
  79. Dadabayev A, Yin G, Latchoumycandane C, McIntyre T, Lesnefsky E, Penn M. Apolipoprotein A1 regulates coenzyme Q10 absorption, mitochondrial function, and infarct size in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. J Nutr. 2014;144:1030-6 pubmed publisher
    HDL and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) concentrations inversely correlate with risk of death from ischemic heart disease; however, the role of apoA1 in the myocardial response to ischemia has not been well defined...
  80. Murphy A, Akhtari M, Tolani S, Pagler T, Bijl N, Kuo C, et al. ApoE regulates hematopoietic stem cell proliferation, monocytosis, and monocyte accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4138-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Apoa1?/? mice showed no monocytosis compared with controls...
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    ..Thus, macrophage apoAI expression protects against atherosclerosis and dermatitis by reducing cholesterol accumulation and regulating CD4(+) T-cell levels, without affecting serum HDL or tissue macrophage levels. ..
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    ..Although ABCA7 does not contribute to apolipoprotein-mediated lipid efflux in resting macrophages, its cell surface location in the kidney suggests that it could serve such a role in tissue microenvironments...
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    ..Thus, the mouse provides a useful model system for examining the genetic control of mammalian HDL structure and regulation. ..
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    ..These results indicate that expression of proteins related with inflammation and renal fibrosis changes by Mxi1 inactivation in polycystic kidney. ..
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    ..Hepatocyte expression of ABCA1 is central to the lipidation of newly synthesized apoA-I but also contributes to the lipidation of exogenous apoA-I. However, a significant basal level of phospholipidation occurs in the absence of ABCA1...
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    ..5/18.5. Temporal and geographic co-expression of apoAI, AII, and H genes with surfactant production site suggests that the three apolipoproteins are secreted to play roles supporting the lung-specific surfactant lipid-related metabolism. ..
  87. Birkenmeier E, Gordon J. Developmental regulation of a gene that encodes a cysteine-rich intestinal protein and maps near the murine immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:2516-20 pubmed
    ..CRIP mRNA is a molecular marker for the suckling-to-weaning transition of rodent intestinal development. The cloned cDNA may be a useful probe for identifying factors that regulate intestinal development during this period. ..
  88. Liu J, Hernandez Ono A, Graham M, Galton V, Ginsberg H. Type 1 Deiodinase Regulates ApoA-I Gene Expression and ApoA-I Synthesis Independent of Thyroid Hormone Signaling. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:1356-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Reductions in Dio1 expression reduce the expression of ApoA-I in a 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-/thyroid hormone response element-independent manner. ..
  89. Meriwether D, Sulaiman D, Wagner A, Grijalva V, Kaji I, Williams K, et al. Transintestinal transport of the anti-inflammatory drug 4F and the modulation of transintestinal cholesterol efflux. J Lipid Res. 2016;57:1175-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results assign a novel role for 4F as a modulator of the TICE pathway and suggest that the anti-inflammatory functions of 4F may be a partial consequence of the codependent intestinal transport of both 4F and cholesterol. ..