Gene Symbol: Amy2a5
Description: amylase 2a5
Alias: 1810008N23Rik, Amy-2, Amy2, mAmy2-2, pancreatic alpha-amylase, 1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase, amylase 2, pancreatic, amylase 2a5, pancreatic
Species: mouse
Products:     Amy2a5

Top Publications

  1. Keller S, Rosenberg M, Johnson T, Howard G, Meisler M. Regulation of amylase gene expression in diabetic mice is mediated by a cis-acting upstream element close to the pancreas-specific enhancer. Genes Dev. 1990;4:1316-21 pubmed
    ..The data presented here demonstrate that the 5'-flanking region of the pancreatic amylase gene contains a novel insulin-dependent element (IDE) that mediates the loss of expression in diabetic animals. ..
  2. Kaplan R, Chapman V, Ruddle F. Electrophoretic variation of alpha-amylase in two inbred strains of Mus musculus. J Hered. 1973;64:155-7 pubmed
  3. Hamerton J, Povey S, Morton N. Report of the Committee on the Genetic Constitution of Chromosome 1. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1984;37:3-21 pubmed
  4. Slater E, Hesse H, Muller J, Beato M. Glucocorticoid receptor binding site in the mouse alpha-amylase 2 gene mediates response to the hormone. Mol Endocrinol. 1993;7:907-14 pubmed
    ..The DNA binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor binds to a single site in the amylase promoter as a monomer, suggesting that both receptor binding sites as well as an additional short-lived factor are required to obtain induction. ..
  5. Krapp A, Knöfler M, Ledermann B, Burki K, Berney C, Zoerkler N, et al. The bHLH protein PTF1-p48 is essential for the formation of the exocrine and the correct spatial organization of the endocrine pancreas. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3752-63 pubmed
  6. Jonsson J, Carlsson L, Edlund T, Edlund H. Insulin-promoter-factor 1 is required for pancreas development in mice. Nature. 1994;371:606-9 pubmed
    ..These findings show that IPF1 is needed for the formation of the pancreas and suggest that it acts to determine the fate of common pancreatic precursor cells and/or to regulate their propagation. ..
  7. Slack J. Developmental biology of the pancreas. Development. 1995;121:1569-80 pubmed
  8. Stevenson B, Hagenbuchle O, Wellauer P. Sequence organisation and transcriptional regulation of the mouse elastase II and trypsin genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986;14:8307-30 pubmed
    ..The differential accumulation of the elastase II and trypsin mRNAs in the cytoplasm of the acinar pancreatic cell is regulated predominantly at the transcriptional level. ..
  9. Kilic G, Wang J, Sosa Pineda B. Osteopontin is a novel marker of pancreatic ductal tissues and of undifferentiated pancreatic precursors in mice. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1659-67 pubmed
    ..Finally, the maintenance of Opn expression in pancreatic tissues of adults argues for a possible function of this protein in injury and pathologic responses. ..

More Information


  1. Xu Y, Wang S, Zhang J, Zhao A, Stanger B, Gu G. The fringe molecules induce endocrine differentiation in embryonic endoderm by activating cMyt1/cMyt3. Dev Biol. 2006;297:340-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Mfng-mediated repression of Notch signaling could serve as a trigger for endocrine islet differentiation. ..
  2. Buchberg A, Jenkins N, Copeland N. Localization of the murine macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene to chromosome 3 using interspecific backcross analysis. Genomics. 1989;5:363-7 pubmed
    ..5 cM distal to Ngfb and Nras and 1.3 cM proximal to Amy-2. CSFM maps to human chromosome 5q, while AMY2, NGFB, and NRAS map to human chromosome 1p...
  3. Huotari M, Miettinen P, Palgi J, Koivisto T, Ustinov J, Harari D, et al. ErbB signaling regulates lineage determination of developing pancreatic islet cells in embryonic organ culture. Endocrinology. 2002;143:4437-46 pubmed
    ..BTC, acting through EGF-R/erbB-1, is important for the differentiation of beta-cells. This could be applied in the targeted differentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells. ..
  4. Johnson T, Rosenberg M, Meisler M. An insulin-responsive element in the pancreatic enhancer of the amylase gene. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:464-8 pubmed
    ..A nuclear protein with affinity for the IRE was detected in normal and diabetic pancreas. This protein does not bind mutant 3, suggesting that it may be involved in negative regulation of amylase in diabetic pancreas. ..
  5. Li H, Edlund H. Persistent expression of Hlxb9 in the pancreatic epithelium impairs pancreatic development. Dev Biol. 2001;240:247-53 pubmed
    ..Thus, a total loss of Hlxb9 expression results in a block of the initiation of the dorsal pancreatic program, while a temporally extended expression of Hlxb9 results in a complete impairment of pancreatic development. ..
  6. Hagenbuchle O, Wellauer P, Cribbs D, Schibler U. Termination of transcription in the mouse alpha-amylase gene Amy-2a occurs at multiple sites downstream of the polyadenylation site. Cell. 1984;38:737-44 pubmed
    ..5 and 4 kb downstream of the polyadenylation site. These runoff transcription experiments, combined with S1 nuclease mapping of nuclear transcripts at steady state, suggest that transcription termination occurs at multiple sites. ..
  7. Kockel L, Strom A, Delacour A, Nepote V, Hagenbuchle O, Wellauer P, et al. An amylase/Cre transgene marks the whole endoderm but the primordia of liver and ventral pancreas. Genesis. 2006;44:287-96 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we have generated a new transgenic mouse that should be useful to target endoderm at early stages, without affecting the liver or ventral pancreas before embryonic day E12.5. ..
  8. Wiebauer K, Gumucio D, Jones J, Caldwell R, Hartle H, Meisler M. A 78-kilobase region of mouse chromosome 3 contains salivary and pancreatic amylase genes and a pseudogene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:5446-9 pubmed
    ..A truncated amylase pseudogene is located 10 kilobases downstream from the pancreatic amylase gene. ..
  9. Appanah R, Dickerson D, Goyal P, Groudine M, Lorincz M. An unmethylated 3' promoter-proximal region is required for efficient transcription initiation. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e27 pubmed
    ..This model provides a biochemical explanation for the typical positioning of TSSs well upstream of the 3' end of the CpG islands in which they are embedded. ..
  10. Hebrok M, Kim S, St Jacques B, McMahon A, Melton D. Regulation of pancreas development by hedgehog signaling. Development. 2000;127:4905-13 pubmed
    ..Defects in hedgehog signaling may lead to congenital pancreatic malformations and glucose intolerance. ..
  11. Peters L, Birkenmeier C, Bronson R, White R, Lux S, Otto E, et al. Purkinje cell degeneration associated with erythroid ankyrin deficiency in nb/nb mice. J Cell Biol. 1991;114:1233-41 pubmed
    ..Ank-2 maps to Chromosome 3 and its expression is unaffected by the nb mutation. We conclude that Ank-1 is specifically required for Purkinje cell stability and, in its absence, Purkinje cell loss and neurological symptoms appear. ..
  12. Norgaard G, Jensen J, Jensen J. FGF10 signaling maintains the pancreatic progenitor cell state revealing a novel role of Notch in organ development. Dev Biol. 2003;264:323-38 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that FGF10 signaling serves to integrate cell growth and terminal differentiation at the level of Notch activation, revealing a novel second role of this key signaling system during pancreatic development. ..
  13. Magdeldin S, Li H, Yoshida Y, Satokata I, Maeda Y, Yokoyama M, et al. Differential proteomic shotgun analysis elucidates involvement of water channel aquaporin 8 in presence of ?-amylase in the colon. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:6635-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we also proved the capability of our coupled approaches for selecting the most reliable and significant candidates, an applicable process for initial screening of biological biomarkers in complex specimens and tissue extracts. ..
  14. Watanabe T, Tomita T. Genetic study of pancreatic proteinase and alpha-amylase in mice (Mus musculus). Biochem Genet. 1974;12:419-28 pubmed
  15. Paul P, Elliott R. Analysis of the mouse Amy locus in recombinant inbred mouse strains. Biochem Genet. 1987;25:569-79 pubmed
    ..Previously reported differences for strains YBR and CE have been confirmed. New segregation data for carbonic anhydrase, a locus near the proximal end of mouse chromosome 3, are presented. ..
  16. Bloor J, Meisler M. Additional evidence for the close linkage of amy-1 and amy-2 in the mouse. J Hered. 1980;71:449-51 pubmed
    ..Among 343 potentially recombinant chromosomes examined, no recombinants were found. Our data sets an upper limit of 0.87 cM (P = 0.95) for the distance between the salivary and pancreatic loci. ..
  17. Petrucco S, Wellauer P, Hagenbuchle O. The DNA-binding activity of transcription factor PTF1 parallels the synthesis of pancreas-specific mRNAs during mouse development. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:254-64 pubmed
    ..The appearance of the factor at this early stage of development suggests that it plays an important role during pancreas differentiation. ..
  18. Nammo T, Yamagata K, Hamaoka R, Zhu Q, Akiyama T, Gonzalez F, et al. Expression profile of MODY3/HNF-1alpha protein in the developing mouse pancreas. Diabetologia. 2002;45:1142-53 pubmed
    ..HNF-1alpha is expressed by both endocrine cells and exocrine cells of the pancreas from the foetal stage along with other transcription factors, so HNF-1alpha might play a role during development. ..
  19. Bloor J, Meisler M, Nielsen J. Genetic determination of amylase synthesis in the mouse. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:373-7 pubmed
    ..Congenic lines with different amylase phenotypes have been established. Genetic analysis reveals the close linkage of cis-acting sites determining rate of synthesis and electrophoretic mobility of mouse pancreatic amylase. ..
  20. Sumazaki R, Shiojiri N, Isoyama S, Masu M, Keino Masu K, Osawa M, et al. Conversion of biliary system to pancreatic tissue in Hes1-deficient mice. Nat Genet. 2004;36:83-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, biliary epithelium has the potential for pancreatic differentiation and Hes1 determines biliary organogenesis by preventing the pancreatic differentiation program, probably by directly repressing transcription of Neurog3. ..
  21. Kawahira H, Ma N, Tzanakakis E, McMahon A, Chuang P, Hebrok M. Combined activities of hedgehog signaling inhibitors regulate pancreas development. Development. 2003;130:4871-9 pubmed
    ..Reduction of Fgf10 expression in Hhip homozygous mutants suggests that at least some of the observed phenotypes result from hedgehog-mediated inhibition of Fgf signaling at early stages. ..
  22. Kingsmore S, Moseley W, Watson M, Sabina R, Holmes E, Seldin M. Long-range restriction site mapping of a syntenic segment conserved between human chromosome 1 and mouse chromosome 3. Genomics. 1990;7:75-83 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the data suggest profound conservation of genomic organization during mammalian evolution. ..
  23. Rukstalis J, Habener J. Snail2, a mediator of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions, expressed in progenitor cells of the developing endocrine pancreas. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:471-9 pubmed
    ..EMT-like events appear to be involved in the development of the mammalian pancreas in vivo. ..
  24. Lee C, Sund N, Behr R, Herrera P, Kaestner K. Foxa2 is required for the differentiation of pancreatic alpha-cells. Dev Biol. 2005;278:484-95 pubmed
    ..By marker gene analysis, we show that the expression of the alpha-cell transcription factors Arx, Pax6, and Brn4 does not require Foxa2 in the transcriptional hierarchy governing alpha-cell differentiation. ..
  25. Hjorth J, Lusis A, Nielsen J. Multiple structural genes for mouse amylase. Biochem Genet. 1980;18:281-302 pubmed
    ..We conclude that at least four structural genes code for pancreatic amylase while only a single gene, different from any of the pancreatic genes, codes for salivary amylase. ..
  26. Li H, Arber S, Jessell T, Edlund H. Selective agenesis of the dorsal pancreas in mice lacking homeobox gene Hlxb9. Nat Genet. 1999;23:67-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, dorsally Hlxb9 is required for specifying the gut epithelium to a pancreatic fate and ventrally for ensuring proper endocrine cell differentiation. ..
  27. Kim S, Selleri L, Lee J, Zhang A, Gu X, Jacobs Y, et al. Pbx1 inactivation disrupts pancreas development and in Ipf1-deficient mice promotes diabetes mellitus. Nat Genet. 2002;30:430-5 pubmed
    ..Mutations affecting the Ipf1 protein may promote diabetes mellitus in mice and humans. This study suggests that perturbation of Pbx1 activity may also promote susceptibility to diabetes mellitus. ..
  28. Hu B, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Kilimann M. The paralemmin protein family: identification of paralemmin-2, an isoform differentially spliced to AKAP2/AKAP-KL, and of palmdelphin, a more distant cytosolic relative. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;285:1369-76 pubmed
    ..We have mapped the mouse palmdelphin gene to distal chromosome 3 between Amy2 and Abcd3, in a region homologous to human chromosome 1p22-p21 where the human palmdelphin gene is located...
  29. Hagenbuchle O, Bovey R, Young R. Tissue-specific expression of mouse-alpha-amylase genes: nucleotide sequence of isoenzyme mRNAs from pancreas and salivary gland. Cell. 1980;21:179-87 pubmed
    ..This observation may have implications for the mechanism of translation initiation in eucaroytes. ..
  30. Heiser P, Lau J, Taketo M, Herrera P, Hebrok M. Stabilization of beta-catenin impacts pancreas growth. Development. 2006;133:2023-32 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a previously unappreciated temporal/spatial role for beta-catenin signaling in the regulation of pancreas organ growth. ..
  31. Chu K, Tsai M. Neuronatin, a downstream target of BETA2/NeuroD1 in the pancreas, is involved in glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Diabetes. 2005;54:1064-73 pubmed
    ..These results suggest for the first time an important role for NNAT in insulin secretion and for proper beta-cell function. ..
  32. Asayesh A, Sharpe J, Watson R, Hecksher Sørensen J, Hastie N, Hill R, et al. Spleen versus pancreas: strict control of organ interrelationship revealed by analyses of Bapx1-/- mice. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2208-13 pubmed
  33. Sosa Pineda B, Chowdhury K, Torres M, Oliver G, Gruss P. The Pax4 gene is essential for differentiation of insulin-producing beta cells in the mammalian pancreas. Nature. 1997;386:399-402 pubmed
    ..A default pathway would explain the elevated number of alpha cells in the absence of Pax4. ..
  34. Sjodin A, Dahl U, Semb H. Mouse R-cadherin: expression during the organogenesis of pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. Exp Cell Res. 1995;221:413-25 pubmed
    ..The subcellular localization in these tissues is on both the apical and basolateral surfaces. The potential function of R-cadherin, in particular its role in pancreas development, is discussed. ..
  35. Pulkkinen M, Spencer Dene B, Dickson C, Otonkoski T. The IIIb isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is required for proper growth and branching of pancreatic ductal epithelium but not for differentiation of exocrine or endocrine cells. Mech Dev. 2003;120:167-75 pubmed
    ..Our results thus suggest that Fgfr2b-mediated signaling plays a major role in pancreatic ductal proliferation and branching morphogenesis, but has little effect on endocrine and exocrine differentiation. ..
  36. Sweetser D, Birkenmeier E, Klisak I, Zollman S, Sparkes R, Mohandas T, et al. The human and rodent intestinal fatty acid binding protein genes. A comparative analysis of their structure, expression, and linkage relationships. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:16060-71 pubmed
    ..Human gene mapping studies were carried out using a panel of mouse-human somatic cell hybrid clones as well as in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  37. Taguchi T, Bellacosa A, Zhou J, Gilbert D, Lazo P, Copeland N, et al. Chromosomal localization of the Ox-44 (CD53) leukocyte antigen gene in man and rodents. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1993;64:217-21 pubmed
    ..Comparative mapping data presented in this report demonstrate conservation of synteny within the region encompassing this gene in mouse (Cd53), human (CD53), and rat (CD53). ..
  38. Hamel C, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Redmond T. The gene for the retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein RPE65 is localized to human 1p31 and mouse 3. Genomics. 1994;20:509-12 pubmed
    ..By the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization, this localization was refined to 1p31. The mouse and human loci for this potential candidate gene for hereditary retinal disease do not match those of any known disease in mouse or man. ..
  39. Fazio E, Everest M, Colman R, Wang R, Pin C. Altered Glut-2 accumulation and beta-cell function in mice lacking the exocrine-specific transcription factor, Mist1. J Endocrinol. 2005;187:407-18 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings, we have identified that the loss of a regulatory gene in the exocrine compartment can affect the endocrine component, providing a possible link between susceptibility for various pancreatic diseases. ..
  40. Moseley W, Seldin M. Definition of mouse chromosome 1 and 3 gene linkage groups that are conserved on human chromosome 1: evidence that a conserved linkage group spans the centromere of human chromosome 1. Genomics. 1989;5:899-905 pubmed
    ..These studies provide a model for examination of specific evolutionary events. ..
  41. Pin C, Rukstalis J, Johnson C, Konieczny S. The bHLH transcription factor Mist1 is required to maintain exocrine pancreas cell organization and acinar cell identity. J Cell Biol. 2001;155:519-30 pubmed
    ..Based on these observations, we propose that Mist1(KO) mice represent a new genetic model for chronic pancreas injury and that the Mist1 protein serves as a key regulator of acinar cell function, stability, and identity. ..
  42. Lane P, Eicher E. Gene order in linkage group XVI of the house mouse. J Hered. 1979;70:239-44 pubmed
    ..We conclude that LG XVI is not carried on Chr 12, and preliminary data indicates it is most likely carried on Chr 3. ..
  43. Shima Y, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Chisaka O, Takeichi M, et al. Differential expression of the seven-pass transmembrane cadherin genes Celsr1-3 and distribution of the Celsr2 protein during mouse development. Dev Dyn. 2002;223:321-32 pubmed
    ..Celsr2 is mapped to a distal region of the mouse chromosome 3. We discussed possible functions of seven-pass transmembrane cadherins in mouse development. ..
  44. Gartner J, Kearns W, Rosenberg C, Pearson P, Copeland N, Gilbert D, et al. Localization of the 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein to human 1p21-p22 and mouse 3. Genomics. 1993;15:412-4 pubmed
    ..The PXMP1 gene was assigned to human chromosome 1p21-p22 by in situ hybridization and its murine homologue (Pxmp-1) to chromosome 3 by interspecific backcross analysis. ..
  45. Dower N, Seldin M, Pugh S, Stone J. Organization and chromosomal locations of Rap1a/Krev sequences in the mouse. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:162-7 pubmed
    ..Rap1a-rs2 is more distantly related to the gene sequence and is located on Chr 2 near Actc-1. ..
  46. Pittet A, Schibler U. Mouse alpha-amylase loci, Amy-1a and Amy-2a, are closely linked. J Mol Biol. 1985;182:359-65 pubmed
    ..Transcription termination on Amy-1a occurs within 3 X 10(3) base-pairs downstream from the polyadenylation site in both parotid gland and liver, in which this gene is transcribed at different rates from different promoters. ..
  47. Hagenbuchle O, Schibler U, Petrucco S, Van Tuyle G, Wellauer P. Expression of mouse Amy-2a alpha-amylase genes is regulated by strong pancreas-specific promoters. J Mol Biol. 1985;185:285-93 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, the weak Amy-1a promoter, which directs the synthesis of the mRNA containing the liver-type leader sequence, also is active in the pancreas and, hence, in all alpha-amylase-producing tissues. ..
  48. Arden S, Zahn T, Steegers S, Webb S, Bergman B, O Brien R, et al. Molecular cloning of a pancreatic islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein. Diabetes. 1999;48:531-42 pubmed
  49. Moseley W, Morisaki T, Sabina R, Holmes E, Seldin M. Ampd-2 maps to distal mouse chromosome 3 in linkage with Ampd-1. Genomics. 1990;6:572-4 pubmed
  50. Tosi M, Bovey R, Astolfi S, Bodary S, Meisler M, Wellauer P. Multiple non-allelic genes encoding pancreatic alpha-amylase of mouse are expressed in a strain-specific fashion. EMBO J. 1984;3:2809-16 pubmed
    ..Models which could account for the mouse strain-specific differences with respect to the number of pancreatic alpha-amylase isozymes and their variable but genetically determined quantitative ratios are discussed. ..
  51. Ohuchi H, Hori Y, Yamasaki M, Harada H, Sekine K, Kato S, et al. FGF10 acts as a major ligand for FGF receptor 2 IIIb in mouse multi-organ development. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;277:643-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that FGF10 acts as a major ligand for FGFR2b in mouse multi-organ development. ..
  52. Strahler J, Meisler M. Two distinct pancreatic amylase genes are active in YBR mice. Genetics. 1982;101:91-102 pubmed
    ..Two differences between isozymes A1 and B1 were identified among the 77 residues compared. This result demonstrates that two distinct amylase genes are expressed in YBR pancreas. ..
  53. Fujitani Y, Fujitani S, Boyer D, Gannon M, Kawaguchi Y, Ray M, et al. Targeted deletion of a cis-regulatory region reveals differential gene dosage requirements for Pdx1 in foregut organ differentiation and pancreas formation. Genes Dev. 2006;20:253-66 pubmed
  54. Gumucio D, Wiebauer K, Dranginis A, Samuelson L, Treisman L, Caldwell R, et al. Evolution of the amylase multigene family. YBR/Ki mice express a pancreatic amylase gene which is silent in other strains. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:13483-9 pubmed
    ..Comparison of pancreatic amylase genes from different inbred strains provides evidence for several duplication and deletion events during the recent evolution of this chromosome region. ..
  55. Dessimoz J, Bonnard C, Huelsken J, Grapin Botton A. Pancreas-specific deletion of beta-catenin reveals Wnt-dependent and Wnt-independent functions during development. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1677-83 pubmed
    ..These effects are likely to be due to the function of beta-catenin at the membrane. Mice later recover from pancreatitis and regenerate normal pancreas and duodenal villi from the wild-type (wt) cells that escape beta-catenin deletion. ..
  56. Dranginis A, Morley M, Nesbitt M, Rosenblum B, Meisler M. Independent regulation of nonallelic pancreatic amylase genes in diabetic mice. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:12216-9 pubmed
    ..The results provide genetic evidence that individual copies of the amylase structural gene are associated with divergent cis-acting insulin-responsive sequences. ..
  57. Georgia S, Bhushan A. Beta cell replication is the primary mechanism for maintaining postnatal beta cell mass. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:963-8 pubmed
  58. Kido Y, Nakae J, Hribal M, Xuan S, Efstratiadis A, Accili D. Effects of mutations in the insulin-like growth factor signaling system on embryonic pancreas development and beta-cell compensation to insulin resistance. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:36740-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Igf1r and Insr are required for embryonic development of the exocrine but not of the endocrine pancreas and that defects of Igf1r do not alter glucose homeostasis as long as the insulin receptor system remains intact. ..
  59. Murtaugh L, Law A, Dor Y, Melton D. Beta-catenin is essential for pancreatic acinar but not islet development. Development. 2005;132:4663-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data are consistent with a crucial role for canonical Wnt signals in acinar lineage specification and differentiation. ..
  60. Sugino H. Comparative genomic analysis of the mouse and rat amylase multigene family. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:355-60 pubmed
    ..This is the second report of amylase genomic organization in mammals and the first in the rodents. ..
  61. Mikkelsen B, Clark M, Christiansen G, Klintebaek O, Nielsen J, Thomsen K, et al. The structure of two distinct pancreatic amylase genes in mouse strain YBR. Biochem Genet. 1985;23:511-24 pubmed
    ..Parts of the amino acid sequence of A beta and B beta have previously been determined, and we report here the sequencing of a 4-kb DNA fragment from Pan-II beta which establishes that this gene codes for B beta. ..
  62. Karn R, Petersen T, Hjorth J, Nieles J, Roepstorff P. Characterization of the amino termini of mouse salivary and pancreatic amylases. FEBS Lett. 1981;126:293-6 pubmed
  63. Esni F, Ghosh B, Biankin A, Lin J, Albert M, Yu X, et al. Notch inhibits Ptf1 function and acinar cell differentiation in developing mouse and zebrafish pancreas. Development. 2004;131:4213-24 pubmed
    ..These results define a normal inhibitory role for Notch in the regulation of exocrine pancreatic differentiation. ..
  64. Osborn L, Rosenberg M, Keller S, Meisler M. Tissue-specific and insulin-dependent expression of a pancreatic amylase gene in transgenic mice. Mol Cell Biol. 1987;7:326-34 pubmed
    ..Both constructs were dependent on insulin and induced by dexamethasone. Thus, the transferred genes contained the sequences required for tissue-specific and hormonally regulated expression. ..
  65. Bodary S, Grossi G, Hagenbuchle O, Wellauer P. Members of the Amy-2 alpha-amylase gene family of mouse strain CE/J contain duplicated 5' termini. J Mol Biol. 1985;182:1-10 pubmed
    ..No transcription initiation has been detected at the orphon cap site using run-off transcription in isolated pancreatic nuclei in vitro. ..
  66. De Lisle R, Isom K. Expression of sulfated gp300 and changes in glycosylation during pancreatic development. J Histochem Cytochem. 1996;44:57-66 pubmed
    ..Levels of reactivity of PNA and MAA were reciprocal, suggesting that sialylation of galactose (which can block peanut agglutinin binding) was not constant on gp300 during development. ..
  67. Hald J, Hjorth J, German M, Madsen O, Serup P, Jensen J. Activated Notch1 prevents differentiation of pancreatic acinar cells and attenuate endocrine development. Dev Biol. 2003;260:426-37 pubmed
  68. Alanentalo T, Chatonnet F, Karlen M, Sulniute R, Ericson J, Andersson E, et al. Cloning and analysis of Nkx6.3 during CNS and gastrointestinal development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:162-70 pubmed
    ..2 both in the CNS and in the gut. Transient Nkx6.2 expression was also detected in the developing pancreas. However, analysis of Nkx6.2(-/-) mice did not display any obvious aberrations of pancreatic or stomach development. ..
  69. Blatt C, Saxe D, Marzluff W, Lobo S, Nesbitt M, Simon M. Mapping and gene order of U1 small nuclear RNA, endogenous viral env sequence, amylase, and alcohol dehydrogenase-3 on mouse chromosome 3. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1988;14:133-42 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization to chromosome spreads confirmed the assignment of the Ulb small nuclear RNA (snRNA) gene cluster and the gamma-fibrinogen gene to the center of chromosome 3. ..
  70. Johnson C, Kowalik A, Rajakumar N, Pin C. Mist1 is necessary for the establishment of granule organization in serous exocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Mech Dev. 2004;121:261-72 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that Mist1 is necessary for complete differentiation and maturation of serous exocrine cells through the combined regulation of several exocrine specific genes. ..
  71. Kedees M, Guz Y, Vuguin P, Vargas C, Cui L, Steiner D, et al. Nestin expression in pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells of mice lacking glucagon signaling. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1126-33 pubmed
    ..We conclude that nestin+ cells located in the pancreatic primordium generate the cells of the endocrine and exocrine lineages. Furthermore, our results suggest that nestin expression is regulated by glucagon signaling. ..
  72. Schibler U, Pittet A, Young R, Hagenbuchle O, Tosi M, Gellman S, et al. The mouse alpha-amylase multigene family. Sequence organization of members expressed in the pancreas, salivary gland and liver. J Mol Biol. 1982;155:247-66 pubmed