Gene Symbol: Ank3
Description: ankyrin 3, epithelial
Alias: 2900054D09Rik, AI314020, Ank-3, AnkG, Ankyrin-3, Ankyrin-G, ankyrin-3, brain-specific ankyrin-G
Species: mouse
Products:     Ank3

Top Publications

  1. Bahou W, Nierman W, Durkin A, Potter C, Demetrick D. Chromosomal assignment of the human thrombin receptor gene: localization to region q13 of chromosome 5. Blood. 1993;82:1532-7 pubmed
    ..The chromosomal localization of the human TR gene is at or contiguous with the proximal breakpoint site identified in the majority of patients with the 5q- syndrome (dysmegakaryocytopoiesis and refractory anemia). ..
  2. Bryda E, Ling H, Rathbun D, Burmeister M, Flaherty L. Fine genetic map of mouse chromosome 10 around the polycystic kidney disease gene, jcpk, and ankyrin 3. Genomics. 1996;35:425-30 pubmed
    ..2 cM distal to D10Mit115 and 0.8 cM proximal to D10Mit173. In addition, five genes, Cdc2a, Col6a1, Col6a2, Bcr, and Ank3 were mapped in both this jcpk intercross and a (BALB/c x CAST/Ei)F1 x BALB/c backcross...
  3. Ayalon G, Davis J, Scotland P, Bennett V. An ankyrin-based mechanism for functional organization of dystrophin and dystroglycan. Cell. 2008;135:1189-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Dynactin-4 and a subset of microtubules disappear from sarcolemmal sites in ankyrin-B-depleted muscle. Ankyrin-B thus is an adaptor required for sarcolemmal localization of dystrophin, as well as dynactin-4...
  4. Peters L, John K, Lu F, Eicher E, Higgins A, Yialamas M, et al. Ank3 (epithelial ankyrin), a widely distributed new member of the ankyrin gene family and the major ankyrin in kidney, is expressed in alternatively spliced forms, including forms that lack the repeat domain. J Cell Biol. 1995;130:313-30 pubmed
    We cloned a novel ankyrin, Ank3, from mouse kidney cDNA...
  5. Pan Z, Kao T, Horvath Z, Lemos J, Sul J, Cranstoun S, et al. A common ankyrin-G-based mechanism retains KCNQ and NaV channels at electrically active domains of the axon. J Neurosci. 2006;26:2599-613 pubmed
    ..This includes the historical period when myelin also evolved. ..
  6. Leterrier C, Vacher H, Fache M, d Ortoli S, Castets F, Autillo Touati A, et al. End-binding proteins EB3 and EB1 link microtubules to ankyrin G in the axon initial segment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:8826-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a direct interaction between EB3/EB1 and the AIS scaffold protein ankyrin G (ankG)...
  7. He M, Jenkins P, Bennett V. Cysteine 70 of ankyrin-G is S-palmitoylated and is required for function of ankyrin-G in membrane domain assembly. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:43995-4005 pubmed publisher
    Ankyrin-G (AnkG) coordinates protein composition of diverse membrane domains, including epithelial lateral membranes and neuronal axon initial segments. However, how AnkG itself localizes to these membrane domains is not understood...
  8. Jenkins P, Vasavda C, Hostettler J, Davis J, Abdi K, Bennett V. E-cadherin polarity is determined by a multifunction motif mediating lateral membrane retention through ankyrin-G and apical-lateral transcytosis through clathrin. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:14018-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the combination of retention and editing function to ensure a high fidelity steady state localization of E-cadherin at the lateral membrane. ..
  9. Zhou D, Lambert S, Malen P, Carpenter S, Boland L, Bennett V. AnkyrinG is required for clustering of voltage-gated Na channels at axon initial segments and for normal action potential firing. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:1295-304 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that ankyrinG is essential for clustering NaCh and neurofascin at axon initial segments and is required for physiological levels of sodium channel activity. ..

More Information


  1. Hedstrom K, Ogawa Y, Rasband M. AnkyrinG is required for maintenance of the axon initial segment and neuronal polarity. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:635-40 pubmed publisher
    ..However, silencing the expression of the cytoskeletal scaffold ankyrinG (ankG) dismantles the AIS and causes axons to acquire the molecular characteristics of dendrites...
  2. Martin P, Carnaud M, Garcia del Caño G, Irondelle M, Irinopoulou T, Girault J, et al. Schwannomin-interacting protein-1 isoform IQCJ-SCHIP-1 is a late component of nodes of Ranvier and axon initial segments. J Neurosci. 2008;28:6111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Na(v)), NF186 (neurofascin 186), NrCAM (neuron glia-related cell adhesion molecule), and cytoskeleton linkers ankyrin G (AnkG) and betaIV-spectrin...
  3. Jenkins S, Bennett V. Ankyrin-G coordinates assembly of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton, voltage-gated sodium channels, and L1 CAMs at Purkinje neuron initial segments. J Cell Biol. 2001;155:739-46 pubmed
  4. Sobotzik J, Sie J, Politi C, Del Turco D, Bennett V, Deller T, et al. AnkyrinG is required to maintain axo-dendritic polarity in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17564-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The membrane-adaptor protein ankyrinG (ankG) is an essential component of the AIS...
  5. Paez Gonzalez P, Abdi K, Luciano D, Liu Y, Soriano Navarro M, Rawlins E, et al. Ank3-dependent SVZ niche assembly is required for the continued production of new neurons. Neuron. 2011;71:61-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We discovered that the adapter molecule Ankyrin-3 (Ank3) is specifically upregulated in ventricular progenitors destined to become ependymal cells, but not in NSCs, and is ..
  6. Lacas Gervais S, Guo J, Strenzke N, Scarfone E, Kolpe M, Jahkel M, et al. BetaIVSigma1 spectrin stabilizes the nodes of Ranvier and axon initial segments. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:983-90 pubmed
    ..Moreover, in myelinated cochlear afferent fibers, VGSC and ankyrin G clusters appear fragmented...
  7. Kizhatil K, Baker S, Arshavsky V, Bennett V. Ankyrin-G promotes cyclic nucleotide-gated channel transport to rod photoreceptor sensory cilia. Science. 2009;323:1614-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ankyrin-G is required for transport of CNG channels to the plasma membrane of rod outer segments. ..
  8. Kizhatil K, Davis J, Davis L, Hoffman J, Hogan B, Bennett V. Ankyrin-G is a molecular partner of E-cadherin in epithelial cells and early embryos. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:26552-61 pubmed
    ..Biol. Chem. 282, 2029-2037 ). Together with the current findings, these data suggest a ankyrin/spectrin-based mechanism for coordinating membrane assembly with extracellular interactions of E-cadherin at sites of cell-cell contact. ..
  9. Hund T, Koval O, Li J, Wright P, Qian L, Snyder J, et al. A ?(IV)-spectrin/CaMKII signaling complex is essential for membrane excitability in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3508-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data define an unexpected but indispensable molecular platform that determines membrane excitability in the mouse heart and brain. ..
  10. Maiweilidan Y, Klauza I, Kordeli E. Novel interactions of ankyrins-G at the costameres: the muscle-specific Obscurin/Titin-Binding-related Domain (OTBD) binds plectin and filamin C. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:724-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In striated muscle, tissue-dependent alternative splicing generates unique Ank3 gene products (ankyrins-G); they share the Obscurin/Titin-Binding-related Domain (OTBD), a muscle-specific insert ..
  11. Gumy L, Katrukha E, Grigoriev I, Jaarsma D, Kapitein L, Akhmanova A, et al. MAP2 Defines a Pre-axonal Filtering Zone to Regulate KIF1- versus KIF5-Dependent Cargo Transport in Sensory Neurons. Neuron. 2017;94:347-362.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that selective axonal cargo trafficking requires the MAP2-defined pre-axonal filtering zone and the ability of cargos to switch between distinct kinesin motor activities. ..
  12. Sohn P, Tracy T, Son H, Zhou Y, Leite R, Miller B, et al. Acetylated tau destabilizes the cytoskeleton in the axon initial segment and is mislocalized to the somatodendritic compartment. Mol Neurodegener. 2016;11:47 pubmed publisher
    ..AIS cytoskeletal proteins, including ankyrin G and ?IV-spectrin, were downregulated in AD brains and negatively correlated with an increase in tau acetylated ..
  13. Sato P, Coombs W, Lin X, Nekrasova O, Green K, Isom L, et al. Interactions between ankyrin-G, Plakophilin-2, and Connexin43 at the cardiac intercalated disc. Circ Res. 2011;109:193-201 pubmed publisher
    ..An important component of this complex is the cytoskeletal adaptor protein Ankyrin-G (AnkG)...
  14. Leussis M, Berry Scott E, Saito M, Jhuang H, De Haan G, Alkan O, et al. The ANK3 bipolar disorder gene regulates psychiatric-related behaviors that are modulated by lithium and stress. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;73:683-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Ankyrin 3 (ANK3) has been strongly implicated as a risk gene for bipolar disorder (BD) by recent genome-wide association studies of patient populations...
  15. Papandréou M, Vacher H, Fache M, Klingler E, Rueda Boroni F, Ferracci G, et al. CK2-regulated schwannomin-interacting protein IQCJ-SCHIP-1 association with AnkG contributes to the maintenance of the axon initial segment. J Neurochem. 2015;134:527-37 pubmed publisher
    ..the phosphorylation of voltage-gated sodium channels by the protein kinase CK2 regulates their interaction with AnkG and, consequently, their accumulation at the AIS...
  16. Le Bras B, Fréal A, Czarnecki A, Legendre P, Bullier E, Komada M, et al. In vivo assembly of the axon initial segment in motor neurons. Brain Struct Funct. 2014;219:1433-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study in single electroporated motor neurons in mouse embryos revealed that AnkyrinG (AnkG), the AIS master organizer, is undetectable in bipolar migrating motor neurons, but is already expressed at the ..
  17. Ho T, Zollinger D, Chang K, Xu M, Cooper E, Stankewich M, et al. A hierarchy of ankyrin-spectrin complexes clusters sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier. Nat Neurosci. 2014;17:1664-72 pubmed publisher
  18. Durak O, de Anda F, Singh K, Leussis M, Petryshen T, Sklar P, et al. Ankyrin-G regulates neurogenesis and Wnt signaling by altering the subcellular localization of ?-catenin. Mol Psychiatry. 2015;20:388-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent genome-wide association studies and whole-exome sequencing have identified ANK3, the gene coding for ankyrin-G, to be a risk gene for multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder,..
  19. Ango F, Di Cristo G, Higashiyama H, Bennett V, Wu P, Huang Z. Ankyrin-based subcellular gradient of neurofascin, an immunoglobulin family protein, directs GABAergic innervation at purkinje axon initial segment. Cell. 2004;119:257-72 pubmed
    ..Disruption of NF186-ankyrinG interactions at AIS reduced pinceau synapse formation. These results implicate ankyrin-based localization of L1CAMs in subcellular organization of GABAergic synapses. ..
  20. Mohler P, Gramolini A, Bennett V. The ankyrin-B C-terminal domain determines activity of ankyrin-B/G chimeras in rescue of abnormal inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and ryanodine receptor distribution in ankyrin-B (-/-) neonatal cardiomyocytes. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:10599-607 pubmed
    ..C-terminal domains are the most divergent between ankyrin isoforms and are candidates to encode the signal(s) that enable ankyrins to selectively target proteins to diverse cellular sites. ..
  21. Gagelin C, Constantin B, Deprette C, Ludosky M, Recouvreur M, Cartaud J, et al. Identification of Ank(G107), a muscle-specific ankyrin-G isoform. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:12978-87 pubmed
    We previously showed that alternatively spliced ankyrins-G, the Ank3 gene products, are expressed in skeletal muscle and localize to the postsynaptic folds and to the sarcoplasmic reticulum...
  22. Adams M, Kramarcy N, Krall S, Rossi S, Rotundo R, Sealock R, et al. Absence of alpha-syntrophin leads to structurally aberrant neuromuscular synapses deficient in utrophin. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:1385-98 pubmed
    ..Thus, alpha-syntrophin has an important role in synapse formation and in the organization of utrophin, acetylcholine receptor, and acetylcholinesterase at the neuromuscular synapse. ..
  23. Tseng W, Jenkins P, Tanaka M, Mooney R, Bennett V. Giant ankyrin-G stabilizes somatodendritic GABAergic synapses through opposing endocytosis of GABAA receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:1214-9 pubmed publisher
  24. Jenkins P, Kim N, Jones S, Tseng W, Svitkina T, Yin H, et al. Giant ankyrin-G: a critical innovation in vertebrate evolution of fast and integrated neuronal signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:957-64 pubmed publisher
    ..of nodes of Ranvier all require a heretofore uncharacterized alternatively spliced giant exon of ankyrin-G (AnkG)...
  25. Kapfhamer D, Miller D, Lambert S, Bennett V, Glover T, Burmeister M. Chromosomal localization of the ankyrinG gene (ANK3/Ank3) to human 10q21 and mouse 10. Genomics. 1995;27:189-91 pubmed
    ..We have localized ANK3 to human Chromosome 10q21 by fluorescence in situ hybridization...
  26. Feinberg K, Eshed Eisenbach Y, Frechter S, Amor V, Salomon D, Sabanay H, et al. A glial signal consisting of gliomedin and NrCAM clusters axonal Na+ channels during the formation of nodes of Ranvier. Neuron. 2010;65:490-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these two cooperating mechanisms ensure fast and efficient conduction in myelinated nerves. ..
  27. Weimer J, Chattopadhyay S, Custer A, Pearce D. Elevation of Hook1 in a disease model of Batten disease does not affect a novel interaction between Ankyrin G and Hook1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;330:1176-81 pubmed
    ..Here we show a novel interaction between Hook1 and Ankyrin G, an adaptor protein that binds the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton and targets proteins to the peripheral membrane...
  28. Brachet A, Leterrier C, Irondelle M, Fache M, Racine V, Sibarita J, et al. Ankyrin G restricts ion channel diffusion at the axonal initial segment before the establishment of the diffusion barrier. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:383-95 pubmed publisher
    ..2 sodium channel. We found that ankyrin G (ankG) limits membrane diffusion of ion channels when coexpressed in neuroblastoma cells...
  29. Chittenden L, Lu X, Cacheiro N, Cain K, Generoso W, Bryda E, et al. A new mouse model for autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Genomics. 2002;79:499-504 pubmed
  30. Saifetiarova J, Taylor A, Bhat M. Early and Late Loss of the Cytoskeletal Scaffolding Protein, Ankyrin G Reveals Its Role in Maturation and Maintenance of Nodes of Ranvier in Myelinated Axons. J Neurosci. 2017;37:2524-2538 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the molecular components of the node is the cytoskeletal scaffolding protein, ankyrin G (AnkG), which interacts with multiple members of the nodal complex...
  31. Baalman K, Marin M, Ho T, Godoy M, Cherian L, Robertson C, et al. Axon initial segment-associated microglia. J Neurosci. 2015;35:2283-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a unique population of microglia that specifically interact with the AIS in the adult cortex. ..
  32. Stankewich M, Cianci C, Stabach P, Ji L, Nath A, Morrow J. Cell organization, growth, and neural and cardiac development require ?II-spectrin. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3956-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the spectrin-ankyrin scaffold is crucial in vertebrates for cell spreading, tissue patterning and organ development, particularly in the developing brain and heart, but is not required for cell viability. ..
  33. Molofsky A, Kelley K, Tsai H, Redmond S, Chang S, Madireddy L, et al. Astrocyte-encoded positional cues maintain sensorimotor circuit integrity. Nature. 2014;509:189-94 pubmed publisher
    ..More generally, they suggest that regional astrocyte heterogeneity may help to coordinate postnatal neural circuit refinement. ..
  34. Festy F, Robert J, Brasseur R, Thomas A. Interaction between the N-terminal domain of gastric H,K-ATPase and the spectrin binding domain of ankyrin III. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:7721-6 pubmed
    ..The interaction involves the N-terminal domain of the ATPase on one hand and the spectrin binding domain of the ankyrin on the other. ..
  35. Peters B, Kaiser H, Magin T. Skin-specific expression of ank-3(93), a novel ankyrin-3 splice variant. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;116:216-23 pubmed
    ..Our data on ankyrin-3(93), which lacks a part of the spectrin-binding domain that regulates the affinity to spectrin, suggests a new function for this member of the ankyrin family. ..
  36. van der Werf I, Van Dam D, Missault S, Yalcin B, De Deyn P, Vandeweyer G, et al. Behavioural characterization of AnkyrinG deficient mice, a model for ANK3 related disorders. Behav Brain Res. 2017;328:218-226 pubmed publisher
    b>ANK3 encodes AnkyrinG (AnkG), a member of the Ankyrin family that is expressed in several different isoforms in many tissues...
  37. Paez Gonzalez P, Asrican B, Rodriguez E, Kuo C. Identification of distinct ChAT? neurons and activity-dependent control of postnatal SVZ neurogenesis. Nat Neurosci. 2014;17:934-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal an unknown gateway connecting SVZ neurogenesis to neuronal activity-dependent control and suggest possibilities for modulating neuroregenerative capacities in health and disease. ..
  38. Fréal A, Fassier C, Le Bras B, Bullier E, De Gois S, Hazan J, et al. Cooperative Interactions between 480 kDa Ankyrin-G and EB Proteins Assemble the Axon Initial Segment. J Neurosci. 2016;36:4421-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work thus provides insight into the functional mechanisms used by 480 kDa ankyrin-G to drive the AIS formation and thereby to establish neuronal polarity. ..
  39. Yamankurt G, Wu H, McCarthy M, Cunha S. Exon organization and novel alternative splicing of Ank3 in mouse heart. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0128177 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternative splicing of the Ank3 gene gives rise to multiple ankyrin-G isoforms in numerous tissues...
  40. Ignatiuk A, Quickfall J, Hawrysh A, Chamberlain M, Anderson D. The smaller isoforms of ankyrin 3 bind to the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase and enhance platelet-derived growth factor receptor down-regulation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:5956-64 pubmed
    ..In this report, we describe a new phosphotyrosine-independent p85 SH2-binding protein, ankyrin 3 (Ank3)...
  41. Zhu S, Cordner Z, Xiong J, Chiu C, Artola A, Zuo Y, et al. Genetic disruption of ankyrin-G in adult mouse forebrain causes cortical synapse alteration and behavior reminiscent of bipolar disorder. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:10479-10484 pubmed publisher
    Genome-wide association studies have implicated the ANK3 locus in bipolar disorder, a major human psychotic illness. ANK3 encodes ankyrin-G, which organizes the neuronal axon initial segment (AIS)...
  42. Wang C, Wei Z, Chen K, Ye F, Yu C, Bennett V, et al. Structural basis of diverse membrane target recognitions by ankyrins. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisher
    ..These structures establish a framework for understanding the evolution of ankyrins' membrane targets, with implications for other proteins containing extended ANK repeat domains. ..
  43. Chang K, Zollinger D, Susuki K, Sherman D, Makara M, Brophy P, et al. Glial ankyrins facilitate paranodal axoglial junction assembly. Nat Neurosci. 2014;17:1673-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, glial ankyrins function as major scaffolds that facilitate early and efficient paranodal junction assembly in the developing CNS. ..
  44. Montersino A, Brachet A, Ferracci G, Fache M, Angles d Ortoli S, Liu W, et al. Tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel Nav 1.8 constitutively interacts with ankyrin G. J Neurochem. 2014;131:33-41 pubmed publisher
    ..the site of the generation of the action potential, through a direct interaction with the scaffolding protein ankyrin G (ankG). This interaction is regulated by protein kinase CK2 phosphorylation...
  45. San Cristobal P, Lainez S, Dimke H, de Graaf M, Hoenderop J, Bindels R. Ankyrin-3 is a novel binding partner of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.1 implicated in renal magnesium handling. Kidney Int. 2014;85:94-102 pubmed publisher
    ..1 as bait were used in mouse kidney lysates. Ankyrin-3 (ANK3) was identified as a binding partner of Kv1...
  46. Barisoni L, Trudel M, Chretien N, Ward L, van Adelsberg J, D AGATI V. Analysis of the role of membrane polarity in polycystic kidney disease of transgenic SBM mice. Am J Pathol. 1995;147:1728-35 pubmed
  47. Zhang A, Desmazieres A, Zonta B, Melrose S, Campbell G, Mahad D, et al. Neurofascin 140 is an embryonic neuronal neurofascin isoform that promotes the assembly of the node of Ranvier. J Neurosci. 2015;35:2246-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This expands the critical role of the Nfasc gene in the function of myelinated axons and reveals further redundancy in the mechanisms required for the formation of this crucial structure in the vertebrate nervous system. ..
  48. Hoock T, Peters L, Lux S. Isoforms of ankyrin-3 that lack the NH2-terminal repeats associate with mouse macrophage lysosomes. J Cell Biol. 1997;136:1059-70 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis of isolated Ank3 cDNA clones, obtained by reverse transcription and amplification of mouse macrophage RNA (GenBank Nos...
  49. van Beuningen S, Will L, Harterink M, Chazeau A, van Battum E, Frias C, et al. TRIM46 Controls Neuronal Polarity and Axon Specification by Driving the Formation of Parallel Microtubule Arrays. Neuron. 2015;88:1208-1226 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, TRIM46 defines a unique axonal cytoskeletal compartment for regulating microtubule organization during neuronal development. ..
  50. Makara M, Curran J, Little S, Musa H, Polina I, Smith S, et al. Ankyrin-G coordinates intercalated disc signaling platform to regulate cardiac excitability in vivo. Circ Res. 2014;115:929-38 pubmed publisher
    ..5 targeting/regulation in heart. Further, these new data identify the basis of an in vivo cellular platform critical for membrane recruitment and regulation of Nav1.5. ..
  51. Zobeley E, Sufalko D, Adkins S, Burmeister M. Fine genetic and comparative mapping of the deafness mutation Ames waltzer on mouse chromosome 10. Genomics. 1998;50:260-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, nine different genes (Ank3, Bcr, Gnaz, Tfam, Mif, Mmp11, Dcoh, Pyp, and Gstt2) were mapped and eliminated genetically as candidate genes for ..
  52. Barry J, Gu Y, Jukkola P, O NEILL B, GU H, Mohler P, et al. Ankyrin-G directly binds to kinesin-1 to transport voltage-gated Na+ channels into axons. Dev Cell. 2014;28:117-31 pubmed publisher
    ..How Nav channels are transported into axons is unknown. We show that KIF5/kinesin-1 directly binds to ankyrin-G (AnkG) to transport Nav channels into axons. KIF5 and Nav1...
  53. Akin E, Solé L, Dib Hajj S, Waxman S, Tamkun M. Preferential targeting of Nav1.6 voltage-gated Na+ Channels to the axon initial segment during development. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0124397 pubmed publisher
    ..6 insertion into the AIS plasma membrane. In contrast, ankyrinG-binding alone does not confer the preferential delivery of proteins to the AIS. ..
  54. Glynn P, Musa H, Wu X, Unudurthi S, Little S, Qian L, et al. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Phosphorylation at Ser571 Regulates Late Current, Arrhythmia, and Cardiac Function In Vivo. Circulation. 2015;132:567-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Relevant for improved rational design of potential therapies, our findings demonstrate that Ser571-dependent regulation of Nav1.5 specifically tunes INa,L without altering critical physiological components of the current. ..