Gene Symbol: Alpl
Description: alkaline phosphatase, liver/bone/kidney
Alias: ALP, APTNAP, Akp-2, Akp2, TNAP, TNSALP, alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme, alkaline phosphatase 2, liver
Species: mouse
Products:     Alpl

Top Publications

  1. Hough T, Polewski M, Johnson K, Cheeseman M, Nolan P, Vizor L, et al. Novel mouse model of autosomal semidominant adult hypophosphatasia has a splice site mutation in the tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene Akp2. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22:1397-407 pubmed
    Deactivating mutations in the TNSALP gene cause HPP. Akp2(-/-) mice model severe infantile HPP, but there is no model for the relatively mild adult form. Here we report on mice with an induced mutation in Akp2 that affects splicing...
  2. Ciancaglini P, Yadav M, Simão A, Narisawa S, Pizauro J, Farquharson C, et al. Kinetic analysis of substrate utilization by native and TNAP-, NPP1-, or PHOSPHO1-deficient matrix vesicles. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:716-23 pubmed publisher
    ..MVs at physiologic pH, analyzing the hydrolysis of ATP, ADP, and PP(i) by isolated wild-type (WT) as well as TNAP-, NPP1- and PHOSPHO1-deficient MVs...
  3. Hrabe de Angelis M, Flaswinkel H, Fuchs H, Rathkolb B, Soewarto D, Marschall S, et al. Genome-wide, large-scale production of mutant mice by ENU mutagenesis. Nat Genet. 2000;25:444-7 pubmed
    ..Our mutant lines are freely accessible to non-commercial users (for information, see ..
  4. Narisawa S, Fröhlander N, Millan J. Inactivation of two mouse alkaline phosphatase genes and establishment of a model of infantile hypophosphatasia. Dev Dyn. 1997;208:432-46 pubmed
    ..e., embryonic (EAP) and tissue nonspecific (TNAP)...
  5. Anderson H, Sipe J, Hessle L, Dhanyamraju R, Atti E, Camacho N, et al. Impaired calcification around matrix vesicles of growth plate and bone in alkaline phosphatase-deficient mice. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:841-7 pubmed
    ..mice lacking the gene for bone alkaline phosphatase, ie, the tissue-non-specific isozyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNAP)...
  6. Kaneda M, Okano M, Hata K, Sado T, Tsujimoto N, Li E, et al. Essential role for de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a in paternal and maternal imprinting. Nature. 2004;429:900-3 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that both Dnmt3a and Dnmt3L are required for methylation of most imprinted loci in germ cells, but also suggest the involvement of other factors...
  7. Campolo F, Gori M, Favaro R, Nicolis S, Pellegrini M, Botti F, et al. Essential role of Sox2 for the establishment and maintenance of the germ cell line. Stem Cells. 2013;31:1408-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Sox2 also stimulates the expression of Zfp148, which is required for normal development of fetal germ cells, and Rif1, a potential regulator of PGC pluripotency. ..
  8. Anderson H, Harmey D, Camacho N, Garimella R, Sipe J, Tague S, et al. Sustained osteomalacia of long bones despite major improvement in other hypophosphatasia-related mineral deficits in tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase/nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 double-deficient mice. Am J Pathol. 2005;166:1711-20 pubmed
    ..defects of the calvarium and vertebrae of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP)-deficient (Akp2-/-) hypophosphatasia mice are rescued by simultaneous deletion of the Enpp1 gene, which encodes nucleotide ..
  9. Maatouk D, Loveland K, McManus M, Moore K, Harfe B. Dicer1 is required for differentiation of the mouse male germline. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:696-703 pubmed publisher
    ..the function of miRNAs specifically in the germline, we used a mouse model that expresses Cre recombinase from the TNAP locus and a floxed Dicer1 conditional allele. Removal of Dicer1 from germ cells resulted in male infertility...

More Information


  1. Frum T, Halbisen M, Wang C, Amiri H, Robson P, Ralston A. Oct4 cell-autonomously promotes primitive endoderm development in the mouse blastocyst. Dev Cell. 2013;25:610-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that Oct4 is required for the expression of multiple EPI and PE genes as well as multiple metabolic pathways essential for the continued growth of the preimplantation embryo. ..
  2. Waymire K, Mahuren J, Jaje J, Guilarte T, Coburn S, MacGregor G. Mice lacking tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase die from seizures due to defective metabolism of vitamin B-6. Nat Genet. 1995;11:45-51 pubmed
    In humans, deficiency of the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) gene is associated with defective skeletal mineralization...
  3. Aigner B, Rathkolb B, Klaften M, Sedlmeier R, Klempt M, Wagner S, et al. Generation of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mouse mutants with deviations in plasma enzyme activities as novel organ-specific disease models. Exp Physiol. 2009;94:412-21 pubmed publisher
    ..genes was successfully carried out in chosen lines, resulting in a novel alkaline phosphatase liver/bone/kidney (Alpl) alteration in one line and the strong indication for a dystrophin (Dmd) alteration in another line...
  4. Yamaguchi S, Kurimoto K, Yabuta Y, Sasaki H, Nakatsuji N, Saitou M, et al. Conditional knockdown of Nanog induces apoptotic cell death in mouse migrating primordial germ cells. Development. 2009;136:4011-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In E12.5 Cre-induced ER-Cre/NRi-Tg and TNAP-Cre/NRi-Tg double-transgenic embryos, the number of alkaline phosphatase-positive and SSEA1-positive PGCs decreased ..
  5. Hessle L, Johnson K, Anderson H, Narisawa S, Sali A, Goding J, et al. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase and plasma cell membrane glycoprotein-1 are central antagonistic regulators of bone mineralization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:9445-9 pubmed
    ..we show the respective correction of bone mineralization abnormalities in knockout mice null for both the TNAP (Akp2) and PC-1 (Enpp1) genes. Each allele of Akp2 and Enpp1 has a measurable influence on mineralization status in vivo...
  6. Komori T, Yagi H, Nomura S, Yamaguchi A, Sasaki K, Deguchi K, et al. Targeted disruption of Cbfa1 results in a complete lack of bone formation owing to maturational arrest of osteoblasts. Cell. 1997;89:755-64 pubmed
  7. Harmey D, Johnson K, Zelken J, Camacho N, Hoylaerts M, Noda M, et al. Elevated skeletal osteopontin levels contribute to the hypophosphatasia phenotype in Akp2(-/-) mice. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:1377-86 pubmed
    Increased levels of ePP(i) in mice deficient in TNALP (i.e., Akp2(-/-)) lead to elevated OPN concentrations...
  8. Qiu M, Jiang L, Matthaei K, Schoenwaelder S, Kuffner T, Mangin P, et al. Generation and characterization of mice with null mutation of the chloride intracellular channel 1 gene. Genesis. 2010;48:127-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Clic1 Knock-in (Clic1(FN)) allele, followed by Clic1 knock-out (Clic1(-/-)) mice by crossing Clic1(FN) allele with TNAP-cre mice, resulting in germline gene deletion through Cre-mediated recombination...
  9. Narisawa S, Wennberg C, Millan J. Abnormal vitamin B6 metabolism in alkaline phosphatase knock-out mice causes multiple abnormalities, but not the impaired bone mineralization. J Pathol. 2001;193:125-33 pubmed
    The tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) knock-out mouse is a model of infantile hypophosphatasia displaying impaired bone mineralization, epileptic seizures, apnoea, abnormal apoptosis in the thymus, abnormal lumbar nerve ..
  10. Harmey D, Hessle L, Narisawa S, Johnson K, Terkeltaub R, Millan J. Concerted regulation of inorganic pyrophosphate and osteopontin by akp2, enpp1, and ank: an integrated model of the pathogenesis of mineralization disorders. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:1199-209 pubmed
    ..Deletion of the TNAP gene (Akp2) in mice results in hypophosphatasia characterized by elevated levels of PP(i) and poorly mineralized bones, which ..
  11. Beertsen W, Vandenbos T, Everts V. Root development in mice lacking functional tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene: inhibition of acellular cementum formation. J Dent Res. 1999;78:1221-9 pubmed
    Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) is richly present in developing teeth including the cells of the periodontal ligament. Here, we investigated tooth and root development in mice lacking the TNAP gene...
  12. Kimura T, Suzuki A, Fujita Y, Yomogida K, Lomeli H, Asada N, et al. Conditional loss of PTEN leads to testicular teratoma and enhances embryonic germ cell production. Development. 2003;130:1691-700 pubmed
    ..PTEN appears to be essential for germ cell differentiation and an important factor in testicular germ cell tumor formation. ..
  13. Wang H, Wan H, Li X, Liu W, Chen Q, Wang Y, et al. Atg7 is required for acrosome biogenesis during spermatogenesis in mice. Cell Res. 2014;24:852-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our results uncover a new role for Atg7 in the biogenesis of the acrosome, and we provide evidence to support the autolysosome origination hypothesis for the acrosome. ..
  14. Narisawa S, Hasegawa H, Watanabe K, Millan J. Stage-specific expression of alkaline phosphatase during neural development in the mouse. Dev Dyn. 1994;201:227-35 pubmed
    The expression pattern of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in the developing neural tube of mouse is reported. Homogeneous AP activity in the neuroepithelium becomes prominent at E8.5. At E9...
  15. Levi B, James A, Nelson E, Brugmann S, Sorkin M, Manu A, et al. Role of Indian hedgehog signaling in palatal osteogenesis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;127:1182-90 pubmed publisher
    ..expression during osteogenic differentiation and cellular differentiation (Shh, Ihh, Ptc1, Gli1, Gli2, Gli3, Runx2, Alp, and Col1a1)...
  16. MacGregor G, Zambrowicz B, Soriano P. Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase is expressed in both embryonic and extraembryonic lineages during mouse embryogenesis but is not required for migration of primordial germ cells. Development. 1995;121:1487-96 pubmed
    Mouse primordial germ cells express tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) during development, but the widespread expression of another alkaline phosphatase gene in the early embryo limits the potential use of this marker to ..
  17. Fedde K, Blair L, Silverstein J, Coburn S, Ryan L, Weinstein R, et al. Alkaline phosphatase knock-out mice recapitulate the metabolic and skeletal defects of infantile hypophosphatasia. J Bone Miner Res. 1999;14:2015-26 pubmed
    ..of metabolism characterized by deficient activity of the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) and skeletal disease due to impaired mineralization of cartilage and bone matrix...
  18. Lomeli H, Ramos Mejia V, Gertsenstein M, Lobe C, Nagy A. Targeted insertion of Cre recombinase into the TNAP gene: excision in primordial germ cells. Genesis. 2000;26:116-7 pubmed
  19. Bialek P, Kern B, Yang X, Schrock M, Sosic D, Hong N, et al. A twist code determines the onset of osteoblast differentiation. Dev Cell. 2004;6:423-35 pubmed
    ..In vivo mutagenesis confirms the antiosteogenic function of the Twist box. Thus, relief of inhibition by Twist proteins is a mandatory event precluding osteoblast differentiation. ..
  20. Langer D, Ikehara Y, Takebayashi H, Hawkes R, Zimmermann H. The ectonucleotidases alkaline phosphatase and nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 are associated with subsets of progenitor cell populations in the mouse embryonic, postnatal and adult neurogenic zones. Neuroscience. 2007;150:863-79 pubmed
    ..nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 (NTPDase2) and tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP)...
  21. Murshed M, Harmey D, Millan J, McKee M, Karsenty G. Unique coexpression in osteoblasts of broadly expressed genes accounts for the spatial restriction of ECM mineralization to bone. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1093-104 pubmed
    ..ECM mineralization occurs only in bone because of the exclusive coexpression in osteoblasts of Type I collagen and Tnap, an enzyme that cleaves pyrophosphate...
  22. Brown N, Stofko R, Uhler M. Induction of alkaline phosphatase in mouse L cells by overexpression of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:13181-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the C subunit is sufficient for transcriptional induction of the AP gene and that the phosphotransferase activity of the C subunit is required for this induction. ..
  23. Park J, Jang H, Hwang S, Kim E, Kim D, Oh K, et al. ER stress-inducible ATF3 suppresses BMP2-induced ALP expression and activation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;443:333-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of ATF3 inhibited bone morphogenetic protein 2-stimulated expression and activation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteogenic marker...
  24. Deckelbaum R, Majithia A, Booker T, Henderson J, Loomis C. The homeoprotein engrailed 1 has pleiotropic functions in calvarial intramembranous bone formation and remodeling. Development. 2006;133:63-74 pubmed
    ..In summary, this study identifies EN1 as a novel modulator of calvarial osteoblast differentiation and proliferation, processes that must be exquisitely balanced to ensure proper skull vault formation. ..
  25. Dellavalle A, Maroli G, Covarello D, Azzoni E, Innocenzi A, Perani L, et al. Pericytes resident in postnatal skeletal muscle differentiate into muscle fibres and generate satellite cells. Nat Commun. 2011;2:499 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that pericytes, resident in small vessels of skeletal muscle, contribute to its growth and regeneration during postnatal life. ..
  26. Hojo H, Ohba S, Yano F, Saito T, Ikeda T, Nakajima K, et al. Gli1 protein participates in Hedgehog-mediated specification of osteoblast lineage during endochondral ossification. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:17860-9 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these findings, we propose that upon Hedgehog input, Gli1 functions collectively with Gli2 and Gli3 in osteogenesis. ..
  27. Pelka G, Watson C, Radziewic T, Hayward M, Lahooti H, Christodoulou J, et al. Mecp2 deficiency is associated with learning and cognitive deficits and altered gene activity in the hippocampal region of mice. Brain. 2006;129:887-98 pubmed
    ..Brain tissues containing the hippocampal formation of XY Mecp2-null mice also displayed significant changes in genetic activity, which are related to the severity of the mutant phenotype. ..
  28. Miyake T, Cameron A, Hall B. Stage-specific expression patterns of alkaline phosphatase during development of the first arch skeleton in inbred C57BL/6 mouse embryos. J Anat. 1997;190 ( Pt 2):239-60 pubmed
  29. Pan J, Eckardt S, Leu N, Buffone M, Zhou J, Gerton G, et al. Inactivation of Nxf2 causes defects in male meiosis and age-dependent depletion of spermatogonia. Dev Biol. 2009;330:167-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that Nxf2 plays a dual function in spermatogenesis: regulation of meiosis and maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells. ..
  30. Thomsen N, Chappell A, Ali R, Jones T, Adams D, Matthaei K, et al. Mouse strains for the ubiquitous or conditional overexpression of the Flii gene. Genesis. 2011;49:681-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These strains provide valuable resources for ongoing investigation of Flii function in a variety of biological processes. ..
  31. Nielson C, Zmuda J, Carlos A, Wagoner W, Larson E, Orwoll E, et al. Rare coding variants in ALPL are associated with low serum alkaline phosphatase and low bone mineral density. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27:93-103 pubmed publisher
    ..We sequenced the coding regions of the ALP gene (ALPL) in men with low and normal serum ALP activity levels...
  32. Kieslinger M, Folberth S, Dobreva G, Dorn T, Croci L, Erben R, et al. EBF2 regulates osteoblast-dependent differentiation of osteoclasts. Dev Cell. 2005;9:757-67 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data identify EBF2 as a regulator of RANK-RANKL signaling and osteoblast-dependent differentiation of osteoclasts. ..
  33. Elliott A, De Miguel M, Rebel V, Donovan P. Identifying genes differentially expressed between PGCs and ES cells reveals a role for CREB-binding protein in germ cell survival. Dev Biol. 2007;311:347-58 pubmed
    ..Loss of CBP in PGCs leads to increased apoptosis and subsequent reduction in PGC numbers. These data indicate an essential role for CBP in maintaining normal germ cell development. ..
  34. Kim S, Bardwell V, Zarkower D. Cell type-autonomous and non-autonomous requirements for Dmrt1 in postnatal testis differentiation. Dev Biol. 2007;307:314-27 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that Dmrt1 plays multiple roles in controlling the remodeling and differentiation of the juvenile testis. ..
  35. DuBose A, Smith E, Yang T, Johnstone K, Resnick J. A new deletion refines the boundaries of the murine Prader-Willi syndrome imprinting center. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:3461-6 pubmed publisher
  36. Hirota T, Ohta H, Shigeta M, Niwa H, Saitou M. Drug-inducible gene recombination by the Dppa3-MER Cre MER transgene in the developmental cycle of the germ cell lineage in mice. Biol Reprod. 2011;85:367-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these Dppa3-MCM strains offer valuable opportunities to explore gene function in both loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments at a variety of time points during germ cell development. ..
  37. Halling Linder C, Englund U, Narisawa S, Millan J, Magnusson P. Isozyme profile and tissue-origin of alkaline phosphatases in mouse serum. Bone. 2013;53:399-408 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum from mixed strains of wild-type (WT) mice and from individual ALP knockout strains were investigated, i.e., Alpl(-/-) (a.k.a...
  38. Mattiske D, Han L, Mann J. Meiotic maturation failure induced by DICER1 deficiency is derived from primary oocyte ooplasm. Reproduction. 2009;137:625-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, we reveal that the ooplasm of primary oocytes contains DICER1-dependent factors that are crucial for chromosome segregation and meiotic maturation. ..
  39. Smeets M, DeLuca E, Wall M, Quach J, Chalk A, Deans A, et al. The Rothmund-Thomson syndrome helicase RECQL4 is essential for hematopoiesis. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:3551-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data indicate that RECQL4 participates in DNA replication rather than genome stability and identify RECQL4 as a regulator of hematopoiesis with a nonredundant role compared with other RecQ helicases. ..
  40. Chen Q, Sinha K, Deng J, Yasuda H, Krahe R, Behringer R, et al. Mesenchymal Deletion of Histone Demethylase NO66 in Mice Promotes Bone Formation. J Bone Miner Res. 2015;30:1608-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulate that NO66 regulates bone formation, at least in part, via regulating the number of bone-forming cells and expression of multiple genes that are critical for these processes. ..
  41. Resnick J, Nicholls R, Wevrick R. Recommendations for the investigation of animal models of Prader-Willi syndrome. Mamm Genome. 2013;24:165-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we summarize the goals of the AMWG, describe current animal models of PWS, and make recommendations for strategies to maximize the utility of animal models and for the development and use of new animal models of PWS. ..
  42. Foster B, Ao M, Salmon C, Chavez M, Kolli T, Tran A, et al. Osteopontin regulates dentin and alveolar bone development and mineralization. Bone. 2018;107:196-207 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may inform therapies targeted at controlling soft tissue calcification. ..
  43. Yadav M, Simão A, Narisawa S, Huesa C, McKee M, Farquharson C, et al. Loss of skeletal mineralization by the simultaneous ablation of PHOSPHO1 and alkaline phosphatase function: a unified model of the mechanisms of initiation of skeletal calcification. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:286-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphatases are implicated, but their identities and functions remain unclear. Alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) plays a crucial role promoting mineralization of the extracellular matrix by restricting the concentration of the ..
  44. Günther S, Fietz D, Weider K, Bergmann M, Brehm R. Effects of a murine germ cell-specific knockout of Connexin 43 on Connexin expression in testis and fertility. Transgenic Res. 2013;22:631-41 pubmed publisher
  45. de Frutos C, Dacquin R, Vega S, Jurdic P, Machuca Gayet I, Nieto M. Snail1 controls bone mass by regulating Runx2 and VDR expression during osteoblast differentiation. EMBO J. 2009;28:686-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that the impact of Snail1 activity on the osteoblast population regulates the course of bone cells differentiation and ensures normal bone remodelling. ..
  46. Tada N, Kimura S, Liu Lam Y, Hammerling U. A new lymphocyte surface antigen (Ly-m31) controlled by a gene closely linked to the Akp-2 locus on mouse chromosome 4. Immunogenetics. 1984;20:589-92 pubmed
  47. Lyon M, Ogunkolade B, Brown M, Atherton D, Perry V. A gene affecting Wallerian nerve degeneration maps distally on mouse chromosome 4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:9717-20 pubmed
    ..50 cM-(Eno-1, D4Mit33)-1.4 +/- 0.70 cM-D4Mit42-2.5 +/- 0.93 cM-D4Smh6b. The information on the position of the Wld locus should be valuable in further characterization of this gene involved in nerve degeneration and regeneration. ..
  48. Brun Heath I, Ermonval M, Chabrol E, Xiao J, Palkovits M, Lyck R, et al. Differential expression of the bone and the liver tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase isoforms in brain tissues. Cell Tissue Res. 2011;343:521-36 pubmed publisher
    The enzyme tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) belongs to the ectophosphatase family. It is present in large amounts in bone in which it plays a role in mineralization but little is known about its function in other tissues...
  49. Godmann M, Gashaw I, Katz J, Nagy A, Kaestner K, Behr R. Krüppel-like factor 4, a "pluripotency transcription factor" highly expressed in male postmeiotic germ cells, is dispensable for spermatogenesis in the mouse. Mech Dev. 2009;126:650-64 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in summary, the lack of KLF4 alone does not prevent complete spermatogenesis. ..
  50. Yeung C, Wang G, Yao Y, Liang J, Tenny Chung C, Chuai M, et al. BRE modulates granulosa cell death to affect ovarian follicle development and atresia in the mouse. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e2697 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, these results suggest that the absence of BRE, deficiency in DNA damage repair, causes increased apoptosis in granulosa cells, which in turn induces follicular atresia in BRE-/- mice. ..
  51. Hayashi K, Chuva de Sousa Lopes S, Kaneda M, Tang F, Hajkova P, Lao K, et al. MicroRNA biogenesis is required for mouse primordial germ cell development and spermatogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1738 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, based on normal spermatogenesis in Argonaute2-deficient testis, the critical function of Dicer in spermatogenesis is independent of Argonaute2. ..
  52. Hardouin S, Guo R, Romeo P, Nagy A, Aubin J. Impaired mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and osteoclastogenesis in mice deficient for Igf2-P2 transcripts. Development. 2011;138:203-13 pubmed publisher
  53. Inagaki T, Tachibana M, Magoori K, Kudo H, Tanaka T, Okamura M, et al. Obesity and metabolic syndrome in histone demethylase JHDM2a-deficient mice. Genes Cells. 2009;14:991-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, H3K9 demethylase JHDM2a is a crucial regulator of genes involved in energy expenditure and fat storage, which suggests it is a previously unrecognized key regulator of obesity and metabolic syndrome. ..
  54. Gasque K, Foster B, Kuss P, Yadav M, Liu J, Kiffer Moreira T, et al. Improvement of the skeletal and dental hypophosphatasia phenotype in Alpl-/- mice by administration of soluble (non-targeted) chimeric alkaline phosphatase. Bone. 2015;72:137-47 pubmed publisher
    ..HPP) results from ALPL gene mutations, which lead to a deficiency of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), and accumulation of inorganic pyrophosphate, a potent inhibitor of mineralization that is also a natural ..
  55. Yamaguchi Y, Tanaka S, Kumagai M, Fujimoto Y, Terabayashi T, Matsui Y, et al. Sall4 is essential for mouse primordial germ cell specification by suppressing somatic cell program genes. Stem Cells. 2015;33:289-300 pubmed publisher
  56. Schnabel D, Ramírez L, Gertsenstein M, Nagy A, Lomeli H. Ectopic expression of KitD814Y in spermatids of transgenic mice, interferes with sperm morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:29-40 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that PLCgamma-1 activity could be involved in the shaping of spermatozoa. ..
  57. Neunaber C, Catala Lehnen P, Beil F, Marshall R, Kanbach V, Baranowsky A, et al. Increased trabecular bone formation in mice lacking the growth factor midkine. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:1724-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that Mdk deficiency, at least in mice, results in an increased trabecular bone formation, thereby raising the possibility that Mdk-specific antagonists might prove beneficial in osteoporosis therapy. ..
  58. Kermer V, Ritter M, Albuquerque B, Leib C, Stanke M, Zimmermann H. Knockdown of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase impairs neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Neurosci Lett. 2010;485:208-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Neural progenitors in situ express the tissue nonspecific form of alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), a cell surface-located nonspecific phosphomonoesterase capable of hydrolyzing extracellular nucleotides...
  59. Song Z, Yu H, Wang P, Mao G, Liu W, Li M, et al. Germ cell-specific Atg7 knockout results in primary ovarian insufficiency in female mice. Cell Death Dis. 2015;6:e1589 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results uncover a new role for autophagy in the regulation of ovarian primordial follicle reservation and hint that autophagy-related genes might be potential pathogenic genes to POI of women. ..
  60. Lewin H, Beever J, Da Y, Hines H, Faulkner D. The bovine B and C blood group systems are not likely to be the orthologues of human RH: an interesting twist in the comparative map. Anim Genet. 1994;25 Suppl 1:13-8 pubmed
    ..typing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of four loci linked to RH on HSA1; PGD, FGR, ALPL and FUCA1. Four sires with a total of 255 half-sib offspring were used for the linkage analysis...
  61. Morahan G, Rakar S. Localization of the mouse Na+/H+ exchanger gene on distal chromosome 4. Genomics. 1993;15:231-2 pubmed
    ..Comparison with previously reported strain distribution patterns shows that the gene encoding the mouse Na+/H+ exchanger maps to distal mouse Chromosome 4, between Lck and Akp-2. ..
  62. Gianni M, Terao M, Sozzani S, Garattini E. Retinoic acid and cyclic AMP synergistically induce the expression of liver/bone/kidney-type alkaline phosphatase gene in L929 fibroblastic cells. Biochem J. 1993;296 ( Pt 1):67-77 pubmed
    In L929 mouse fibroblastic cells, liver/bone/kidney type alkaline phosphatase (L/B/K-ALP) enzymic activity is induced by all-trans-retinoic acid at concentrations between 10(-6) and 10(-5) M...
  63. Quah B, Barlow V, McPhun V, Matthaei K, Hulett M, Parish C. Bystander B cells rapidly acquire antigen receptors from activated B cells by membrane transfer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4259-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This results in a dramatic expansion in the number of antigen-binding B cells in vivo, with the transferred BCR endowing recipient B cells with the ability to present a specific antigen to antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells. ..
  64. Tang H, Ross A, Capel B. Expression and functional analysis of Gm114, a putative mammalian ortholog of Drosophila bam. Dev Biol. 2008;318:73-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that either there is a function for the remaining N-terminal of GM114, or that there are alternative mechanisms in the mammalian system that control germ cell differentiation. ..
  65. Chassot A, Gregoire E, Lavery R, Taketo M, de Rooij D, Adams I, et al. RSPO1/?-catenin signaling pathway regulates oogonia differentiation and entry into meiosis in the mouse fetal ovary. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25641 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that RSPO1/?-catenin signaling is involved in meiosis in fetal germ cells and contributes to the cellular decision of germ cells to differentiate into oocyte or sperm...
  66. Hirasawa R, Chiba H, Kaneda M, Tajima S, Li E, Jaenisch R, et al. Maternal and zygotic Dnmt1 are necessary and sufficient for the maintenance of DNA methylation imprints during preimplantation development. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1607-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with these results we find that zygotic Dnmt1 is expressed in the preimplantation embryo. Thus, contrary to the previous reports, Dnmt1 alone is sufficient to maintain the methylation marks of the imprinted genes...
  67. Danciger M, Brady J, Adamson M, Farber D, Piatigorsky J, Kozak C. Chromosomal localization of the genes for five zinc finger proteins expressed in mouse lens. Genomics. 1995;28:39-43 pubmed
    ..Because the zinc finger proteins encoded by these genes may be involved in regulating other genes that are expressed in lens, they can be considered candidates for the large number of yet unmapped cataract loci. ..
  68. Takai A, Toyoshima T, Uemura M, Kitawaki Y, Marusawa H, Hiai H, et al. A novel mouse model of hepatocarcinogenesis triggered by AID causing deleterious p53 mutations. Oncogene. 2009;28:469-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we established a new AID transgenic mouse model (TNAP-AID) in which AID is expressed in cells producing tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), which is a marker ..
  69. Terao M, Mintz B. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA coding for mouse placental alkaline phosphatase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:7051-5 pubmed
    Mouse alkaline phosphatase [ALP; orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum), EC] was partially purified from placenta...
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    ..phosphatase expressed in liver, bone, kidney and placenta (liver/bone/kidney-type alkaline phosphatase, L/B/K-ALP) was isolated and characterized. This gene consists of 12 exons and it is at least 49 kb long...
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