Gene Symbol: Amhr2
Description: anti-Mullerian hormone type 2 receptor
Alias: Misiir, Misrii, Mrii, anti-Muellerian hormone type-2 receptor, AMH type II receptor, MIS type II receptor, anti-Muellerian hormone type II receptor, anti-Mullerian hormone type 2 receptor delta 2, anti-Mullerian hormone type 2 receptor delta 9/10
Species: mouse
Products:     Amhr2

Top Publications

  1. Andreu Vieyra C, Chen R, Matzuk M. Effects of granulosa cell-specific deletion of Rb in Inha-alpha null female mice. Endocrinology. 2007;148:3837-49 pubmed
    ..These findings confirm the importance of P27 as a cell cycle regulator in granulosa cells and suggest functional compensation between RB-like proteins in ovarian tumorigenesis. ..
  2. Pangas S, Li X, Umans L, Zwijsen A, Huylebroeck D, Gutierrez C, et al. Conditional deletion of Smad1 and Smad5 in somatic cells of male and female gonads leads to metastatic tumor development in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:248-57 pubmed
    ..These data strongly implicate the BR-SMADs as part of a critical developmental pathway in ovaries and testis that, when disrupted, leads to malignant transformation...
  3. Arango N, Kobayashi A, Wang Y, Jamin S, Lee H, Orvis G, et al. A mesenchymal perspective of Müllerian duct differentiation and regression in Amhr2-lacZ mice. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:1154-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We introduced the bacterial lacZ gene, encoding beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), into the AMHR-II locus (Amhr2) by gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to mark Müllerian duct differentiation and regression...
  4. Wang P, Protheroe A, Clarkson A, Imhoff F, Koishi K, McLennan I. Müllerian inhibiting substance contributes to sex-linked biases in the brain and behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7203-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We challenge this presumption by reporting that most immature neurons in mice express the MIS-specific receptor (MISRII) and that male Mis(-/-) and Misrii(-/-) mice exhibit subtle feminization of their spinal motor neurons and of ..
  5. Gonzalez G, Behringer R. Dicer is required for female reproductive tract development and fertility in the mouse. Mol Reprod Dev. 2009;76:678-88 pubmed publisher
    ..was inactivated in Müllerian duct mesenchyme-derived tissues of the reproductive tract of the mouse, using an Amhr2-Cre allele...
  6. Tanwar P, Kaneko Tarui T, Zhang L, Rani P, Taketo M, Teixeira J. Constitutive WNT/beta-catenin signaling in murine Sertoli cells disrupts their differentiation and ability to support spermatogenesis. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:422-32 pubmed publisher the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH; also known as Müllerian-inhibiting substance) type II receptor promoter (Amhr2(tm3(cre)Bhr)(/+)) to show that constitutively activated beta-catenin leads to their continuous proliferation and ..
  7. Andreu Vieyra C, Chen R, Matzuk M. Conditional deletion of the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene in ovarian granulosa cells leads to premature ovarian failure. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:2141-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that RB is required for the temporal-specific pattern of expression of key genes involved in follicular development. ..
  8. Ren Y, Cowan R, Harman R, Quirk S. Dominant activation of the hedgehog signaling pathway in the ovary alters theca development and prevents ovulation. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:711-23 pubmed publisher
    ..signal transducer smoothened (SmoM2) was directed to the ovary and Müllerian duct by cre-mediated recombination (Amhr2(cre/+)SmoM2). Mutant mice were infertile and had ovarian and reproductive tract defects...
  9. Jamin S, Arango N, Mishina Y, Hanks M, Behringer R. Requirement of Bmpr1a for Müllerian duct regression during male sexual development. Nat Genet. 2002;32:408-10 pubmed
    ..Amh induces regression by binding to a specific type II receptor (Amhr2) expressed in the mesenchyme surrounding the ductal epithelium...

More Information


  1. Boyer A, Paquet M, Laguë M, Hermo L, Boerboom D. Dysregulation of WNT/CTNNB1 and PI3K/AKT signaling in testicular stromal cells causes granulosa cell tumor of the testis. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:869-78 pubmed publisher
    ..WNT/CTNNB1 and PI3K/AKT pathways could synergize to cause testicular cancer, Pten(tm1Hwu/tm1Hwu);Ctnnb1(tm1Mmt/+);Amhr2(tm3(cre)Bhr/+) mice that express a dominant, stable CTNNB1 mutant and lack the expression of phosphatase and ..
  2. Tanwar P, Zhang L, Kaneko Tarui T, Curley M, Taketo M, Rani P, et al. Mammalian target of rapamycin is a therapeutic target for murine ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas with dysregulated Wnt/?-catenin and PTEN. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20715 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that rapamycin might be an effective therapeutic for human ovarian endometrioid patients with dysregulated Wnt/?-catenin and Pten/PI3K signaling. ..
  3. Boerboom D, Paquet M, Hsieh M, Liu J, Jamin S, Behringer R, et al. Misregulated Wnt/beta-catenin signaling leads to ovarian granulosa cell tumor development. Cancer Res. 2005;65:9206-15 pubmed
    ..To confirm this hypothesis, Catnb(flox(ex3)/+); Amhr2(cre/+) mice that express a dominant stable beta-catenin mutant in their granulosa cells were generated...
  4. Fan H, Shimada M, Liu Z, Cahill N, Noma N, Wu Y, et al. Selective expression of KrasG12D in granulosa cells of the mouse ovary causes defects in follicle development and ovulation. Development. 2008;135:2127-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Transient but not sustained activation of RAS in granulosa cells is therefore crucial for directing normal follicle development and initiating the ovulation process. ..
  5. Lei L, Jin S, Gonzalez G, Behringer R, Woodruff T. The regulatory role of Dicer in folliculogenesis in mice. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;315:63-73 pubmed publisher
    ..miRNAs in mouse ovarian development was explored by using Dicer1 conditional knockout (cKO) mouse ovarian tissue (Amhr2 Cre/-; Dicer flox/flox), in which Dicer1 is deleted specifically in follicular granulosa cells...
  6. Edson M, Nalam R, Clementi C, Franco H, DeMayo F, Lyons K, et al. Granulosa cell-expressed BMPR1A and BMPR1B have unique functions in regulating fertility but act redundantly to suppress ovarian tumor development. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:1251-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies support a role for a functional BMP signaling axis as a tumor suppressor pathway in the ovary, with BMPR1A and BMPR1B acting downstream of BMP ligands and upstream of BMP receptor SMADs. ..
  7. Pangas S, Li X, Robertson E, Matzuk M. Premature luteinization and cumulus cell defects in ovarian-specific Smad4 knockout mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:1406-22 pubmed
  8. Pangas S, Jorgez C, Tran M, Agno J, Li X, Brown C, et al. Intraovarian activins are required for female fertility. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:2458-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, in contrast to the known tumor suppressor role of activins in some tissues, our data indicate that activin betaA and betaB function redundantly in a growth stimulatory pathway in the mammalian ovary. ..
  9. Wang Y, Jia Y, Franken P, Smits R, Ewing P, Lydon J, et al. Loss of APC function in mesenchymal cells surrounding the Müllerian duct leads to myometrial defects in adult mice. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;341:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..A mouse model was generated and evaluated where Amhr2(Cre/+) driven loss of Apc exon 15 was induced...
  10. Xing D, Scangas G, Nitta M, He L, Xu X, Ioffe Y, et al. A role for BRCA1 in uterine leiomyosarcoma. Cancer Res. 2009;69:8231-5 pubmed publisher
    ..mice in which p53 and/or BRCA1 can be conditionally deleted using anti-Müllerian hormone type II receptor (Amhr2)-driven Cre recombinase...
  11. Boyer A, Lapointe E, Zheng X, Cowan R, Li H, Quirk S, et al. WNT4 is required for normal ovarian follicle development and female fertility. FASEB J. 2010;24:3010-25 pubmed publisher
    ..the role of WNT4 in the postnatal ovary, a mouse strain bearing a floxed Wnt4 allele was created and mated to the Amhr2(tm3(cre)Bhr) strain to target deletion of Wnt4 to granulosa cells...
  12. Tanwar P, Zhang L, Roberts D, TEIXEIRA J. Stromal deletion of the APC tumor suppressor in mice triggers development of endometrial cancer. Cancer Res. 2011;71:1584-96 pubmed publisher
  13. Arango N, Szotek P, Manganaro T, Oliva E, Donahoe P, Teixeira J. Conditional deletion of beta-catenin in the mesenchyme of the developing mouse uterus results in a switch to adipogenesis in the myometrium. Dev Biol. 2005;288:276-83 pubmed
    ..These results describe the first molecular evidence linking disruption of beta-catenin expression in mesenchymal cells with a switch from myogenesis to adipogenesis in vivo. ..
  14. Fan H, Liu Z, Paquet M, Wang J, Lydon J, DeMayo F, et al. Cell type-specific targeted mutations of Kras and Pten document proliferation arrest in granulosa cells versus oncogenic insult to ovarian surface epithelial cells. Cancer Res. 2009;69:6463-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The Pten/Kras mutant mice were infertile but lacked granulosa cell tumors. By contrast, the Ptenfl/fl;KrasG12D;Amhr2-Cre mice developed aggressive ovarian surface epithelial cell tumors that did not occur in the Ptenfl/fl;KrasG12D;..
  15. Middlebrook B, Eldin K, Li X, Shivasankaran S, Pangas S. Smad1-Smad5 ovarian conditional knockout mice develop a disease profile similar to the juvenile form of human granulosa cell tumors. Endocrinology. 2009;150:5208-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the SMAD family, possibly through disruption of SMAD1/5 or activation of SMAD2/3 may contribute to the pathogenesis of JGCT in humans...
  16. Orvis G, Jamin S, Kwan K, Mishina Y, Kaartinen V, Huang S, et al. Functional redundancy of TGF-beta family type I receptors and receptor-Smads in mediating anti-Mullerian hormone-induced Mullerian duct regression in the mouse. Biol Reprod. 2008;78:994-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..It binds to its type II receptor, anti-Müllerian hormone receptor 2 (AMHR2), in the Müllerian duct mesenchyme and through an unknown mechanism(s); the mesenchyme induces the regression of ..
  17. Jamin S, Arango N, Mishina Y, Hanks M, Behringer R. Genetic studies of the AMH/MIS signaling pathway for Müllerian duct regression. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;211:15-9 pubmed
    ..Whereas the AMH type II receptor has been clearly defined, only recently has there been evidence about the identity of the AMH type I ..
  18. Laguë M, Detmar J, Paquet M, Boyer A, Richards J, Adamson S, et al. Decidual PTEN expression is required for trophoblast invasion in the mouse. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;299:E936-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we studied implantation in Pten(tm1Hwu/tm1Hwu);Amhr2(tm3(cre)Bhr/+) mice, which lack the PI3K signaling antagonist gene Pten in myometrial and stromal/decidual cells...
  19. Tanwar P, Lee H, Zhang L, Zukerberg L, Taketo M, Rueda B, et al. Constitutive activation of Beta-catenin in uterine stroma and smooth muscle leads to the development of mesenchymal tumors in mice. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:545-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show evidence suggesting that dysregulated, stromal, and myometrial WNT/beta-catenin signaling has pleiotropic effects on uterine function and tumorigenesis. ..
  20. Laguë M, Paquet M, Fan H, Kaartinen M, Chu S, Jamin S, et al. Synergistic effects of Pten loss and WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway activation in ovarian granulosa cell tumor development and progression. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:2062-72 pubmed publisher
    ..the PI3K/AKT pathway in granulosa cells by conditional targeting of the PI3K antagonist gene Pten (Pten(flox/flox);Amhr2(cre/+))...
  21. Li Q, Pangas S, Jorgez C, Graff J, Weinstein M, Matzuk M. Redundant roles of SMAD2 and SMAD3 in ovarian granulosa cells in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:7001-11 pubmed publisher
  22. Petit F, Jamin S, Kurihara I, Behringer R, DeMayo F, Tsai M, et al. Deletion of the orphan nuclear receptor COUP-TFII in uterus leads to placental deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:6293-8 pubmed
    ..The endometrial COUP-TFII might modulate the signaling between the uterus and the extraembryonic tissue for the proper formation of the placenta. ..
  23. Tanwar P, Zhang L, Tanaka Y, Taketo M, Donahoe P, TEIXEIRA J. Focal Mullerian duct retention in male mice with constitutively activated beta-catenin expression in the Mullerian duct mesenchyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16142-7 pubmed publisher
    ..CA ?-catenin did not appear to affect expression of either MIS in the embryonic testes or its type II receptor (AMHR2) in the MD mesenchyme nor did it inhibit pSmad1/5/8 nuclear accumulation, suggesting that dysregulated ?-catenin ..
  24. Jorgez C, Klysik M, Jamin S, Behringer R, Matzuk M. Granulosa cell-specific inactivation of follistatin causes female fertility defects. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:953-67 pubmed
    ..These studies are the first report of a granulosa cell-specific deletion of a gene in the postnatal ovary and have important implications for future endeavors to generate ovary-specific knockout mouse models. ..
  25. Hong X, Luense L, McGinnis L, Nothnick W, Christenson L. Dicer1 is essential for female fertility and normal development of the female reproductive system. Endocrinology. 2008;149:6207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies implicate Dicer1/miRNA mediated posttranscriptional gene regulation in reproductive somatic tissues as critical for the normal development and function of these tissues and for female fertility...
  26. Boyer A, Hermo L, Paquet M, Robaire B, Boerboom D. Seminiferous tubule degeneration and infertility in mice with sustained activation of WNT/CTNNB1 signaling in sertoli cells. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:475-85 pubmed publisher
    ..To elucidate the role(s) of WNT/CTNNB1 signaling in the testis, transgenic Ctnnb1 tm1Mmt/+;Amhr2 tm3(cre)Bhr/+ mice were generated to obtain sustained activation of the WNT/CTNNB1 pathway in both Leydig and ..
  27. Deutscher E, Hung Chang Yao H. Essential roles of mesenchyme-derived beta-catenin in mouse Müllerian duct morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2007;307:227-36 pubmed
    ..By using the Müllerian duct-specific anti-Müllerian hormone receptor 2 cre (Amhr2-cre) mouse line, we established a conditional knockout model that removed beta-catenin specifically in the ..
  28. Boerboom D, White L, Dalle S, Courty J, Richards J. Dominant-stable beta-catenin expression causes cell fate alterations and Wnt signaling antagonist expression in a murine granulosa cell tumor model. Cancer Res. 2006;66:1964-73 pubmed
    ..Wnt/beta-catenin signaling occurs in ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCT) and have created the Catnb(flox(ex3)/+);Amhr2(cre/+) mouse model, which expresses a dominant-stable mutant of beta-catenin in granulosa cells and develops late-..
  29. Daikoku T, Jackson L, Besnard V, Whitsett J, Ellenson L, Dey S. Cell-specific conditional deletion of Pten in the uterus results in differential phenotypes. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;122:424-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Pten(Amhr2(d/d)) mice with conditional deletion of Pten in the mouse uterine stroma and myometrium, but not in the epithelium,..
  30. Connolly D, Bao R, Nikitin A, Stephens K, Poole T, Hua X, et al. Female mice chimeric for expression of the simian virus 40 TAg under control of the MISIIR promoter develop epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Res. 2003;63:1389-97 pubmed
  31. Kim J, Coffey D, Creighton C, Yu Z, Hawkins S, Matzuk M. High-grade serous ovarian cancer arises from fallopian tube in a mouse model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3921-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this mouse model demonstrates a paradigm for the origin and initiation of high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas, the most common and deadliest ovarian cancer...
  32. Tanaka Y, Park J, Tanwar P, Kaneko Tarui T, Mittal S, Lee H, et al. Deletion of tuberous sclerosis 1 in somatic cells of the murine reproductive tract causes female infertility. Endocrinology. 2012;153:404-16 pubmed publisher
    ..examined whether conditional deletion of TSC1 by a knock-in allele of the anti-Müllerian hormone type 2 receptor (Amhr2) driving Cre expression and subsequent activation of mTOR in granulosa cells and in oviductal and uterine stromal ..
  33. Nagaraja A, Andreu Vieyra C, Franco H, Ma L, Chen R, Han D, et al. Deletion of Dicer in somatic cells of the female reproductive tract causes sterility. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:2336-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings reveal diverse and critical roles for Dicer and its miRNA products in the development and function of the female reproductive tract...
  34. Rudigier L, Dame C, Scholz H, Kirschner K. Ex vivo cultures combined with vivo-morpholino induced gene knockdown provide a system to assess the role of WT1 and GATA4 during gonad differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176296 pubmed publisher
  35. Hernandez Gifford J, Hunzicker Dunn M, Nilson J. Conditional deletion of beta-catenin mediated by Amhr2cre in mice causes female infertility. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:1282-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that FSH regulation of steroidogenesis requires beta-catenin, a role that remains hidden when tested through Amhr2cre-mediated recombination in vivo...
  36. Martin L, Tremblay J. Nuclear receptors in Leydig cell gene expression and function. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:3-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This review provides an overview of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors as they relate to Leydig cell gene expression and function. ..
  37. Prunskaite Hyyryläinen R, Shan J, Railo A, Heinonen K, Miinalainen I, Yan W, et al. Wnt4, a pleiotropic signal for controlling cell polarity, basement membrane integrity, and antimüllerian hormone expression during oocyte maturation in the female follicle. FASEB J. 2014;28:1568-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Wnt4 signaling is necessary during maturation of the ovarian follicles, where it coordinates expression of Amh, cell survival, and polarized organization of the follicular cells...
  38. Petit F, Deng C, Jamin S. Partial Müllerian Duct Retention in Smad4 Conditional Mutant Male Mice. Int J Biol Sci. 2016;12:667-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the expression pattern is similar to those observed in control female mice. This study shows that reduced Smad4 expression disrupts the Wnt/?-catenin signalling leading to the partial persistence of Müllerian duct. ..
  39. Imhoff F, Yang D, Mathew S, Clarkson A, Kawagishi Y, Tate W, et al. The type 2 anti-Müllerian hormone receptor has splice variants that are dominant-negative inhibitors. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:1749-53 pubmed publisher
    ..that occur at different AMH concentrations, and in cells with different densities of its specific receptor (Amhr2). This diversity is not explained by canonical AMH signaling...
  40. Kim J, Coffey D, Ma L, Matzuk M. The ovary is an alternative site of origin for high-grade serous ovarian cancer in mice. Endocrinology. 2015;156:1975-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study therefore shows that ovaries harboring a p53 mutation, as well as fallopian tubes, can be a distinct tissue source of high-grade serous ovarian cancer in mice. ..
  41. Morohaku K, Pelton S, Daugherty D, Butler W, Deng W, Selvaraj V. Translocator protein/peripheral benzodiazepine receptor is not required for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Endocrinology. 2014;155:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study examining conditional TSPO gene deletion in mice. The results show that TSPO function is not essential for steroid hormone biosynthesis. ..
  42. Ferguson L, Kaftanovskaya E, Manresa C, Barbara A, Poppiti R, Tan Y, et al. Constitutive Notch Signaling Causes Abnormal Development of the Oviducts, Abnormal Angiogenesis, and Cyst Formation in Mouse Female Reproductive Tract. Biol Reprod. 2016;94:67 pubmed publisher
    ..of Notch1 gain-of-function signaling on female reproductive tract development, we used a cre-loxP strategy and Amhr2-cre transgene to generate mice with conditionally activated Notch1 (Rosa(Notch1))...
  43. Roberts L, Visser J, Ingraham H. Involvement of a matrix metalloproteinase in MIS-induced cell death during urogenital development. Development. 2002;129:1487-96 pubmed
  44. Andreu Vieyra C, Chen R, Agno J, Glaser S, Anastassiadis K, Stewart A, et al. MLL2 is required in oocytes for bulk histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation and transcriptional silencing. PLoS Biol. 2010;8: pubmed publisher
  45. Bertolin K, Gossen J, Schoonjans K, Murphy B. The orphan nuclear receptor Nr5a2 is essential for luteinization in the female mouse ovary. Endocrinology. 2014;155:1931-43 pubmed publisher
    ..of this mouse line with the models in which Nr5a2 is depleted from the primary follicle forward (genotype Nr5a2(Amhr2-/-)) and after the ovulatory signal (genotype Nr5a2(Pgr-/-)) demonstrates that Nr5a2 differentially regulates ..
  46. Myers M, Tripurani S, Middlebrook B, Economides A, Canalis E, Pangas S. Loss of gremlin delays primordial follicle assembly but does not affect female fertility in mice. Biol Reprod. 2011;85:1175-82 pubmed publisher
  47. Archambeault D, Yao H. Activin A, a product of fetal Leydig cells, is a unique paracrine regulator of Sertoli cell proliferation and fetal testis cord expansion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10526-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings challenge the paradigm that fetal testis development is solely under the control of Sertoli cells, by uncovering an active and essential role of fetal Leydig cells during testis cord morphogenesis...
  48. Wilson M, Jeyasuria P, Parker K, Koopman P. The transcription factors steroidogenic factor-1 and SOX9 regulate expression of Vanin-1 during mouse testis development. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:5917-23 pubmed
    ..Our findings account for the sex- and cell-type-specific expression of Vanin-1 in the developing mouse gonad in vivo, which we suggest is required to provide an appropriate environment for male germ cell development. ..
  49. Daikoku T, Yoshie M, Xie H, Sun X, Cha J, Ellenson L, et al. Conditional deletion of Tsc1 in the female reproductive tract impedes normal oviductal and uterine function by enhancing mTORC1 signaling in mice. Mol Hum Reprod. 2013;19:463-72 pubmed publisher
    ..all major cell types in the uterus (epithelium, stroma and myometrium), or anti-Mullerian hormone type 2 receptor (Amhr2)-Cre (Tsc1(Amhr2(d/d))), which inactivates stromal and myometrial Tsc1...
  50. Huang C, Orvis G, Wang Y, Behringer R. Stromal-to-epithelial transition during postpartum endometrial regeneration. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44285 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify potential progenitor cells within the endometrial stromal compartment that produce long-term epithelial tissue during postpartum endometrial regeneration. ..
  51. Mishina Y, Rey R, Finegold M, Matzuk M, Josso N, Cate R, et al. Genetic analysis of the Müllerian-inhibiting substance signal transduction pathway in mammalian sexual differentiation. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2577-87 pubmed
    ..Recently, an MIS type II receptor gene has been isolated that is expressed during embryogenesis in mesenchymal cells adjacent to the Mü..
  52. Rico C, Laguë M, Lefevre P, Tsoi M, Dodelet Devillers A, Kumar V, et al. Pharmacological targeting of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibits ovarian granulosa cell tumor growth. Carcinogenesis. 2012;33:2283-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We next sought to evaluate mTOR as a GCT therapeutic target using the Pten (tm1Hwu/tmiHwu);Ctnnb1 (tm1Mmt/+);Amhr2 (tm3(cre)Bhr/+) (PCA) mouse model, in which mTOR, RPS6KB1, eIF4B and PPARG are upregulated in tumor cells in a ..
  53. Pihlajoki M, Färkkilä A, Soini T, Heikinheimo M, Wilson D. GATA factors in endocrine neoplasia. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;421:2-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This article provides an overview of the role of GATA factors in endocrine neoplasms. Relevant animal models are highlighted. ..
  54. Peng S, Szabo S, Glimcher L. T-bet regulates IgG class switching and pathogenic autoantibody production. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:5545-50 pubmed
    ..These results identify T-bet as a selective transducer of IFN-gamma-mediated IgG2a class switching in B cells and emphasize the importance of this regulation in the pathogenesis of humorally mediated autoimmunity. ..
  55. Ren Y, Cowan R, Migone F, Quirk S. Overactivation of hedgehog signaling alters development of the ovarian vasculature in mice. Biol Reprod. 2012;86:174 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, expression of a dominant active allele of the HH signal transducer protein smoothened (SMO) in Amhr2(cre/+)SmoM2 mice caused anovulation in association with a lack of smooth muscle in the theca of developing ..
  56. Mullany L, Liu Z, King E, Wong K, Richards J. Wild-type tumor repressor protein 53 (Trp53) promotes ovarian cancer cell survival. Endocrinology. 2012;153:1638-48 pubmed publisher
    Loss of Pten in the Kras(G12D);Amhr2-Cre mutant mice leads to the transformation of ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells and rapid development of low-grade, invasive serous adenocarcinomas...
  57. Kato T, Esaki M, Matsuzawa A, Ikeda Y. NR5A1 is required for functional maturation of Sertoli cells during postnatal development. Reproduction. 2012;143:663-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that NR5A1 is essential for Sertoli cell maturation and therefore spermatogenesis, during postnatal testis development...
  58. Mittal P, Shin Y, Yatsenko S, Castro C, Surti U, Rajkovic A. Med12 gain-of-function mutation causes leiomyomas and genomic instability. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:3280-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results show that the common human leiomyoma-associated MED12 variant can cause leiomyomas in mice via a gain of function that drives genomic instability, which is frequently observed in human leiomyomas. ..
  59. Mansouri Attia N, Tripurani S, Gokul N, Piard H, Anderson M, Eldin K, et al. TGFβ signaling promotes juvenile granulosa cell tumorigenesis by suppressing apoptosis. Mol Endocrinol. 2014;28:1887-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support a tumor-promoting function of TGFβ in JGCTs through its ability to repress apoptosis. ..
  60. Duggavathi R, Volle D, Mataki C, Antal M, Messaddeq N, Auwerx J, et al. Liver receptor homolog 1 is essential for ovulation. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1871-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that Lrh1 is a regulator of multiple mechanisms essential for maturation of ovarian follicles and for ovulation. Lrh1 is therefore a key modulator of female fertility and a potential target for contraception. ..
  61. Paine M, Kim J, Bennett R, Parry R, Gaul D, Wang M, et al. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0154837 pubmed publisher
    ..As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy. ..
  62. Yin S, Jiang X, Jiang H, Gao Q, Wang F, Fan S, et al. Histone acetyltransferase KAT8 is essential for mouse oocyte development by regulating reactive oxygen species levels. Development. 2017;144:2165-2174 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings demonstrate that KAT8 is essential for female fertility by regulating antioxidant gene expression and identify KAT8 as the first histone acetyltransferase with an essential function in oogenesis. ..
  63. Davis R, Harding M, Moayedi Y, Mardon G. Mouse Dach1 and Dach2 are redundantly required for Müllerian duct development. Genesis. 2008;46:205-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This vertebrate Dach1/2 function may have been conserved during arthropod evolution, as Drosophila dachshund mutants also exhibit an FRT phenotype. ..
  64. Mullany L, Liu Z, Wong K, Deneke V, Ren Y, Herron A, et al. Tumor repressor protein 53 and steroid hormones provide a new paradigm for ovarian cancer metastases. Mol Endocrinol. 2014;28:127-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Wild-type TP53 is elevated in low-grade serous adenocarcinomas in women and in our Pten;Kras;Amhr2-Cre mutant mouse model...
  65. Tanwar P, Mohapatra G, Chiang S, Engler D, Zhang L, Kaneko Tarui T, et al. Loss of LKB1 and PTEN tumor suppressor genes in the ovarian surface epithelium induces papillary serous ovarian cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014;35:546-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results implicate LKB1 loss in the OSE in the pathogenesis of serous ovarian cancer and provide a compelling rationale for investigating the therapeutic potential of targeting LKB1 signaling in patients with this deadly disease. ..
  66. Pastorelli L, Wells S, Fray M, Smith A, Hough T, Harfe B, et al. Genetic analyses reveal a requirement for Dicer1 in the mouse urogenital tract. Mamm Genome. 2009;20:140-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We utilised a conditional allele of the Dicer1 gene and two Cre-expressing lines, driven by HoxB7 and Amhr2, to investigate the effect of Dicer1 deletion on both male and female reproductive tract development...
  67. Kobayashi A, Shawlot W, Kania A, Behringer R. Requirement of Lim1 for female reproductive tract development. Development. 2004;131:539-49 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate an essential role for Lim1 in female reproductive tract development...
  68. Lee F, Faivre E, Suzawa M, Lontok E, Ebert D, Cai F, et al. Eliminating SF-1 (NR5A1) sumoylation in vivo results in ectopic hedgehog signaling and disruption of endocrine development. Dev Cell. 2011;21:315-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the sumoylation cycle greatly expands the functional capacity of transcription factors such as SF-1 and is leveraged during development to achieve cell-type-specific gene expression in multicellular organisms. ..
  69. Archambeault D, Yao H. Loss of smad4 in Sertoli and Leydig cells leads to testicular dysgenesis and hemorrhagic tumor formation in mice. Biol Reprod. 2014;90:62 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, loss of Smad4 in Leydig cells alone did not appreciably alter fetal and adult testis development. Our findings support a cell type-specific requirement of Smad4 in testis development and suppression of testicular tumors. ..
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    ..New paradigms of cancer initiation, maintenance, and progression that have emerged from this work will be discussed. ..
  71. Pihlajoki M, Gretzinger E, Cochran R, Kyrönlahti A, Schrade A, Hiller T, et al. Conditional mutagenesis of Gata6 in SF1-positive cells causes gonadal-like differentiation in the adrenal cortex of mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:1754-67 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA analysis demonstrated the concomitant upregulation of other gonadal-like markers, including Amhr2, in the cKO adrenal glands, suggesting that GATA6 inhibits the spontaneous differentiation of adrenocortical stem/..