Gene Symbol: Aldh1a3
Description: aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A3
Alias: ALDH6, RALDH3, aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3, RALDH-3, aldehyde dehydrogenase-6, retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3
Species: mouse
Products:     Aldh1a3

Top Publications

  1. Molotkov A, Molotkova N, Duester G. Retinoic acid guides eye morphogenetic movements via paracrine signaling but is unnecessary for retinal dorsoventral patterning. Development. 2006;133:1901-10 pubmed
    ..Here, we report Raldh1, Raldh2 and Raldh3 single, double and triple null mice exhibiting progressively less or no RA synthesis in the eye...
  2. Mic F, Molotkov A, Fan X, Cuenca A, Duester G. RALDH3, a retinaldehyde dehydrogenase that generates retinoic acid, is expressed in the ventral retina, otic vesicle and olfactory pit during mouse development. Mech Dev. 2000;97:227-30 pubmed
    ..Here we report the cloning and expression of a third retinaldehyde dehydrogenase from the mouse called RALDH3 that shares 94% amino acid sequence identity to a human retinaldehyde dehydrogenase previously named ALDH6...
  3. Levi B, Yilmaz O, Duester G, Morrison S. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 is dispensable for stem cell function in the mouse hematopoietic and nervous systems. Blood. 2009;113:1670-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, Aldh1a1 deficiency did not affect the function of stem cells from the adult central or peripheral nervous systems. Aldh1a1 is not a critical regulator of adult stem cell function or Aldefluor staining in mice. ..
  4. Matt N, Dupé V, Garnier J, Dennefeld C, Chambon P, Mark M, et al. Retinoic acid-dependent eye morphogenesis is orchestrated by neural crest cells. Development. 2005;132:4789-800 pubmed
    ..the retina nor the corneal ectoderm, which both express RA-synthesizing retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDH1 and RALDH3), but the neural crest cell-derived periocular mesenchyme (POM), which is devoid of RALDH...
  5. Li H, Wagner E, McCaffery P, Smith D, Andreadis A, Drager U. A retinoic acid synthesizing enzyme in ventral retina and telencephalon of the embryonic mouse. Mech Dev. 2000;95:283-9 pubmed
    ..The third one, RALDH3 (V1), synthesizes the bulk of RA in the head of the early embryo...
  6. Liao W, Tsai H, Wang H, Chang J, Lu K, Wu H, et al. Modular patterning of structure and function of the striatum by retinoid receptor signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6765-70 pubmed publisher
    ..RARbeta signaling thus plays a crucial role in setting up striatal compartments that may engage in neural circuits of psychomotor control. ..
  7. Molotkova N, Molotkov A, Duester G. Role of retinoic acid during forebrain development begins late when Raldh3 generates retinoic acid in the ventral subventricular zone. Dev Biol. 2007;303:601-10 pubmed
    Retinoic acid (RA) synthesized by Raldh3 in the frontonasal surface ectoderm of chick embryos has been suggested to function in early forebrain patterning by regulating Fgf8, Shh, and Meis2 expression...
  8. Waclaw R, Wang B, Campbell K. The homeobox gene Gsh2 is required for retinoid production in the embryonic mouse telencephalon. Development. 2004;131:4013-20 pubmed
    ..We show that the expression of the retinoic acid (RA) synthesis enzyme, retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3 (Raldh3, also known as Aldh1a3), is reduced in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) of Gsh2 mutants...
  9. Zhao X, Sirbu I, Mic F, Molotkova N, Molotkov A, Kumar S, et al. Retinoic acid promotes limb induction through effects on body axis extension but is unnecessary for limb patterning. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1050-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we utilize Raldh2-/- and Raldh3-/- mouse embryos lacking RA synthesis to demonstrate that RA signaling is not required for limb expression of Shh ..

More Information


  1. Zhou C, Molotkov A, Song L, Li Y, Pleasure D, Pleasure S, et al. Ocular coloboma and dorsoventral neuroretinal patterning defects in Lrp6 mutant eyes. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3681-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the retinoic acid synthesizing enzymes Raldh1 and Raldh3 were significantly changed in the mutant eyes...
  2. Vezina C, Allgeier S, Fritz W, Moore R, Strerath M, Bushman W, et al. Retinoic acid induces prostatic bud formation. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:1321-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that reciprocal changes in hedgehog and BMP signaling by RA may regulate bud initiation. ..
  3. Fan X, Molotkov A, Manabe S, Donmoyer C, Deltour L, Foglio M, et al. Targeted disruption of Aldh1a1 (Raldh1) provides evidence for a complex mechanism of retinoic acid synthesis in the developing retina. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:4637-48 pubmed
    ..5, possibly due to normal expression of Aldh1a3 (Raldh3) in dorsal retinal pigment epithelium and ventral neural retina. However, at E16...
  4. Dupé V, Matt N, Garnier J, Chambon P, Mark M, Ghyselinck N. A newborn lethal defect due to inactivation of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 3 is prevented by maternal retinoic acid treatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:14036-41 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that Raldh3 knockout in mouse suppresses RA synthesis and causes malformations restricted to ocular and nasal regions, which ..
  5. Touma S, Perner S, Rubin M, Nanus D, Gudas L. Retinoid metabolism and ALDH1A2 (RALDH2) expression are altered in the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate model. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;78:1127-38 pubmed publisher measure transcripts for genes involved in retinoid signaling and metabolism, including ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, CYP26A1, LRAT, and RARbeta(2), in prostate tissue from TRAMP positive (+) and age-matched littermate control ..
  6. Niederreither K, Fraulob V, Garnier J, Chambon P, Dolle P. Differential expression of retinoic acid-synthesizing (RALDH) enzymes during fetal development and organ differentiation in the mouse. Mech Dev. 2002;110:165-71 pubmed
    Three retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDH1, RALDH2 and RALDH3), which catalyze the oxidation of retinaldehyde into retinoic acid, have been shown to be differentially expressed during early embryogenesis...
  7. Mic F, Haselbeck R, Cuenca A, Duester G. Novel retinoic acid generating activities in the neural tube and heart identified by conditional rescue of Raldh2 null mutant mice. Development. 2002;129:2271-82 pubmed
    ..of Raldh2 arrests development at midgestation and eliminates all RA synthesis except that associated with Raldh3 expression in the surface ectoderm of the eye field...
  8. El Shahawy M, Reibring C, Neben C, Hallberg K, Marangoni P, Harfe B, et al. Cell fate specification in the lingual epithelium is controlled by antagonistic activities of Sonic hedgehog and retinoic acid. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006914 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal key functions for SHH and RA in cell fate specification in the lingual epithelium and aid in deciphering the molecular mechanisms that assign cell identity. ..
  9. Morcillo J, Martinez Morales J, Trousse F, Fermin Y, Sowden J, Bovolenta P. Proper patterning of the optic fissure requires the sequential activity of BMP7 and SHH. Development. 2006;133:3179-90 pubmed
    ..1 and the overlapping distribution of both optic stalk (Pax2, Vax1) and ventral neural retina markers (Vax2, Raldh3). We also show that in the absence of Bmp7, fissure formation is not initiated...
  10. Minkina A, Lindeman R, Gearhart M, Chassot A, Chaboissier M, Ghyselinck N, et al. Retinoic acid signaling is dispensable for somatic development and function in the mammalian ovary. Dev Biol. 2017;424:208-220 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that RA signaling, although crucial in the ovary for meiotic initiation, is not required for granulosa cell specification, differentiation, or reproductive function. ..
  11. Ikeda K, Ookawara S, Sato S, Ando Z, Kageyama R, Kawakami K. Six1 is essential for early neurogenesis in the development of olfactory epithelium. Dev Biol. 2007;311:53-68 pubmed
    ..Our study indicates that Six1 plays critical roles in early neurogenesis by regulating Ngn1, NeuroD, Hes1, and Hes5. ..
  12. Everts H, King L, Sundberg J, Ong D. Hair cycle-specific immunolocalization of retinoic acid synthesizing enzymes Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3 indicate complex regulation. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;123:258-63 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemistry was performed on adult C57BL/6J mouse skin sections with antibodies against Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3. Aldh1a2 expression was seen primarily in the outer root sheath and basal/spinous layer during all stages of the ..
  13. Hägglund A, Jones I, Carlsson L. A novel mouse model of anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD): conditional deletion of Tsc1 disrupts ciliary body and iris development. Dis Model Mech. 2017;10:245-257 pubmed publisher
  14. Wagner E, Luo T, DRAGER U. Retinoic acid synthesis in the postnatal mouse brain marks distinct developmental stages and functional systems. Cereb Cortex. 2002;12:1244-53 pubmed
    ..During the early postnatal period, transient and very high RALDH3 expressions distinguish two developmental events: (i) the colonization of the nucleus accumbens and the olfactory ..
  15. Ferrara A, Liao X, Gil Ibáñez P, Marcinkowski T, Bernal J, Weiss R, et al. Changes in thyroid status during perinatal development of MCT8-deficient male mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2533-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This report is the first to identify that the ontogenesis of TH abnormalities in Mct8-deficient mice manifests with TH excess in the perinatal period...
  16. Bowles J, Feng C, Knight D, Smith C, Roeszler K, Bagheri Fam S, et al. Male-specific expression of Aldh1a1 in mouse and chicken fetal testes: implications for retinoid balance in gonad development. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2073-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that low levels of RA may be required for early developmental events in the testis, or that Aldh1a1 expression in the fetus may prefigure a later requirement for ALDH1A1 in regulating spermatogenesis postnatally. ..
  17. Makita T, Duncan S, Sucov H. Retinoic acid, hypoxia, and GATA factors cooperatively control the onset of fetal liver erythropoietin expression and erythropoietic differentiation. Dev Biol. 2005;280:59-72 pubmed
    ..5 onward is enhancer-independent, and is driven instead by basal promoter elements that provide a sufficient level of expression to support further erythropoietic differentiation. ..
  18. Sakai Y, Luo T, McCaffery P, Hamada H, DRAGER U. CYP26A1 and CYP26C1 cooperate in degrading retinoic acid within the equatorial retina during later eye development. Dev Biol. 2004;276:143-57 pubmed
    ..The safeguard of the RA-poor stripe by two distinct enzymes during later development points to a role in maturation of a significant functional feature like an area of higher visual acuity that develops at its location. ..
  19. Hörnberg M, Gussing F, Berghard A, Bohm S. Retinoic acid selectively inhibits death of basal vomeronasal neurons during late stage of neural circuit formation. J Neurochem. 2009;110:1263-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the results indicate a novel connection between pre-synaptic RA receptor signaling and neural activity-dependent events that together regulate neuronal survival and maintenance of synaptic contacts. ..
  20. Rawson N, Lischka F, Yee K, Peters A, Tucker E, Meechan D, et al. Specific mesenchymal/epithelial induction of olfactory receptor, vomeronasal, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:1723-38 pubmed publisher
  21. Jin Y, Han X, Taketo M, Yoon J. Wnt9b-dependent FGF signaling is crucial for outgrowth of the nasal and maxillary processes during upper jaw and lip development. Development. 2012;139:1821-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study has identified a previously unknown regulatory link between WNT9B and FGF signaling during lip and upper jaw development...
  22. Moreno Ramos O, Olivares A, Haider N, de Autismo L, Lattig M. Whole-Exome Sequencing in a South American Cohort Links ALDH1A3, FOXN1 and Retinoic Acid Regulation Pathways to Autism Spectrum Disorders. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0135927 pubmed publisher
    ..Two missense novel SNVs were found in the same child: ALDH1A3 (RefSeq NM_000693: c.1514T>C (p.I505T)) and FOXN1 (RefSeq NM_003593: c.146C>T (p.S49L))...
  23. Rhinn M, Schuhbaur B, Niederreither K, Dolle P. Involvement of retinol dehydrogenase 10 in embryonic patterning and rescue of its loss of function by maternal retinaldehyde treatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:16687-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results underscore the importance of maternal retinoids in preventing congenital birth defects, and lead to a revised model of the importance of RDH10 and RALDHs in controlling embryonic RA distribution...
  24. Brunskill E, Potter A, Distasio A, Dexheimer P, Plassard A, Aronow B, et al. A gene expression atlas of early craniofacial development. Dev Biol. 2014;391:133-46 pubmed publisher
  25. Kumar S, Chatzi C, Brade T, Cunningham T, Zhao X, Duester G. Sex-specific timing of meiotic initiation is regulated by Cyp26b1 independent of retinoic acid signalling. Nat Commun. 2011;2:151 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that Cyp26b1 prevents the onset of meiosis by metabolizing a substrate other than RA that controls Stra8 expression, thus changing the paradigm for how studies on Cyp26 function are conducted. ..
  26. Romand R, Kondo T, Fraulob V, Petkovich M, Dolle P, Hashino E. Dynamic expression of retinoic acid-synthesizing and -metabolizing enzymes in the developing mouse inner ear. J Comp Neurol. 2006;496:643-54 pubmed
    ..expression patterns of four synthesizing enzymes, the retinaldehyde dehydrogenases 1, 2, 3, and 4 (Raldh1, Raldh2, Raldh3, and Raldh4) and two metabolizing enzymes (Cyp26A1 and Cyp26B1) in the embryonic and postnatal mouse inner ear by ..
  27. Lee L, Leung C, Tang W, Choi H, Leung Y, McCaffery P, et al. A paradoxical teratogenic mechanism for retinoic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:13668-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This previously undescribed and unsuspected mechanism provides insight into the molecular pathway of retinoic acid-induced teratogenesis. ..
  28. Manthey A, Lachke S, FitzGerald P, Mason R, Scheiblin D, McDonald J, et al. Loss of Sip1 leads to migration defects and retention of ectodermal markers during lens development. Mech Dev. 2014;131:86-110 pubmed publisher
  29. Zhao L, Saitsu H, Sun X, Shiota K, Ishibashi M. Sonic hedgehog is involved in formation of the ventral optic cup by limiting Bmp4 expression to the dorsal domain. Mech Dev. 2010;127:62-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Also unchanged patterns of Raldh2 and Raldh3 suggest that retinoic acid is not the downstream to Shh signaling to control the ventral optic cup morphology.
  30. Wright Jin E, Grider J, Duester G, Heuckeroth R. Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes regulate colon enteric nervous system structure and function. Dev Biol. 2013;381:28-37 pubmed publisher
    ..RA is produced by three different enzymes called retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDH1, RALDH2 and RALDH3) that are all expressed in the developing bowel...
  31. Ferretti E, Li B, Zewdu R, Wells V, Hebert J, Karner C, et al. A conserved Pbx-Wnt-p63-Irf6 regulatory module controls face morphogenesis by promoting epithelial apoptosis. Dev Cell. 2011;21:627-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Dysregulation of this network leads to localized suppression of midfacial apoptosis and CL/P. Ectopic Wnt ectodermal expression in Pbx mutants rescues the clefting, opening avenues for tissue repair. ..
  32. Niederreither K, Vermot J, Fraulob V, Chambon P, Dolle P. Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2)- independent patterns of retinoic acid synthesis in the mouse embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:16111-6 pubmed
    ..embryos and investigated whether these activities could be ascribed to the other known RALDH enzymes (RALDH1 and RALDH3)...
  33. Bryant S, Francis J, Lokody I, Wang H, Risbridger G, Loveland K, et al. Sex specific retinoic acid signaling is required for the initiation of urogenital sinus bud development. Dev Biol. 2014;395:209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies a novel role for retinoic acid as a mesenchymal factor that acts together with androgens to determine the position and initiation of bud development in the male UGS epithelia. ..
  34. Urbán N, Martín Ibáñez R, Herranz C, Esgleas M, Crespo E, Pardo M, et al. Nolz1 promotes striatal neurogenesis through the regulation of retinoic acid signaling. Neural Dev. 2010;5:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Nolz1 promotes RA signaling in the LGE, contributing to the striatal neurogenesis during development. ..
  35. Alfano G, Conte I, Caramico T, Avellino R, Arnò B, Pizzo M, et al. Vax2 regulates retinoic acid distribution and cone opsin expression in the vertebrate eye. Development. 2011;138:261-71 pubmed publisher of the RA-catabolizing enzymes Cyp26a1 and Cyp26c1, and a downregulation of the RA-synthesizing enzyme Raldh3. These changes determine a significant expansion of the RA-free zone towards the ventral part of the eye...
  36. Compagnucci C, Fish J, Schwark M, Tarabykin V, Depew M. Pax6 regulates craniofacial form through its control of an essential cephalic ectodermal patterning center. Genesis. 2011;49:307-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Pax6 therefore regulates craniofacial form, at stages when CNC has just arrived in the frontonasal region, through its control of surface cephalic ectodermal competence to form an essential craniofacial patterning center. ..
  37. Carpenter A, Smith A, Wagner H, Cohen Tayar Y, Rao S, Wallace V, et al. Wnt ligands from the embryonic surface ectoderm regulate 'bimetallic strip' optic cup morphogenesis in mouse. Development. 2015;142:972-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These data thus establish a novel hypothesis to explain how differential cell numbers in a bilayered epithelium can lead to shape change. ..
  38. Billings S, Pierzchalski K, Butler Tjaden N, Pang X, Trainor P, KANE M, et al. The retinaldehyde reductase DHRS3 is essential for preventing the formation of excess retinoic acid during embryonic development. FASEB J. 2013;27:4877-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the reduction of retinaldehyde by DHRS3 is critical for preventing formation of excess ATRA during embryonic development...
  39. Wagner E, Luo T, Sakai Y, Parada L, DRAGER U. Retinoic acid delineates the topography of neuronal plasticity in postnatal cerebral cortex. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:329-40 pubmed
    ..This band of cortex, which is distinguished by the retinoic acid-synthesizing enzyme RALDH3, exhibits signs of delayed maturation and enhanced plasticity compared to the surrounding cortex, as indicated by ..
  40. Toresson H, Campbell K. A role for Gsh1 in the developing striatum and olfactory bulb of Gsh2 mutant mice. Development. 2001;128:4769-80 pubmed
  41. Raverdeau M, Gely Pernot A, Féret B, Dennefeld C, Benoit G, Davidson I, et al. Retinoic acid induces Sertoli cell paracrine signals for spermatogonia differentiation but cell autonomously drives spermatocyte meiosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16582-7 pubmed publisher
  42. Kim S, Ahn S, Swat W, Miner J. DLG1 influences distal ureter maturation via a non-epithelial cell autonomous mechanism involving reduced retinoic acid signaling, Ret expression, and apoptosis. Dev Biol. 2014;390:160-9 pubmed publisher
  43. Halilagic A, Ribes V, Ghyselinck N, Zile M, Dolle P, Studer M. Retinoids control anterior and dorsal properties in the developing forebrain. Dev Biol. 2007;303:362-75 pubmed
    ..In this study we show that double Raldh2/Raldh3 mouse mutants have a more severe phenotype in the craniofacial region than single null mutants...
  44. Crandall J, Goodman T, McCarthy D, Duester G, Bhide P, DRAGER U, et al. Retinoic acid influences neuronal migration from the ganglionic eminence to the cerebral cortex. J Neurochem. 2011;119:723-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest functions of retinoic acid in interneuron diversity and organization of cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance. ..
  45. van de Ven C, Bialecka M, Neijts R, Young T, Rowland J, Stringer E, et al. Concerted involvement of Cdx/Hox genes and Wnt signaling in morphogenesis of the caudal neural tube and cloacal derivatives from the posterior growth zone. Development. 2011;138:3451-62 pubmed publisher
    ..They shed a new light on the etiology of the caudal dysplasia or caudal regression range of human congenital defects. ..
  46. Reichert B, Yasmeen R, Jeyakumar S, Yang F, Thomou T, Alder H, et al. Concerted action of aldehyde dehydrogenases influences depot-specific fat formation. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:799-809 pubmed publisher
    ..wild-type mice and by the predominant loss of visceral fat. Subcutaneous fat of Aldh1a1(-/-) mice expressed Aldh1a3 for RA production that was sufficient to maintain expression of ZFP423 and PPAR? and sc fat mass...
  47. Kumar S, Duester G. Retinoic acid signaling in perioptic mesenchyme represses Wnt signaling via induction of Pitx2 and Dkk2. Dev Biol. 2010;340:67-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic studies using Raldh1/Raldh3 double null mice deficient for ocular RA synthesis demonstrated that Pitx2 and Dkk2 were both down-regulated in ..
  48. Zalc A, Rattenbach R, Auradé F, Cadot B, Relaix F. Pax3 and Pax7 play essential safeguard functions against environmental stress-induced birth defects. Dev Cell. 2015;33:56-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings demonstrate that the regulation of AHR signaling by Pax3/7 is required to protect against TCDD/AHR-mediated teratogenesis during craniofacial development. ..
  49. Sato Y, Heuckeroth R. Retinoic acid regulates murine enteric nervous system precursor proliferation, enhances neuronal precursor differentiation, and reduces neurite growth in vitro. Dev Biol. 2008;320:185-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively these data demonstrate diverse effects of RA on ENS precursor development and suggest that altered fetal retinoid availability or metabolism could contribute to intestinal motility disorders. ..
  50. Sima A, Parisotto M, Mader S, Bhat P. Kinetic characterization of recombinant mouse retinal dehydrogenase types 3 and 4 for retinal substrates. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1790:1660-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This study sought to determine the detailed kinetic properties of 2 mouse RALDHs, namely RALDH3 and 4, for retinal isomer substrates, to better define their specificities in RA isomer synthesis...
  51. Roehrich M, Spicher A, Milano G, Vassalli G. Characterization of cardiac-resident progenitor cells expressing high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:503047 pubmed publisher
    ..b>ALDH1A3 and ALDH2 expression was detectable in ALDH(very-br) and ALDH(br) cells, unlike ALDH(dim) cells, albeit at lower ..
  52. Clugston R, Zhang W, Alvarez S, de Lera A, Greer J. Understanding abnormal retinoid signaling as a causative mechanism in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;42:276-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also yielded a novel experimental model that should prove particularly useful for further studies of CDH. ..
  53. Song L, Li Y, Wang K, Wang Y, Molotkov A, Gao L, et al. Lrp6-mediated canonical Wnt signaling is required for lip formation and fusion. Development. 2009;136:3161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, a ;fusion-resistant' gene, Raldh3 (also known as Aldh1a3), that encodes a retinoic acid-synthesizing enzyme is ectopically expressed in the upper lip primordia of Lrp6-..
  54. Griffin J, Compagnucci C, Hu D, Fish J, Klein O, Marcucio R, et al. Fgf8 dosage determines midfacial integration and polarity within the nasal and optic capsules. Dev Biol. 2013;374:185-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data highlight Fgf8 signaling in craniofacial development as a plausible target for evolutionary selective pressures...
  55. Paschaki M, Cammas L, Muta Y, Matsuoka Y, Mak S, Rataj Baniowska M, et al. Retinoic acid regulates olfactory progenitor cell fate and differentiation. Neural Dev. 2013;8:13 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3 (RALDH3) is the key enzyme required to generate retinoic acid within the olfactory epithelium.
  56. Kalyani R, Lee J, Min H, Yoon H, Kim M. Genes Frequently Coexpressed with Hoxc8 Provide Insight into the Discovery of Target Genes. Mol Cells. 2016;39:395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..We randomly selected Adam19, Ptpn13, Prkd1, Tgfbi, and Aldh1a3, and validated their coexpression in mouse embryonic tissues and cell lines following TGF-?2 treatment or ectopic ..
  57. Martin M, Gallego Llamas J, Ribes V, Kedinger M, Niederreither K, Chambon P, et al. Dorsal pancreas agenesis in retinoic acid-deficient Raldh2 mutant mice. Dev Biol. 2005;284:399-411 pubmed
    ..We conclude that RA synthesized in the mesenchyme is specifically required for the normal development of the dorsal pancreatic endoderm at a stage preceding Pdx 1 function. ..
  58. Grün F, Hirose Y, Kawauchi S, Ogura T, Umesono K. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 6, a cytosolic retinaldehyde dehydrogenase prominently expressed in sensory neuroepithelia during development. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:41210-8 pubmed
    We have isolated the chick and mouse homologs of human aldehyde dehydrogenase 6 (ALDH6) that encode a third cytosolic retinaldehyde-specific aldehyde dehydrogenase...
  59. Ioannou M, Serafimidis I, Arnés L, Sussel L, Singh S, Vasiliou V, et al. ALDH1B1 is a potential stem/progenitor marker for multiple pancreas progenitor pools. Dev Biol. 2013;374:153-63 pubmed publisher
  60. Romand R, Kondo T, Cammas L, Hashino E, Dolle P. Dynamic expression of the retinoic acid-synthesizing enzyme retinol dehydrogenase 10 (rdh10) in the developing mouse brain and sensory organs. J Comp Neurol. 2008;508:879-92 pubmed publisher
  61. Chatzi C, Brade T, Duester G. Retinoic acid functions as a key GABAergic differentiation signal in the basal ganglia. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1000609 pubmed publisher
    ..of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase mutant mouse embryos lacking RA synthesis demonstrates that RA generated by Raldh3 in the subventricular zone of the basal ganglia is required for GABAergic differentiation, whereas RA generated by ..
  62. Graham C, Brocklehurst K, Pickersgill R, Warren M. Characterization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3. Biochem J. 2006;394:67-75 pubmed
    b>RALDH3 (retinal dehydrogenase 3) was characterized by kinetic and binding studies, protein engineering, homology modelling, ligand docking and electrostatic-potential calculations...
  63. Suzuki R, Shintani T, Sakuta H, Kato A, Ohkawara T, Osumi N, et al. Identification of RALDH-3, a novel retinaldehyde dehydrogenase, expressed in the ventral region of the retina. Mech Dev. 2000;98:37-50 pubmed
    ..Since this molecule showed enzymatic activity to produce RA from retinaldehyde, we designated it retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3 (RALDH-3)...
  64. Shearer K, Fragoso Y, Clagett Dame M, McCaffery P. Astrocytes as a regulated source of retinoic acid for the brain. Glia. 2012;60:1964-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the RALDHs have been revealed to be dynamic in their expression in astrocytes where they may maintain retinoid homeostasis in the brain. ..
  65. Outhwaite J, Natale B, Natale D, Simmons D. Expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, member A3 in glycogen trophoblast cells of the murine placenta. Placenta. 2015;36:304-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We show Aldh1a3 is strongly expressed in a subset of ectoplacental cone cells and in glycogen trophoblast cells of the definitive ..
  66. Rosselot C, Spraggon L, Chia I, Batourina E, Riccio P, Lu B, et al. Non-cell-autonomous retinoid signaling is crucial for renal development. Development. 2010;137:283-92 pubmed publisher
  67. Huang J, Bi Y, Zhu G, He Y, Su Y, He B, et al. Retinoic acid signalling induces the differentiation of mouse fetal liver-derived hepatic progenitor cells. Liver Int. 2009;29:1569-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Retinal dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (Raldh1 and Raldh2) were expressed in all tissues, while Raldh3 was weakly expressed in prenatal samples but was readily detected postnatally...
  68. Duparc R, Boutemmine D, Champagne M, Tétreault N, Bernier G. Pax6 is required for delta-catenin/neurojugin expression during retinal, cerebellar and cortical development in mice. Dev Biol. 2006;300:647-55 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Pax6 regulates delta-catenin expression during CNS development in mice. ..