Gene Symbol: Amy1
Description: amylase 1, salivary
Alias: Amy-1, Amy1a, C030014B17Rik, alpha-amylase 1, 1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase 1, salivary and hepatic alpha-amylase
Species: mouse
Products:     Amy1

Top Publications

  1. Furusawa M, Taira T, Iguchi Ariga S, Ariga H. AMY-1 interacts with S-AKAP84 and AKAP95 in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, respectively, and inhibits cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity by preventing binding of its catalytic subunit to A-kinase-anchoring protein (AKAP) complex. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:50885-92 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that AMY-1 is an important modulator of PKA. ..
  2. Sola B, Simon D, Mattei M, Fichelson S, Bordereaux D, Tambourin P, et al. Fim-1, Fim-2/c-fms, and Fim-3, three common integration sites of Friend murine leukemia virus in myeloblastic leukemias, map to mouse chromosomes 13, 18, and 3, respectively. J Virol. 1988;62:3973-8 pubmed
    ..Fim-2 spans the 5' end of the c-fms gene, which encodes for the macrophage-colony-stimulating factor receptor. We located the c-fms gene on the D band of chromosome 18 by in situ hybridization. ..
  3. Cook S, Johnson K, Davisson M. The mouse urate oxidase gene, Uox, maps to distal chromosome 3. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:623-4 pubmed
  4. Bhalerao J, Tylzanowski P, Filie J, Kozak C, Merregaert J. Molecular cloning, characterization, and genetic mapping of the cDNA coding for a novel secretory protein of mouse. Demonstration of alternative splicing in skin and cartilage. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:16385-94 pubmed
    ..Alternative splicing may serve as a mechanism for generating functional diversity in the Ecm1 gene. ..
  5. von Deimling O, Wassmer B, Muller M. Esterase-26 (ES-26): characterization and genetic location on chromosome 3 of an eserine-sensitive esterase of the house mouse (Mus musculus). Biochem Genet. 1984;22:1119-26 pubmed
    ..The enzyme was shown to be controlled by the presumed structural locus Es-26, located on chromosome 3. From a four-point cross, the gene order Car-2--6.2 +/- 2.7--Es-16--21.0 +/- 4.5--Es-26--13.6 +/- 3.8--Amy-1 was established. ..
  6. Bloor J, Meisler M, Nielsen J. Genetic determination of amylase synthesis in the mouse. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:373-7 pubmed
    ..Congenic lines with different amylase phenotypes have been established. Genetic analysis reveals the close linkage of cis-acting sites determining rate of synthesis and electrophoretic mobility of mouse pancreatic amylase. ..
  7. Blatt C, Saxe D, Marzluff W, Lobo S, Nesbitt M, Simon M. Mapping and gene order of U1 small nuclear RNA, endogenous viral env sequence, amylase, and alcohol dehydrogenase-3 on mouse chromosome 3. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1988;14:133-42 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization to chromosome spreads confirmed the assignment of the Ulb small nuclear RNA (snRNA) gene cluster and the gamma-fibrinogen gene to the center of chromosome 3. ..
  8. Nielsen J, Sick K. Gentic polymorphism of amylase isoenzymes in feral populations of the house mouse. Hereditas. 1975;79:279-86 pubmed
  9. Viljakainen H, Andersson Assarsson J, Armenio M, Pekkinen M, Pettersson M, Valta H, et al. Low Copy Number of the AMY1 Locus Is Associated with Early-Onset Female Obesity in Finland. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0131883 pubmed publisher
    The salivary α-amylase locus (AMY1) is located in a highly polymorphic multi allelic copy number variable chromosomal region. A recent report identified an association between AMY1 copy numbers and BMI in common obesity...

More Information


  1. Islam M, Itoh S, Yanagita T, Sumiyoshi K, Hayano S, Kuremoto K, et al. Runx/Cbfb signaling regulates postnatal development of granular convoluted tubule in the mouse submandibular gland. Dev Dyn. 2015;244:488-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Runx signaling is important in the postnatal development of androgen-dependent GCT in the SMG. ..
  2. Horn S, Kobberup S, Jørgensen M, Kalisz M, Klein T, Kageyama R, et al. Mind bomb 1 is required for pancreatic ?-cell formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7356-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal iterative use of Notch in pancreatic development to ensure correct P-D patterning and adequate ?-cell formation. ..
  3. Sosa Pineda B, Chowdhury K, Torres M, Oliver G, Gruss P. The Pax4 gene is essential for differentiation of insulin-producing beta cells in the mammalian pancreas. Nature. 1997;386:399-402 pubmed
    ..A default pathway would explain the elevated number of alpha cells in the absence of Pax4. ..
  4. Broad T, Burkin D, Cambridge L, Carpenter M, Jones C. Four loci from human chromosome 1 are physically assigned to sheep chromosome 1p. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:551-3 pubmed
  5. Bloor J, Meisler M. Additional evidence for the close linkage of amy-1 and amy-2 in the mouse. J Hered. 1980;71:449-51 pubmed
    ..Among 343 potentially recombinant chromosomes examined, no recombinants were found. Our data sets an upper limit of 0.87 cM (P = 0.95) for the distance between the salivary and pancreatic loci. ..
  6. Bodary S, Grossi G, Hagenbuchle O, Wellauer P. Members of the Amy-2 alpha-amylase gene family of mouse strain CE/J contain duplicated 5' termini. J Mol Biol. 1985;182:1-10 pubmed
    ..No transcription initiation has been detected at the orphon cap site using run-off transcription in isolated pancreatic nuclei in vitro. ..
  7. Sweetser D, Birkenmeier E, Klisak I, Zollman S, Sparkes R, Mohandas T, et al. The human and rodent intestinal fatty acid binding protein genes. A comparative analysis of their structure, expression, and linkage relationships. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:16060-71 pubmed
    ..The I-FABP gene is located on mouse chromosome 3 between the amylase 1,2 (Amy 1,2) and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (Adh-3) loci while the L-FABP gene is on mouse chromosome 6 within 3 centimorgans ..
  8. Jones J, Keller S, Samuelson L, Osborn L, Rosenberg M, Meisler M. A salivary amylase transgene is efficiently expressed in liver but not in parotid gland of transgenic mice. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:6613-23 pubmed
    ..The results also demonstrate that non-parotid sources can produce a normal level of AMY1 in serum. Liver is the probable source of AMY1 in serum of these transgenic mice.
  9. Wood L, Carter D, Mills M, Hatzenbuhler N, Vogeli G. Expression of calcyclin, a calcium-binding protein, in the keratogenous region of growing hair follicles. J Invest Dermatol. 1991;96:383-7 pubmed
  10. Lane P, Eicher E. Gene order in linkage group XVI of the house mouse. J Hered. 1979;70:239-44 pubmed
    ..We conclude that LG XVI is not carried on Chr 12, and preliminary data indicates it is most likely carried on Chr 3. ..
  11. Mackman N, Imes S, Maske W, Taylor B, Lusis A, Drake T. Structure of the murine tissue factor gene. Chromosome location and conservation of regulatory elements in the promoter. Arterioscler Thromb. 1992;12:474-83 pubmed
  12. Hjorth J, Lusis A, Nielsen J. Multiple structural genes for mouse amylase. Biochem Genet. 1980;18:281-302 pubmed
    ..We conclude that at least four structural genes code for pancreatic amylase while only a single gene, different from any of the pancreatic genes, codes for salivary amylase. ..
  13. Raum J, Soleimanpour S, Groff D, Coré N, Fasano L, Garratt A, et al. Tshz1 Regulates Pancreatic β-Cell Maturation. Diabetes. 2015;64:2905-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we position Tshz1 in the transcriptional network of maturing β-cells and suggest that its dysregulation could contribute to the islet phenotype of human type 2 diabetes. ..
  14. Nakamura K, Hashimoto Y, Moriwaki K, Yamakawa T, Suzuki A. Genetic regulation of GM4(NeuAc) expression in mouse erythrocytes. J Biochem. 1990;107:3-7 pubmed
  15. Moseley W, Morisaki T, Sabina R, Holmes E, Seldin M. Ampd-2 maps to distal mouse chromosome 3 in linkage with Ampd-1. Genomics. 1990;6:572-4 pubmed
  16. Dawson W, Huang L, Felder M, Shaffer J. Linkage relationships among eleven biochemical loci in Peromyscus. Biochem Genet. 1983;21:1101-14 pubmed
    ..These and other known linkage relationships in Peromyscus correspond closely to those of the house mouse, Mus musculus. The available evidence in Peromyscus further supports the concept of linkage conservation by natural selection. ..
  17. Hagenbuchle O, Wellauer P, Cribbs D, Schibler U. Termination of transcription in the mouse alpha-amylase gene Amy-2a occurs at multiple sites downstream of the polyadenylation site. Cell. 1984;38:737-44 pubmed
    ..5 and 4 kb downstream of the polyadenylation site. These runoff transcription experiments, combined with S1 nuclease mapping of nuclear transcripts at steady state, suggest that transcription termination occurs at multiple sites. ..
  18. Shaw P, Sordat B, Schibler U. The two promoters of the mouse alpha-amylase gene Amy-1a are differentially activated during parotid gland differentiation. Cell. 1985;40:907-12 pubmed
    ..The pattern of committing cells during differentiation suggests that once an acinar cell has initiated expression of parotid-type alpha-amylase mRNA, this commitment is passed on to its daughter cells. ..
  19. Kaplan R, Chapman V, Ruddle F. Electrophoretic variation of alpha-amylase in two inbred strains of Mus musculus. J Hered. 1973;64:155-7 pubmed
  20. Saris C, Kristensen T, D EUSTACHIO P, Hicks L, Noonan D, Hunter T, et al. cDNA sequence and tissue distribution of the mRNA for bovine and murine p11, the S100-related light chain of the protein-tyrosine kinase substrate p36 (calpactin I). J Biol Chem. 1987;262:10663-71 pubmed
    ..Sequence homology between p11 and the S100 proteins, and the serum-induced 2A9 gene product, as well as possible functions of p11 are discussed. ..
  21. Schibler U, Pittet A, Young R, Hagenbuchle O, Tosi M, Gellman S, et al. The mouse alpha-amylase multigene family. Sequence organization of members expressed in the pancreas, salivary gland and liver. J Mol Biol. 1982;155:247-66 pubmed
  22. Hjorth J. Genetic variation in mouse salivary amylase rate of synthesis. Biochem Genet. 1979;17:665-82 pubmed
    ..Studies of other mouse strains suggest that regulatory genetic elements may modulate salivary amylase production. ..
  23. Usher C, Handsaker R, Esko T, Tuke M, Weedon M, Hastie A, et al. Structural forms of the human amylase locus and their relationships to SNPs, haplotypes and obesity. Nat Genet. 2015;47:921-5 pubmed publisher
    ..One such region contains the three amylase genes (AMY2B, AMY2A and AMY1) responsible for digesting starch into sugar...
  24. Gisselbrecht S, Sola B, Fichelson S, Bordereaux D, Tambourin P, Mattei M, et al. The murine M-CSF gene is localized on chromosome 3. Blood. 1989;73:1742-5 pubmed
  25. Klinga Levan K, Andersson A, Hanson C, Ridderström M, Stenberg G, Mannervik B, et al. Mapping of glutathione transferase (GST) genes in the rat. Hereditas. 1993;119:285-96 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, each of the three groups of conserved synteny seems to span the region across the centromeres of the human chromosomes. ..
  26. Schweitzer P, Noben Trauth N, Pelsue S, Johnson K, Wolf S, Shultz L. Genetic mapping of the IL-12 alpha chain gene (Il12a) on mouse chromosome 3. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:394-5 pubmed
  27. Nadeau J, Bedigian H, Bouchard G, Denial T, Kosowsky M, Norberg R, et al. Multilocus markers for mouse genome analysis: PCR amplification based on single primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:55-64 pubmed
    ..Finally, linkage for seven products was established on five chromosomes. These characteristics establish single primer PCR as a powerful method for mouse genome analysis. ..
  28. Lane P, Bronson R, Spencer C. Rostral cerebellar malformation, (rcm): a new recessive mutation on chromosome 3 of the mouse. J Hered. 1992;83:315-8 pubmed
    ..The mutation, called rostral cerebellar malformation, rcm, has been located on chromosome (Chr) 3 between the alcohol dehydrogenase-3 (Adh-3) complex and varitint waddler-J (VaJ). ..
  29. McClive P, Morahan G. Assignment of the mouse homologues of 6 loci from HSA1p to chromosomes 3 and 4. Genomics. 1994;23:243-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, an additional HSA1p marker, Cd53, mapped close to Amy1 on mouse chromosome 3, and a sequence related to Lap18 mapped to mouse chromosome 17, near D17Mit3...
  30. Mead T, Wang Q, Bhattaram P, Dy P, Afelik S, Jensen J, et al. A far-upstream (-70 kb) enhancer mediates Sox9 auto-regulation in somatic tissues during development and adult regeneration. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:4459-69 pubmed publisher
    ..They provide thereby novel insights on molecular mechanisms controlling developmental and disease processes and suggest new strategies to improve disease treatments. ..
  31. Hagenbuchle O, Bovey R, Young R. Tissue-specific expression of mouse-alpha-amylase genes: nucleotide sequence of isoenzyme mRNAs from pancreas and salivary gland. Cell. 1980;21:179-87 pubmed
    ..This observation may have implications for the mechanism of translation initiation in eucaroytes. ..
  32. Pittet A, Schibler U. Mouse alpha-amylase loci, Amy-1a and Amy-2a, are closely linked. J Mol Biol. 1985;182:359-65 pubmed
    ..Transcription termination on Amy-1a occurs within 3 X 10(3) base-pairs downstream from the polyadenylation site in both parotid gland and liver, in which this gene is transcribed at different rates from different promoters. ..
  33. Holmes R. Genetics of hydroxyacid oxidase isozymes in the mouse: localisation of Hao-2 on linkage group XVI. Heredity (Edinb). 1978;41:403-6 pubmed
    ..9 +/- 2.4 per cent recombinants) in this organism, which places Hao-2 on linkage group XVI, since previous studies by Eicher and co-workers (1976) have localised Amy-1 on this chromosome. ..
  34. Hjorth J. Altered salivary amylase gene in the mouse strain BXD-16. Heredity (Edinb). 1982;48:127-35 pubmed
    ..This indicates that only a single structural gene for the enzyme is expressed in the strain BXD-16. ..
  35. von Deimling O, Gaa A. Biochemical and genetic characterization of esterase-27 (ES-27), the major plasma cholinesterase of the house mouse (Mus musculus). Genet Res. 1991;57:61-70 pubmed
    ..From a three-point cross (AKR/Han, A/Wy) and a five-point cross (AKR/Han, SEG/1), the gene order on chromosome 3 was concluded to be centromere-Car-2-Es-26-Es-27-Amy-1-Adh-1. ..
  36. Minta J, Wong M, Kozak C, Kunnath Muglia L, Goldberger G. cDNA cloning, sequencing and chromosomal assignment of the gene for mouse complement factor I (C3b/C4b inactivator): identification of a species specific divergent segment in factor I. Mol Immunol. 1996;33:101-12 pubmed
    ..The significance of the diversity of the D segment is at present unclear. We also report the chromosomal localization of the mouse factor I gene (Cfi) to distal chromosome 3 near Egf. ..
  37. Bernier L, Colman D, D EUSTACHIO P. Chromosomal locations of genes encoding 2',3' cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the mouse. J Neurosci Res. 1988;20:497-504 pubmed
    ..We have localized the GFAP gene to distal chromosome 11 in the mouse. There are two genetic loci identified by CNP probes, one is closely linked to the GFAP gene, and the other maps to chromosome 3. ..
  38. Wiebauer K, Gumucio D, Jones J, Caldwell R, Hartle H, Meisler M. A 78-kilobase region of mouse chromosome 3 contains salivary and pancreatic amylase genes and a pseudogene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:5446-9 pubmed
    ..A truncated amylase pseudogene is located 10 kilobases downstream from the pancreatic amylase gene. ..
  39. Bain P, Meisler M, Taylor B, Payne A. The genes encoding gonadal and nongonadal forms of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4 isomerase are closely linked on mouse chromosome 3. Genomics. 1993;16:219-23 pubmed
    ..The order of markers on Chr 3 surrounding Hsd3b is: centromere-Gba-(4.4 +/- 2.2)-Hsd3b-(3.3 +/- 1.9)-Tshb-(6.7 +/- 2.7)-Amy-1. ..
  40. Tolwani R, Farmer S, Johnson K, Davisson M, Kurtz D, Hinsdale M, et al. Structure and chromosomal location of the mouse medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-encoding gene and its promoter. Gene. 1996;170:165-71 pubmed
    ..Chem. 268 (1993) 13805-13810]. We have mapped mouse Acadm to the distal end of chromosome 3. Sequences previously localized to chromosome 8 are shown to be a pseudogene, and an additional pseudogene was identified on chromosome 11. ..
  41. Darlington G, Tsai C, Samuelson L, Gumucio D, Meisler M. Simultaneous expression of salivary and pancreatic amylase genes in cultured mouse hepatoma cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1986;6:969-75 pubmed
    ..We speculate that induction of Amy-1 and activation of Amy-2 may involve different regulatory mechanisms. Hepa 1-6 cells provide an experimental system for molecular analysis of these events. ..
  42. Bonhomme F, Benmehdi F, Britton Davidian J, Martin S. [Genetic analysis of interspecific crosses Mus musculus L. x Mus spretus Lataste: linkage of Adh-1 with Amy-1 on chromosome 3 and Es-14 with Mod-1 on chromosome 9]. C R Seances Acad Sci D. 1979;289:545-8 pubmed
    ..Linkage of ES-14 with Mod-1 on chromosome 9 and that of Adh-1 with Amy-1 on chromosome 3 are shown. The following order centromere/Car-2/Amy-1 is tentatively proposed for these loci on chromosome 3. ..
  43. Paul P, Elliott R. Analysis of the mouse Amy locus in recombinant inbred mouse strains. Biochem Genet. 1987;25:569-79 pubmed
    ..Previously reported differences for strains YBR and CE have been confirmed. New segregation data for carbonic anhydrase, a locus near the proximal end of mouse chromosome 3, are presented. ..
  44. Mülhardt C, Fischer M, Gass P, Simon Chazottes D, Guenet J, Kuhse J, et al. The spastic mouse: aberrant splicing of glycine receptor beta subunit mRNA caused by intronic insertion of L1 element. Neuron. 1994;13:1003-15 pubmed
    ..Intron 5 of the spa Glyrb gene contains an L1 transposable element that apparently is causal for the aberrant splicing of beta subunit transcripts. ..
  45. Li Y, Lacerda D, Warman M, Beier D, Yoshioka H, Ninomiya Y, et al. A fibrillar collagen gene, Col11a1, is essential for skeletal morphogenesis. Cell. 1995;80:423-30 pubmed
    ..The results also suggest that the normal differentiation and spatial organization of growth plate chondrocytes is critially dependent on the presence of type XI collagen in cartilage extracellular matrix. ..
  46. Hagenbuchle O, Schibler U, Petrucco S, Van Tuyle G, Wellauer P. Expression of mouse Amy-2a alpha-amylase genes is regulated by strong pancreas-specific promoters. J Mol Biol. 1985;185:285-93 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, the weak Amy-1a promoter, which directs the synthesis of the mRNA containing the liver-type leader sequence, also is active in the pancreas and, hence, in all alpha-amylase-producing tissues. ..
  47. Pandey K, Adamson M, Gu Y, Kozak C. Genetic mapping of the gene encoding guanylate cyclase-A/atrial natriuretic factor receptor (Npra) to mouse chromosome 3. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:520-2 pubmed
  48. Hagenbuchle O, Tosi M, Schibler U, Bovey R, Wellauer P, Young R. Mouse liver and salivary gland alpha-amylase mRNAs differ only in 5' non-translated sequences. Nature. 1981;289:643-6 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that all three mRNAs might be transcribed from the same gene. ..
  49. Taylor B. Linkage of the cadmium resistance locus to loci on mouse chromosome 12. J Hered. 1976;67:389-90 pubmed
    ..A 3-point cross involving Va, cdm, and amylase-1 (Amy-1) indicated the following gene order and approximate distances: Va-8-cdm-17-Amy-1. The cdm locus is the first polymorphic locus to be placed on Chromosome 12. ..
  50. Bessis A, Simon Chazottes D, Devillers Thiery A, Guenet J, Changeux J. Chromosomal localization of the mouse genes coding for alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 4 and beta 2 subunits of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. FEBS Lett. 1990;264:48-52 pubmed
    ..14, 9 and 3 respectively. Moreover, the alpha 4 subunit gene is located on chromosome 2 but is not genetically linked to the alpha 1 subunit gene. ..
  51. Mucenski M, Taylor B, Copeland N, Jenkins N. Chromosomal location of Evi-1, a common site of ecotropic viral integration in AKXD murine myeloid tumors. Oncogene Res. 1988;2:219-33 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Evi-1 represents a new locus involved in myeloid disease. ..
  52. Eicher E, Lane P. Assignment of LH XVI to chromosome 3 in the mouse. J Hered. 1980;71:315-8 pubmed
    ..The genetic location of the breakpoint in the reciprocal translocation T(2:3)24H is placed between the Amy-1 and Va loci. A new simplified method for determining the Amy-1 and Amy-2 genotype of mice is presented. ..
  53. Young R, Hagenbuchle O, Schibler U. A single mouse alpha-amylase gene specifies two different tissue-specific mRNAs. Cell. 1981;23:451-8 pubmed
    ..genome, indicating that both the salivary gland and liver alpha-amylase mRNAs are transcribed from the same gene (Amy1A)...
  54. Karn R, Petersen T, Hjorth J, Nieles J, Roepstorff P. Characterization of the amino termini of mouse salivary and pancreatic amylases. FEBS Lett. 1981;126:293-6 pubmed
  55. Tosi M, Young R, Hagenbuchle O, Schibler U. Multiple polyadenylation sites in a mouse alpha-amylase gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981;9:2313-23 pubmed
    ..Sequences which trail the two polyadenylation sites exhibit extensive homology and might therefore be involved in polyadenylation or transcription termination. ..
  56. Dranginis A, Morley M, Nesbitt M, Rosenblum B, Meisler M. Independent regulation of nonallelic pancreatic amylase genes in diabetic mice. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:12216-9 pubmed
    ..The results provide genetic evidence that individual copies of the amylase structural gene are associated with divergent cis-acting insulin-responsive sequences. ..
  57. Sjodin A, Dahl U, Semb H. Mouse R-cadherin: expression during the organogenesis of pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. Exp Cell Res. 1995;221:413-25 pubmed
    ..The subcellular localization in these tissues is on both the apical and basolateral surfaces. The potential function of R-cadherin, in particular its role in pancreas development, is discussed. ..
  58. Kumar A, Dai X, Kozak C, Mims M, Gotto A, Ballantyne C. Murine VCAM-1. Molecular cloning, mapping, and analysis of a truncated form. J Immunol. 1994;153:4088-98 pubmed
    ..the murine Vcam1 gene including 3 kb of 5'-flanking sequences and mapped the gene to chromosome 3 near Amy1. cDNA clones isolated from a stimulated hepatic library were found to encode a truncated form of VCAM-1 (T-VCAM-1) ..
  59. Threadgill D, Threadgill D, Moll Y, Weiss J, Zhang N, Davey H, et al. Syntenic assignment of human chromosome 1 homologous loci in the bovine. Genomics. 1994;22:626-30 pubmed
    ..AT3, REN, CR2, and GNB1 mapped to BTA 16, PFKM to BTA 5, AMY1A and NRAS to BTA 3, FGR and FUCA1 to BTA 2, and ACTA1 to BTA 28.