Gene Symbol: Amelx
Description: amelogenin, X-linked
Alias: ALGN, AMGL, AMGX, Amel, Amg, LRAP, Rgsc888, amelogenin, X isoform, amelogenin X chromosome, enamel matrix protein, leucine-rich amelogenin peptide
Species: mouse
Products:     Amelx

Top Publications

  1. Gibson C, Yuan Z, Li Y, Daly B, Suggs C, Aragon M, et al. Transgenic mice that express normal and mutated amelogenins. J Dent Res. 2007;86:331-5 pubmed
    ..mice with expression of M180, or M180 with the proline-to-threonine (P70T) mutation, under control of the Amelx gene regulatory regions...
  2. Hatakeyama J, Fukumoto S, Nakamura T, Haruyama N, Suzuki S, Hatakeyama Y, et al. Synergistic roles of amelogenin and ameloblastin. J Dent Res. 2009;88:318-22 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify their synergistic roles in enamel development, we generated Amel X(-/-)/Ambn(-/-) mice. These mice showed additional enamel defects in comparison with Amel X(-/-) or Ambn(-/-) mice...
  3. Wright J, Hart T, Hart P, Simmons D, Suggs C, Daley B, et al. Human and mouse enamel phenotypes resulting from mutation or altered expression of AMEL, ENAM, MMP20 and KLK4. Cells Tissues Organs. 2009;189:224-9 pubmed publisher
    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is caused by AMEL, ENAM, MMP20 and KLK4 gene mutations. Mice lacking expression of the AmelX, Enam and Mmp20 genes have been generated...
  4. Bonass W, Robinson P, Kirkham J, Shore R, Robinson C. Molecular cloning and DNA sequence of rat amelogenin and a comparative analysis of mammalian amelogenin protein sequence divergence. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;198:755-63 pubmed
  5. Deutsch D, Haze Filderman A, Blumenfeld A, Dafni L, Leiser Y, Shay B, et al. Amelogenin, a major structural protein in mineralizing enamel, is also expressed in soft tissues: brain and cells of the hematopoietic system. Eur J Oral Sci. 2006;114 Suppl 1:183-9; discussion 201-2, 381 pubmed
    ..Several different potential functions of amelogenin are discussed...
  6. Landin M, Shabestari M, Babaie E, Reseland J, Osmundsen H. Gene Expression Profiling during Murine Tooth Development. Front Genet. 2012;3:139 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to describe the expression of genes, including ameloblastin (Ambn), amelogenin X chromosome (Amelx), and enamelin (Enam) during early (pre-secretory) tooth development...
  7. Pugach M, Li Y, Suggs C, Wright J, Aragon M, Yuan Z, et al. The amelogenin C-terminus is required for enamel development. J Dent Res. 2010;89:165-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because transgenic full-length amelogenin partially rescues both density and volume of KO molar enamel, it was concluded that the amelogenin C-terminus is essential for proper enamel density, volume, and organization. ..
  8. Stahl J, Nakano Y, Kim S, Gibson C, Le T, DenBesten P. Leucine rich amelogenin peptide alters ameloblast differentiation in vivo. Matrix Biol. 2013;32:432-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we examined the role of the 59 amino acid alternatively spliced amelogenin known as leucine rich amelogenin peptide (LRAP) on enamel formation, using transgenic murine models in which LRAP overexpression is driven by ..
  9. Klein O, Lyons D, Balooch G, Marshall G, Basson M, Peterka M, et al. An FGF signaling loop sustains the generation of differentiated progeny from stem cells in mouse incisors. Development. 2008;135:377-85 pubmed
    ..These data reveal that the generation of differentiated progeny from a particular stem cell population can be differently regulated in the embryo and adult. ..

More Information


  1. Gruenbaum Cohen Y, Tucker A, Haze A, Shilo D, Taylor A, Shay B, et al. Amelogenin in cranio-facial development: the tooth as a model to study the role of amelogenin during embryogenesis. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2009;312B:445-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results indicate that amelogenin has an important role in many tissues of the cranio-facial complex during mouse embryonic development and differentiation, and might be a multifunctional protein. ..
  2. Hatakeyama J, Sreenath T, Hatakeyama Y, Thyagarajan T, Shum L, Gibson C, et al. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand-mediated osteoclastogenic pathway is elevated in amelogenin-null mice. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35743-8 pubmed
    ..time the expression of two alternate splice forms of amelogenins, M180 and the leucine-rich amelogenin peptide (LRAP), in the periodontal region of mouse tooth roots...
  3. Li Y, Yuan Z, Aragon M, Kulkarni A, Gibson C. Comparison of body weight and gene expression in amelogenin null and wild-type mice. Eur J Oral Sci. 2006;114 Suppl 1:190-3; discussion 201-2, 381 pubmed
    Amelogenin (AmelX) null mice develop hypomineralized enamel lacking normal prism structure, but are healthy and fertile...
  4. Dassule H, Lewis P, Bei M, Maas R, McMahon A. Sonic hedgehog regulates growth and morphogenesis of the tooth. Development. 2000;127:4775-85 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that Shh regulates growth and determines the shape of the tooth. However, Shh signaling is not essential for differentiation of ameloblasts or odontoblasts. ..
  5. Saito K, Konishi I, Nishiguchi M, Hoshino T, Fujiwara T. Amelogenin binds to both heparan sulfate and bone morphogenetic protein 2 and pharmacologically suppresses the effect of noggin. Bone. 2008;43:371-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with the above findings, our findings suggest that the BMP2/4 contaminated during the purification process of EMD because of the avidity of amelogenin plays an important role in signaling pathway of calcification. ..
  6. Buchko G, Tarasevich B, Bekhazi J, Snead M, Shaw W. A solution NMR investigation into the early events of amelogenin nanosphere self-assembly initiated with sodium chloride or calcium chloride. Biochemistry. 2008;47:13215-22 pubmed
    ..1 nm in the absence of salt to 10 nm in the presence of salt. These results suggest a possible stepwise interaction mechanism, starting with the N-terminus and followed by the C-terminus, leading to amelogenin nanosphere assembly...
  7. Barron M, Brookes S, Kirkham J, Shore R, Hunt C, Mironov A, et al. A mutation in the mouse Amelx tri-tyrosyl domain results in impaired secretion of amelogenin and phenocopies human X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:1230-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we describe here a mis-sense mutation in the mouse Amelx gene resulting in a Y --> H substitution in the tri-tyrosyl domain of the enamel extracellular matrix protein ..
  8. Simmer J, Hu C, Lau E, Sarte P, Slavkin H, Fincham A. Alternative splicing of the mouse amelogenin primary RNA transcript. Calcif Tissue Int. 1994;55:302-10 pubmed
    ..Antibodies were raised to synthetic exon 4-encoded polypeptides and used to immunostain Western transfers and histologic tooth sections. ..
  9. Golonzhka O, Metzger D, Bornert J, Bay B, Gross M, Kioussi C, et al. Ctip2/Bcl11b controls ameloblast formation during mammalian odontogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:4278-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Ctip2 functions as a critical regulator of epithelial cell fate and differentiation during tooth morphogenesis...
  10. Diekwisch T, David S, Bringas P, Santos V, Slavkin H. Antisense inhibition of AMEL translation demonstrates supramolecular controls for enamel HAP crystal growth during embryonic mouse molar development. Development. 1993;117:471-82 pubmed
    ..We conclude that secreted extracellular proteins form a supramolecular aggregate, which controls both the orientation and dimensions of enamel crystal formation during tooth development. ..
  11. Ravindranath R, Basilrose R, Ravindranath N, Vaitheesvaran B. Amelogenin interacts with cytokeratin-5 in ameloblasts during enamel growth. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:20293-302 pubmed
    ..Upon secretion of amelogenin, K5 pairs with K14. Pairing of K5 and K14 commences on day 3 and ends on day 9. The pairing of K5 and K14 marks the end of secretion of amelogenin. ..
  12. Lau E, Mohandas T, Shapiro L, Slavkin H, Snead M. Human and mouse amelogenin gene loci are on the sex chromosomes. Genomics. 1989;4:162-8 pubmed
    ..We have determined the chromosomal locations for the human and mouse amelogenin (AMEL) loci using Southern blot analyses of DNA from human, mouse, or somatic cell hybrids by hybridization to a ..
  13. Bartlett J, Skobe Z, Lee D, Wright J, Li Y, Kulkarni A, et al. A developmental comparison of matrix metalloproteinase-20 and amelogenin null mouse enamel. Eur J Oral Sci. 2006;114 Suppl 1:18-23; discussion 39-41, 379 pubmed
    ..Both genes are essential for the generation of full-thickness enamel containing the characteristic decussating prism pattern. ..
  14. Osmundsen H, Landin M, From S, Kolltveit K, Risnes S. Changes in gene-expression during development of the murine molar tooth germ. Arch Oral Biol. 2007;52:803-13 pubmed
    ..Such data is therefore useful in directing attention towards genes, or cellular activities, which likely are worthy of further studies as regards their involvement in odontogenesis...
  15. Zou Y, Wang H, Shapiro J, Okamoto C, Brookes S, Lyngstadaas S, et al. Determination of protein regions responsible for interactions of amelogenin with CD63 and LAMP1. Biochem J. 2007;408:347-54 pubmed
    The enamel matrix protein amelogenin is secreted by ameloblasts into the extracellular space to guide the formation of highly ordered hydroxyapatite mineral crystallites, and, subsequently, is almost completely removed during mineral ..
  16. Li Y, Suggs C, Wright J, Yuan Z, Aragon M, Fong H, et al. Partial rescue of the amelogenin null dental enamel phenotype. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:15056-62 pubmed publisher
    The amelogenins are the most abundant secreted proteins in developing dental enamel. Enamel from amelogenin (Amelx) null mice is hypoplastic and disorganized, similar to that observed in X-linked forms of the human enamel defect ..
  17. Caton J, Luder H, Zoupa M, Bradman M, Bluteau G, Tucker A, et al. Enamel-free teeth: Tbx1 deletion affects amelogenesis in rodent incisors. Dev Biol. 2009;328:493-505 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that Tbx1 is essential for the maintenance of ameloblast progenitor cells in rodent incisors and that its deletion results in the absence of enamel formation...
  18. Barron M, Brookes S, Draper C, Garrod D, Kirkham J, Shore R, et al. The cell adhesion molecule nectin-1 is critical for normal enamel formation in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:3509-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, our results show that integrity of the SI-ameloblast interface is essential for normal enamel mineralization. ..
  19. Couwenhoven R, Snead M. Early determination and permissive expression of amelogenin transcription during mouse mandibular first molar development. Dev Biol. 1994;164:290-9 pubmed
  20. Xu L, Harada H, Yokohama Tamaki T, Matsumoto S, Tanaka J, Taniguchi A. Reuptake of extracellular amelogenin by dental epithelial cells results in increased levels of amelogenin mRNA through enhanced mRNA stabilization. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2257-62 pubmed
    ..Here we speculated that during differentiation, dental epithelial cells utilize a unique mechanism for increasing the production of amelogenin, the reuptake of secreted amelogenin. ..
  21. Lau E, Simmer J, Bringas P, Hsu D, Hu C, Zeichner David M, et al. Alternative splicing of the mouse amelogenin primary RNA transcript contributes to amelogenin heterogeneity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;188:1253-60 pubmed
    ..Four additional cDNAs derived from alternatively spliced amelogenin mRNAs have been cloned and characterized. The five transcripts encode amelogenins 180, 156, 141, 74, and 59 amino acids in length. ..
  22. Coxon T, Brook A, Barron M, Smith R. Phenotype-genotype correlations in mouse models of amelogenesis imperfecta caused by Amelx and Enam mutations. Cells Tissues Organs. 2012;196:420-30 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in human and in mouse orthologous genes Amelx and Enam result in a diverse range of enamel defects...
  23. Zeichner David M, Chen L, Hsu Z, Reyna J, Caton J, Bringas P. Amelogenin and ameloblastin show growth-factor like activity in periodontal ligament cells. Eur J Oral Sci. 2006;114 Suppl 1:244-53; discussion 254-6, 381-2 pubmed
    ..Amelogenin also induced the expression of bone sialoprotein. These results suggest that amelogenin, as well as ameloblastin, might have some 'growth factor' activity during periodontium development and regeneration. ..
  24. Matsuzawa M, Sheu T, Lee Y, Chen M, Li T, Huang C, et al. Putative signaling action of amelogenin utilizes the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. J Periodontal Res. 2009;44:289-96 pubmed
    ..Using the TOPGAL transgenic mouse we showed that amelogenin expression in vivo is localized mainly around the root, the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone. ..
  25. Li L, Lin M, Wang Y, Cserjesi P, Chen Z, Chen Y. BmprIa is required in mesenchymal tissue and has limited redundant function with BmprIb in tooth and palate development. Dev Biol. 2011;349:451-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate an essential role for BmprIa in the mesenchymal component and a limited functional redundancy between BmprIa and BmprIb in a tissue-specific manner during tooth and palate development...
  26. Wang X, Suomalainen M, Jorgez C, Matzuk M, Werner S, Thesleff I. Follistatin regulates enamel patterning in mouse incisors by asymmetrically inhibiting BMP signaling and ameloblast differentiation. Dev Cell. 2004;7:719-30 pubmed
  27. Papagerakis P, MacDougall M, Hotton D, Bailleul Forestier I, Oboeuf M, Berdal A. Expression of amelogenin in odontoblasts. Bone. 2003;32:228-40 pubmed
    ..This developmental regulated expression pattern is enhanced under vitamin-D-deficiency status and in a broader context may play an important role during ameloblast and odontoblast differentiation and function. ..
  28. Gibson C, Yuan Z, Hall B, Longenecker G, Chen E, Thyagarajan T, et al. Amelogenin-deficient mice display an amelogenesis imperfecta phenotype. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:31871-5 pubmed
    ..These null mice will be useful for understanding the functions of amelogenin proteins during enamel formation and for developing therapeutic approaches for treating this developmental defect that affects the enamel. ..
  29. Atsawasuwan P, Lu X, Ito Y, Chen Y, Gopinathan G, Evans C, et al. Expression and function of enamel-related gene products in calvarial development. J Dent Res. 2013;92:622-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Developing skulls from both Amel- and Ambn-deficient animals were approximately 15% shorter when compared with those of wild-type controls, and ..
  30. Diekwisch T, Ware J, Fincham A, Zeichner David M. Immunohistochemical similarities and differences between amelogenin and tuftelin gene products during tooth development. J Histochem Cytochem. 1997;45:859-66 pubmed
    ..The spatial differences in the distribution of amelogenin and tuftelin as observed in this study may be interpreted as an indication of functional differences between both proteins during early enamel biomineralization. ..
  31. Hu C, Ryu O, Qian Q, Zhang C, Simmer J. Cloning, characterization, and heterologous expression of exon-4-containing amelogenin mRNAs. J Dent Res. 1997;76:641-7 pubmed
    ..The exon-4-containing amelogenin isoforms were heterologously expressed in E. coli by means of the pET11 expression system (Novagen, Madison, WI). ..
  32. Blair H, Reed V, Laval S, Boyd Y. The locus for pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit (Pdha1) lies between Plp and Amg on the mouse X chromosome. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:230-3 pubmed
  33. Guo W, Lovell R, Zhang Y, Huang B, Burris T, Craigen W, et al. Ahch, the mouse homologue of DAX1: cloning, characterization and synteny with GyK, the glycerol kinase locus. Gene. 1996;178:31-4 pubmed
  34. Tompkins K, Alvares K, George A, Veis A. Two related low molecular mass polypeptide isoforms of amelogenin have distinct activities in mouse tooth germ differentiation in vitro. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:341-9 pubmed
    ..Our results show that these individual proteins have specific but quite different effects on epithelial-derived ameloblasts versus mesenchymal-derived odontoblasts...
  35. King T, Christianson G, Mitchell M, Bishop C, Scott D, Ehrmann I, et al. Deletion mapping by immunoselection against the H-Y histocompatibility antigen further resolves the Sxra region of the mouse Y chromosome and reveals complexity of the Hya locus. Genomics. 1994;24:159-68 pubmed
    ..The analysis also suggests that at least two and up to five distinct loci encode H-Y antigens. ..
  36. Jaskoll T, Abichaker G, Htet K, Bringas P, Morita S, Sedghizadeh P, et al. Cytomegalovirus induces stage-dependent enamel defects and misexpression of amelogenin, enamelin and dentin sialophosphoprotein in developing mouse molars. Cells Tissues Organs. 2010;192:221-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This viral-induced pathology is coincident with stage-dependent changes in Amelx, Enam and Dspp gene expression, distribution of amelogenin, enamelin and DSP proteins, cell proliferation ..
  37. Lacruz R, Hacia J, Bromage T, Boyde A, Lei Y, Xu Y, et al. The circadian clock modulates enamel development. J Biol Rhythms. 2012;27:237-45 pubmed publisher a soft gel-like matrix containing several enamel matrix proteins of which the most abundant is amelogenin (Amelx)...
  38. Blair H, Reed V, Laval S, Boyd Y. New insights into the man-mouse comparative map of the X chromosome. Genomics. 1994;19:212-20 pubmed
  39. Simmer J. Alternative splicing of amelogenins. Connect Tissue Res. 1995;32:131-6 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that alternatively spliced amelogenin mRNAs are translated into protein and secreted into the enamel matrix. ..
  40. Tao J, Zhai Y, Park H, Han J, Dong J, Xie M, et al. Circadian Rhythm Regulates Development of Enamel in Mouse Mandibular First Molar. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0159946 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this hypothesis, we examined expression of melatonin receptors (MTs) and amelogenin (AMELX), a maker of enamel formation, during tooth germ development in mouse...
  41. Sun Z, Yu W, Sanz Navarro M, Sweat M, Eliason S, Sharp T, et al. Sox2 and Lef-1 interact with Pitx2 to regulate incisor development and stem cell renewal. Development. 2016;143:4115-4126 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have uncovered a Pitx2-Sox2-Lef-1 transcriptional mechanism that regulates DESC homeostasis and dental development. ..
  42. Ghoul Mazgar S, Hotton D, Lezot F, Blin Wakkach C, Asselin A, Sautier J, et al. Expression pattern of Dlx3 during cell differentiation in mineralized tissues. Bone. 2005;37:799-809 pubmed
    ..The present data on Dlx3 and recently published functional studies show that this transcription factor may be instrumental during growth in the control of matrix deposition and biomineralization in the entire skeleton. ..
  43. Newton J, Orlow S, Barsh G. Isolation and characterization of a mouse homolog of the X-linked ocular albinism (OA1) gene. Genomics. 1996;37:219-25 pubmed
    ..Interspecific backcross mapping yielded a map order and distances (cM) of cen-Moa1-3.1 +/- 1.8-Piga-2.1 +/- 1.5-Amel, indicating that Moa1 is located much farther away from the pseudoautosomal region than its human homolog...
  44. Zhang Z, Gutiérrez D, Li X, Bidlack F, Cao H, Wang J, et al. The LIM homeodomain transcription factor LHX6: a transcriptional repressor that interacts with pituitary homeobox 2 (PITX2) to regulate odontogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:2485-500 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate new molecular mechanisms for LHX6 and an interaction with PITX2 for normal craniofacial and tooth development. ..
  45. Pasteris N, de Gouyon B, Cadle A, Campbell K, Herman G, Gorski J. Cloning and regional localization of the mouse faciogenital dysplasia (Fgd1) gene. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:658-61 pubmed
  46. Rugarli E, Adler D, Borsani G, Tsuchiya K, Franco B, Hauge X, et al. Different chromosomal localization of the Clcn4 gene in Mus spretus and C57BL/6J mice. Nat Genet. 1995;10:466-71 pubmed
    ..Our data provide molecular evidence for a major divergence near the pseudoautosomal region, consistent with the hypothesis that hybrid sterility in these species results from abnormal pairing of sex chromosomes during male meiosis. ..
  47. Sommer B, Bickel M, Hofstetter W, Wetterwald A. Expression of matrix proteins during the development of mineralized tissues. Bone. 1996;19:371-80 pubmed
    ..The expression patterns of the transcripts encoding the bone matrix proteins suggest different biological roles depending on the time and site of expression. ..
  48. Zhao H, Oka K, Bringas P, Kaartinen V, Chai Y. TGF-beta type I receptor Alk5 regulates tooth initiation and mandible patterning in a type II receptor-independent manner. Dev Biol. 2008;320:19-29 pubmed publisher
    ..There is an intrinsic requirement for Alk5 signal in regulating the fate of CNC cells during tooth and mandible development. ..
  49. Chen X, Li Y, Alawi F, Bouchard J, Kulkarni A, Gibson C. An amelogenin mutation leads to disruption of the odontogenic apparatus and aberrant expression of Notch1. J Oral Pathol Med. 2011;40:235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..As Notch proteins are thought to constitute the developmental switch that separates ameloblasts from stratum intermedium, these signaling proteins were evaluated in normal and proliferating tissues...
  50. Martins L, Leme A, Kantovitz K, de Luciane Martins E, Sallum E, Casati M, et al. Leucine-Rich Amelogenin Peptide (LRAP) Uptake by Cementoblast Requires Flotillin-1 Mediated Endocytosis. J Cell Physiol. 2017;232:556-565 pubmed publisher
    ..cementoblasts, novel binding partners for an alternatively spliced amelogenin form (Leucine-Rich Amelogenin Peptide-LRAP), which is supposed to act as a signaling molecule in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions...
  51. Cao H, Jheon A, Li X, Sun Z, Wang J, Florez S, et al. The Pitx2:miR-200c/141:noggin pathway regulates Bmp signaling and ameloblast differentiation. Development. 2013;140:3348-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Our in vivo and in vitro studies reveal a multistep transcriptional program involving the Pitx2:miR-200c/141:noggin regulatory pathway that is important in epithelial cell differentiation and tooth development. ..
  52. Cantù C, Pagella P, Shajiei T, Zimmerli D, Valenta T, Hausmann G, et al. A cytoplasmic role of Wnt/?-catenin transcriptional cofactors Bcl9, Bcl9l, and Pygopus in tooth enamel formation. Sci Signal. 2017;10: pubmed publisher
  53. Cao H, Florez S, Amen M, Huynh T, Skobe Z, Baldini A, et al. Tbx1 regulates progenitor cell proliferation in the dental epithelium by modulating Pitx2 activation of p21. Dev Biol. 2010;347:289-300 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate new functional mechanisms for Tbx1 in tooth morphogenesis and provide a molecular basis for craniofacial defects in DiGeorge syndrome patients. ..
  54. Tompkins K, Veis A. Polypeptides translated from alternatively spliced transcripts of the amelogenin gene, devoid of the exon 6a, b, c region, have specific effects on tooth germ development in culture. Connect Tissue Res. 2002;43:224-31 pubmed
    ..Since the recombinant peptides are active, their corresponding tissue forms may be important in the stimulation of mesenchymal tissue differentiation. Thus, these specific amelogenin proteins may be involved in tooth morphogenesis...
  55. de Conciliis L, Marchitiello A, Wapenaar M, Borsani G, Giglio S, Mariani M, et al. Characterization of Cxorf5 (71-7A), a novel human cDNA mapping to Xp22 and encoding a protein containing coiled-coil alpha-helical domains. Genomics. 1998;51:243-50 pubmed
  56. Bronckers A, Lyaruu D. Magnesium, pH regulation and modulation by mouse ameloblasts exposed to fluoride. Bone. 2017;94:56-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The sensitivity of forming enamel to F likely is due to the sensitivity of pH cycling to acidification of enamel associated with F-induced release of protons. ..
  57. Eicher E, Shown E. Molecular markers that define the distal ends of mouse autosomes 4, 13, and 19 and the sex chromosomes. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:226-9 pubmed
  58. Kay G, Thakker R, Rastan S. Determination of a molecular map position for Hyp using a new interspecific backcross produced by in vitro fertilization. Genomics. 1991;11:651-7 pubmed
    ..of each of 241 backcross progeny has been established using the X-linked anchor loci Otc, Hprt, Dmd, Pgk-1, and Amg and the additional probes DXSmh43 and Cbx-rs1...
  59. Lyngstadaas S, Risnes S, Sproat B, Thrane P, Prydz H. A synthetic, chemically modified ribozyme eliminates amelogenin, the major translation product in developing mouse enamel in vivo. EMBO J. 1995;14:5224-9 pubmed
  60. Kyrylkova K, Kyryachenko S, Biehs B, Klein O, Kioussi C, Leid M. BCL11B regulates epithelial proliferation and asymmetric development of the mouse mandibular incisor. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37670 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data integrate BCL11B into these pathways during incisor development and reveal the molecular mechanisms that underlie phenotypes of both Bcl11b(-/-) and Sprouty mutant mice. ..
  61. Buchko G, Tarasevich B, Roberts J, Snead M, Shaw W. A solution NMR investigation into the murine amelogenin splice-variant LRAP (Leucine-Rich Amelogenin Protein). Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1804:1768-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Along with the full-length protein there are several splice-variant isoforms of amelogenin present including LRAP (Leucine-Rich Amelogenin Protein), a protein that consists of the first 33 and the last 26 residues of full-length ..
  62. Oobatake M, Yamasaki T, Simmer J, Renugopalakrishnan V. Thermal denaturation of a recombinant mouse amelogenin: circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetric studies. Proteins. 2006;62:461-9 pubmed
    ..The thermodynamic characteristics of rM179 are unique and different from a typical globular protein, proline-rich peptides, and a molten globule state. ..
  63. Pugach M, Suggs C, Li Y, Wright J, Kulkarni A, Bartlett J, et al. M180 amelogenin processed by MMP20 is sufficient for decussating murine enamel. J Dent Res. 2013;92:1118-22 pubmed publisher
    Amelogenin (AMELX) and matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP20) are essential for proper enamel development. Amelx and Mmp20 mutations cause amelogenesis imperfecta...
  64. Jacques J, Hotton D, de la Dure Molla M, Petit S, Asselin A, Kulkarni A, et al. Tracking endogenous amelogenin and ameloblastin in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e99626 pubmed publisher
    ..Our first aim was to screen for amelogenin (AMELX) and ameloblastin (AMBN) gene expression in mandibular bones and soft tissues isolated from adult mice (15 weeks ..
  65. Hamvas R, Reik W, Gaunt S, Brown S, Singh P. Mapping of a mouse homolog of a heterochromatin protein gene the X chromosome. Mamm Genome. 1992;2:72-5 pubmed
    ..One of these loci--Cbx-rs1--maps to the X Chromosome (Chr), 1 cM proximal to Amg and outside the X-inactivation center region.
  66. Hu Y, Smith C, Cai Z, Donnelly L, Yang J, Hu J, et al. Enamel ribbons, surface nodules, and octacalcium phosphate in C57BL/6 Amelx-/- mice and Amelx+/- lyonization. Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2016;4:641-661 pubmed
    Amelogenin is required for normal enamel formation and is the most abundant protein in developing enamel. Amelx+/+, Amelx+/- , and Amelx-/- molars and incisors ..
  67. Nakamura M, Bringas P, Nanci A, Zeichner David M, Ashdown B, Slavkin H. Translocation of enamel proteins from inner enamel epithelia to odontoblasts during mouse tooth development. Anat Rec. 1994;238:383-96 pubmed
    ..We conclude that amelogenin proteins secreted from preameloblasts, prior to the initiation of biomineralization, were translocated to odontoblasts to serve as yet unknown biological functions. ..
  68. Blackburn J, Kawasaki K, Porntaveetus T, Kawasaki M, Otsuka Tanaka Y, Miake Y, et al. Excess NF-κB induces ectopic odontogenesis in embryonic incisor epithelium. J Dent Res. 2015;94:121-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Excess NF-κB activity thus induces an ectopic odontogenesis program that is usually suppressed under physiological conditions. ..
  69. Chen E, Yuan Z, Collier P, Greene S, Abrams W, Gibson C. Comparison of upstream regions of X- and Y-chromosomal amelogenin genes. Gene. 1998;216:131-7 pubmed
  70. Bouwman P, Gollner H, Elsasser H, Eckhoff G, Karis A, Grosveld F, et al. Transcription factor Sp3 is essential for post-natal survival and late tooth development. EMBO J. 2000;19:655-61 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the Sp1 and Sp3 knockout phenotype shows that Sp1 and Sp3 have distinct functions in vivo, but also suggests a degree of functional redundancy...
  71. Yao N, Li S, Jiang Y, Qiu S, Tan Y. Amelogenin promotes odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cell differentiation via activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;355:91-7 pubmed publisher
    Amelogenin (AMG) is a highly conserved protein secreted by ameloblasts. Some research indicates that AMG might induce the differentiation and maturation of odontoblasts...