Gene Symbol: Aldh1a1
Description: aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A1
Alias: ALDH-E1, ALHDII, Ahd-2, Ahd2, Aldh1, Aldh1a2, Raldh1, retinal dehydrogenase 1, RALDH 1, alcohol dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A1, alcohol dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A2, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, liver cytosolic (class 1), aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A1, aldehyde dehydrogenase, cytosolic
Species: mouse
Products:     Aldh1a1

Top Publications

  1. Levi B, Yilmaz O, Duester G, Morrison S. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 is dispensable for stem cell function in the mouse hematopoietic and nervous systems. Blood. 2009;113:1670-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This activity has been attributed to Aldh1a1, an enzyme that is expressed at high levels in stem cells and that has been suggested to regulate stem cell ..
  2. Di Salvio M, Di Giovannantonio L, Acampora D, Prosperi R, Omodei D, Prakash N, et al. Otx2 controls neuron subtype identity in ventral tegmental area and antagonizes vulnerability to MPTP. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:1481-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that Otx2 is required to specify neuron subtype identity in VTA and may antagonize vulnerability to the Parkinsonian toxin MPTP. ..
  3. Jacobs F, van der Linden A, Wang Y, von Oerthel L, Sul H, Burbach J, et al. Identification of Dlk1, Ptpru and Klhl1 as novel Nurr1 target genes in meso-diencephalic dopamine neurons. Development. 2009;136:2363-73 pubmed publisher
  4. Kiefer F, Vernochet C, O BRIEN P, Spoerl S, Brown J, Nallamshetty S, et al. Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 regulates a thermogenic program in white adipose tissue. Nat Med. 2012;18:918-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Aldh1a1 is expressed predominately in white adipose tissue (WAT), including visceral depots in mice and humans...
  5. Reichert B, Yasmeen R, Jeyakumar S, Yang F, Thomou T, Alder H, et al. Concerted action of aldehyde dehydrogenases influences depot-specific fat formation. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:799-809 pubmed publisher
    ..The aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (Aldh1) family of enzymes (Aldh1a1, a2, and a3) catalyzes RA production from retinaldehyde and thereby controls concentrations of this ..
  6. Westerlund M, Galter D, Carmine A, Olson L. Tissue- and species-specific expression patterns of class I, III, and IV Adh and Aldh 1 mRNAs in rodent embryos. Cell Tissue Res. 2005;322:227-36 pubmed
  7. Jacobs F, Veenvliet J, Almirza W, Hoekstra E, von Oerthel L, van der Linden A, et al. Retinoic acid-dependent and -independent gene-regulatory pathways of Pitx3 in meso-diencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Development. 2011;138:5213-22 pubmed publisher
    ..of Ahd2-mediated RA signaling represents only one aspect of the Pitx3 downstream cascade, as Vmat2, Dat, Ahd2 (Aldh1a1), En1, En2 and Cck were unaffected by RA treatment and are (subset) specifically modulated by Pitx3...
  8. Martin M, Gallego Llamas J, Ribes V, Kedinger M, Niederreither K, Chambon P, et al. Dorsal pancreas agenesis in retinoic acid-deficient Raldh2 mutant mice. Dev Biol. 2005;284:399-411 pubmed
    ..We conclude that RA synthesized in the mesenchyme is specifically required for the normal development of the dorsal pancreatic endoderm at a stage preceding Pdx 1 function. ..
  9. Jacobs F, Smits S, Noorlander C, von Oerthel L, van der Linden A, Burbach J, et al. Retinoic acid counteracts developmental defects in the substantia nigra caused by Pitx3 deficiency. Development. 2007;134:2673-84 pubmed
    ..We identified a developmental cascade in mice in which Ahd2 (Aldh1a1) is under the transcriptional control of Pitx3...

More Information


  1. Wagner E, McCaffery P, Drager U. Retinoic acid in the formation of the dorsoventral retina and its central projections. Dev Biol. 2000;222:460-70 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that the dorsoventral axis of the embryonic eye anlage determines the functional coordinates of both vision and eye movements in the adult. ..
  2. Niederreither K, Fraulob V, Garnier J, Chambon P, Dolle P. Differential expression of retinoic acid-synthesizing (RALDH) enzymes during fetal development and organ differentiation in the mouse. Mech Dev. 2002;110:165-71 pubmed
    Three retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDH1, RALDH2 and RALDH3), which catalyze the oxidation of retinaldehyde into retinoic acid, have been shown to be differentially expressed during early embryogenesis...
  3. Mic F, Molotkov A, Fan X, Cuenca A, Duester G. RALDH3, a retinaldehyde dehydrogenase that generates retinoic acid, is expressed in the ventral retina, otic vesicle and olfactory pit during mouse development. Mech Dev. 2000;97:227-30 pubmed
    ..The developmental expression patterns of two ALDHs that function as retinaldehyde dehydrogenases, RALDH1 and RALDH2, have been described...
  4. Li H, Wagner E, McCaffery P, Smith D, Andreadis A, Drager U. A retinoic acid synthesizing enzyme in ventral retina and telencephalon of the embryonic mouse. Mech Dev. 2000;95:283-9 pubmed
    Most retinoic acid (RA) in the embryonic mouse is generated by three retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs). RALDH1 (also called E1, AHD2 or ALDH1) is expressed in the dorsal retina, and RALDH2 (V2, ALDH11) generates most RA in the ..
  5. Fan X, Molotkov A, Manabe S, Donmoyer C, Deltour L, Foglio M, et al. Targeted disruption of Aldh1a1 (Raldh1) provides evidence for a complex mechanism of retinoic acid synthesis in the developing retina. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:4637-48 pubmed
    ..required for mouse retina development, controlled in part by an RA-generating aldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by Aldh1a2 (Raldh2) expressed transiently in the optic vesicles...
  6. Matt N, Dupé V, Garnier J, Dennefeld C, Chambon P, Mark M, et al. Retinoic acid-dependent eye morphogenesis is orchestrated by neural crest cells. Development. 2005;132:4789-800 pubmed not the retina nor the corneal ectoderm, which both express RA-synthesizing retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDH1 and RALDH3), but the neural crest cell-derived periocular mesenchyme (POM), which is devoid of RALDH...
  7. Anderson D, Schray R, Duester G, Schneider J. Functional significance of aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH1A1 to the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Brain Res. 2011;1408:81-7 pubmed publisher
    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) is a member of a superfamily of detoxification enzymes found in various tissues that participate in the oxidation of both aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes...
  8. Makia N, Bojang P, Falkner K, CONKLIN D, Prough R. Murine hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 is a major contributor to oxidation of aldehydes formed by lipid peroxidation. Chem Biol Interact. 2011;191:278-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The catalytic efficiencies for metabolism of acrolein by Aldh1a1 was comparable to that of Aldh3a1 (V(max)/K(m)=23)...
  9. Kiefer F, Orasanu G, Nallamshetty S, Brown J, Wang H, Luger P, et al. Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 coordinates hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism. Endocrinology. 2012;153:3089-99 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Aldh1a1-deficient mice are protected from diet-induced obesity and hence diabetes...
  10. Vezina C, Allgeier S, Fritz W, Moore R, Strerath M, Bushman W, et al. Retinoic acid induces prostatic bud formation. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:1321-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that reciprocal changes in hedgehog and BMP signaling by RA may regulate bud initiation. ..
  11. Prakash N, Brodski C, Naserke T, Puelles E, Gogoi R, Hall A, et al. A Wnt1-regulated genetic network controls the identity and fate of midbrain-dopaminergic progenitors in vivo. Development. 2006;133:89-98 pubmed
    ..They also suggest the Wnt1-controlled signaling pathway as a promising target for new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. ..
  12. Zhou C, Molotkov A, Song L, Li Y, Pleasure D, Pleasure S, et al. Ocular coloboma and dorsoventral neuroretinal patterning defects in Lrp6 mutant eyes. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3681-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the retinoic acid synthesizing enzymes Raldh1 and Raldh3 were significantly changed in the mutant eyes...
  13. Lassen N, Bateman J, Estey T, Kuszak J, Nees D, Piatigorsky J, et al. Multiple and additive functions of ALDH3A1 and ALDH1A1: cataract phenotype and ocular oxidative damage in Aldh3a1(-/-)/Aldh1a1(-/-) knock-out mice. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25668-76 pubmed
    ALDH3A1 (aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1) is abundant in the mouse cornea but undetectable in the lens, and ALDH1A1 is present at lower (catalytic) levels in the cornea and lens...
  14. Molotkov A, Duester G. Genetic evidence that retinaldehyde dehydrogenase Raldh1 (Aldh1a1) functions downstream of alcohol dehydrogenase Adh1 in metabolism of retinol to retinoic acid. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:36085-90 pubmed
    ..We now present genetic evidence that aldehyde dehydrogenase Aldh1a1, also known as retinaldehyde dehydrogenase Raldh1, plays a dominant role in the second step of retinol clearance ..
  15. Molotkov A, Molotkova N, Duester G. Retinoic acid guides eye morphogenetic movements via paracrine signaling but is unnecessary for retinal dorsoventral patterning. Development. 2006;133:1901-10 pubmed
    ..Here, we report Raldh1, Raldh2 and Raldh3 single, double and triple null mice exhibiting progressively less or no RA synthesis in the eye...
  16. Ziouzenkova O, Orasanu G, Sharlach M, Akiyama T, Berger J, Viereck J, et al. Retinaldehyde represses adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity. Nat Med. 2007;13:695-702 pubmed
    ..In vivo, mice lacking the Rald-catabolizing enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Raldh1) resisted diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance and showed increased energy dissipation...
  17. Touma S, Perner S, Rubin M, Nanus D, Gudas L. Retinoid metabolism and ALDH1A2 (RALDH2) expression are altered in the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate model. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;78:1127-38 pubmed publisher
    ..quantitative RT-PCR to measure transcripts for genes involved in retinoid signaling and metabolism, including ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, CYP26A1, LRAT, and RARbeta(2), in prostate tissue from TRAMP positive (+) and age-matched ..
  18. Ulven S, Gundersen T, Weedon M, Landaas V, Sakhi A, Fromm S, et al. Identification of endogenous retinoids, enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors during early postimplantation development in mouse: important role of retinal dehydrogenase type 2 in synthesis of all-trans-retinoic acid. Dev Biol. 2000;220:379-91 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our results suggest that RALDH2 is a key regulator in initiating retinoic acid synthesis sometime between the mid-primitive streak stage and the late allantoic bud stage in mouse embryos. ..
  19. Crandall J, Goodman T, McCarthy D, Duester G, Bhide P, DRAGER U, et al. Retinoic acid influences neuronal migration from the ganglionic eminence to the cerebral cortex. J Neurochem. 2011;119:723-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest functions of retinoic acid in interneuron diversity and organization of cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance. ..
  20. Vella J, Thompson S, Bucsek M, Song M, Huard J. Murine and human myogenic cells identified by elevated aldehyde dehydrogenase activity: implications for muscle regeneration and repair. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29226 pubmed publisher
    ..This result demonstrates the critical role of stress resistance in myogenic cell therapy as well as confirms the role of ALDH as a marker for rapid isolation of murine and human myogenic progenitors for cell therapy. ..
  21. Gasparetto M, Sekulovic S, Brocker C, Tang P, Zakaryan A, Xiang P, et al. Aldehyde dehydrogenases are regulators of hematopoietic stem cell numbers and B-cell development. Exp Hematol. 2012;40:318-29.e2 pubmed publisher
    High levels of the aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform ALDH1A1 are expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); however, its importance in these cells remains unclear...
  22. Ioannou M, Serafimidis I, Arnés L, Sussel L, Singh S, Vasiliou V, et al. ALDH1B1 is a potential stem/progenitor marker for multiple pancreas progenitor pools. Dev Biol. 2013;374:153-63 pubmed publisher
  23. Nallamshetty S, Le P, Wang H, Issacsohn M, Reeder D, Rhee E, et al. Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 deficiency inhibits PPAR?-mediated bone loss and marrow adiposity. Bone. 2014;67:281-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We present data here establishing retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1) and its substrate retinaldehyde (Rald) as novel determinants of PPAR?-RXR actions in the skeleton...
  24. Chakrabarty K, von Oerthel L, Hellemons A, Clotman F, Espana A, Groot Koerkamp M, et al. Genome wide expression profiling of the mesodiencephalic region identifies novel factors involved in early and late dopaminergic development. Biol Open. 2012;1:693-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we provide evidence of two divergent regulatory pathways resulting in the expression of Chrna6 and Chrnb3 respectively. ..
  25. Rudraraju R, Jones B, Surman S, Sealy R, Thomas P, Hurwitz J. Respiratory tract epithelial cells express retinaldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH1A and enhance IgA production by stimulated B cells in the presence of vitamin A. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e86554 pubmed publisher
  26. Timms G, Holmes R. Genetics of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in the mouse: evidence for multiple loci and localization of Ahd-2 on chromosome 19. Genetics. 1981;97:327-36 pubmed
    ..Electrophoretic evidence for a third AHD isozyme (designated AHD-Cy), which is predominantly localized in the liver microsomal fraction, is also presented. ..
  27. Makita T, Duncan S, Sucov H. Retinoic acid, hypoxia, and GATA factors cooperatively control the onset of fetal liver erythropoietin expression and erythropoietic differentiation. Dev Biol. 2005;280:59-72 pubmed
    ..5 onward is enhancer-independent, and is driven instead by basal promoter elements that provide a sufficient level of expression to support further erythropoietic differentiation. ..
  28. McCaffery P, Wagner E, O Neil J, Petkovich M, Drager U. Dorsal and ventral rentinoic territories defined by retinoic acid synthesis, break-down and nuclear receptor expression. Mech Dev. 1999;85:203-14 pubmed
  29. Thompson L, Andersson E, Jensen J, Barraud P, Guillemot F, Parmar M, et al. Neurogenin2 identifies a transplantable dopamine neuron precursor in the developing ventral mesencephalon. Exp Neurol. 2006;198:183-98 pubmed
    ..The Ngn2-GFP reporter construct used here thus provides a tool for the identification of mesDA neuron precursors in the VM and selective isolation of transplantable mesDA neuron precursors for transplantation. ..
  30. López Fernández L, del Mazo J. The cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (Aldh1) is developmentally expressed in Leydig cells. FEBS Lett. 1997;407:225-9 pubmed
    Cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase, ALDH1, participates in the oxidation of different aldehydes including that of all-trans retinal to retinoic acid...
  31. Lieven O, Ruther U. The Dkk1 dose is critical for eye development. Dev Biol. 2011;355:124-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our data essentially improve the knowledge of coloboma and anterior eye defects, which are common human eye developmental defects. ..
  32. Chilov D, Sinjushina N, Saarimäki Vire J, Taketo M, Partanen J. beta-Catenin regulates intercellular signalling networks and cell-type specific transcription in the developing mouse midbrain-rhombomere 1 region. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10881 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the role of beta-catenin in establishment of neuroectodermal signalling centers, promoting region-specific gene expression and regulation of cell fate determination. ..
  33. Carpenter A, Smith A, Wagner H, Cohen Tayar Y, Rao S, Wallace V, et al. Wnt ligands from the embryonic surface ectoderm regulate 'bimetallic strip' optic cup morphogenesis in mouse. Development. 2015;142:972-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These data thus establish a novel hypothesis to explain how differential cell numbers in a bilayered epithelium can lead to shape change. ..
  34. Billings S, Pierzchalski K, Butler Tjaden N, Pang X, Trainor P, KANE M, et al. The retinaldehyde reductase DHRS3 is essential for preventing the formation of excess retinoic acid during embryonic development. FASEB J. 2013;27:4877-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the reduction of retinaldehyde by DHRS3 is critical for preventing formation of excess ATRA during embryonic development...
  35. Clugston R, Zhang W, Alvarez S, de Lera A, Greer J. Understanding abnormal retinoid signaling as a causative mechanism in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;42:276-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also yielded a novel experimental model that should prove particularly useful for further studies of CDH. ..
  36. Dong B, Jin X, Yan C, Yang T, Cai G, Lu J. Synergistic upregulation of NONO and PSPC1 regulates Sertoli cell response to MEHP via modulation of ALDH1A1 signaling. FEBS Lett. 2017;591:914-923 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, NONO and PSPC1 transcriptionally activate aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1), by synergistically binding to the distinct CCGGAGTC sequence in the Aldh1a1 promoter...
  37. Raverdeau M, Gely Pernot A, Féret B, Dennefeld C, Benoit G, Davidson I, et al. Retinoic acid induces Sertoli cell paracrine signals for spermatogonia differentiation but cell autonomously drives spermatocyte meiosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16582-7 pubmed publisher
  38. Stuebner S, Faus Kessler T, Fischer T, Wurst W, Prakash N. Fzd3 and Fzd6 deficiency results in a severe midbrain morphogenesis defect. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:246-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Fzd3 and Fzd6 thus control proper midbrain morphogenesis by a yet unknown mechanism in the mouse. ..
  39. Romand R, Kondo T, Cammas L, Hashino E, Dolle P. Dynamic expression of the retinoic acid-synthesizing enzyme retinol dehydrogenase 10 (rdh10) in the developing mouse brain and sensory organs. J Comp Neurol. 2008;508:879-92 pubmed publisher
  40. Romand R, Kondo T, Fraulob V, Petkovich M, Dolle P, Hashino E. Dynamic expression of retinoic acid-synthesizing and -metabolizing enzymes in the developing mouse inner ear. J Comp Neurol. 2006;496:643-54 pubmed
    ..spatiotemporal expression patterns of four synthesizing enzymes, the retinaldehyde dehydrogenases 1, 2, 3, and 4 (Raldh1, Raldh2, Raldh3, and Raldh4) and two metabolizing enzymes (Cyp26A1 and Cyp26B1) in the embryonic and postnatal ..
  41. Rout U, Armant D. Expression of genes for alcohol and aldehyde metabolizing enzymes in mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Reprod Toxicol. 2002;16:253-8 pubmed
    ..The absence of enzymes to convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, coupled with oocyte expression of the acetaldehyde-degrading enzyme, Ahd-5, may be protective for the early embryo. ..
  42. Maly I, Crotet V, Toranelli M. The so-called "testis-specific aldehyde dehydrogenase" corresponds to type 2 retinaldehyde dehydrogenase in the mouse. Histochem Cell Biol. 2003;119:169-74 pubmed
    ..The tissue distribution as well as substrate specificity and isoelectric points indicate that the "testis-specific aldehyde dehydrogenase" corresponds to mouse type 2 retinaldehyde dehydrogenase. ..
  43. Ulven S, Gundersen T, Sakhi A, Glover J, Blomhoff R. Quantitative axial profiles of retinoic acid in the embryonic mouse spinal cord: 9-cis retinoic acid only detected after all-trans-retinoic acid levels are super-elevated experimentally. Dev Dyn. 2001;222:341-53 pubmed
    ..It sets definite limits on how much 9-cis-RA potentially is present and demonstrates that at-RA predominates over 9-cis-RA by at least 30- to 180-fold in different spinal cord regions. ..
  44. McCaffery P, Tempst P, Lara G, Drager U. Aldehyde dehydrogenase is a positional marker in the retina. Development. 1991;112:693-702 pubmed
  45. Rawson N, Lischka F, Yee K, Peters A, Tucker E, Meechan D, et al. Specific mesenchymal/epithelial induction of olfactory receptor, vomeronasal, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:1723-38 pubmed publisher
  46. Muramoto G, Russell J, Safi R, Salter A, Himburg H, Daher P, et al. Inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase expands hematopoietic stem cells with radioprotective capacity. Stem Cells. 2010;28:523-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeted siRNA of ALDH1a1 in BM HSCs caused a comparable expansion of radioprotective progenitor cells in culture compared to DEAB ..
  47. Holmes R. Genetics and ontogeny of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in the mouse: localization of Ahd-1 encoding the mitochondrial isozyme on chromosome 4. Biochem Genet. 1978;16:1207-18 pubmed
    ..Ontogenetic analyses demonstrated that both AHD isozymes exhibited low activity in late fetal and early neonatal liver and kidney extracts, and reached adult levels within 3 weeks of birth. ..
  48. Sakai Y, Luo T, McCaffery P, Hamada H, DRAGER U. CYP26A1 and CYP26C1 cooperate in degrading retinoic acid within the equatorial retina during later eye development. Dev Biol. 2004;276:143-57 pubmed
    ..The safeguard of the RA-poor stripe by two distinct enzymes during later development points to a role in maturation of a significant functional feature like an area of higher visual acuity that develops at its location. ..
  49. Liu G, Yu J, Ding J, Xie C, Sun L, Rudenko I, et al. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 defines and protects a nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuron subpopulation. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:3032-46 pubmed publisher
    ..SNpc, DA neurons can be divided into two subpopulations based on the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A1)...
  50. Kim J, Ganesan S, Luo S, Wu Y, Park E, Huang E, et al. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 mediates a GABA synthesis pathway in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Science. 2015;350:102-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiments reveal an evolutionarily conserved GABA synthesis pathway mediated by aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 (ALDH1a1)...
  51. Wey M, Fernandez E, Martinez P, Sullivan P, Goldstein D, Strong R. Neurodegeneration and motor dysfunction in mice lacking cytosolic and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenases: implications for Parkinson's disease. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31522 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this hypothesis, we generated mice null for Aldh1a1 and Aldh2, the two isoforms known to be expressed in substantia nigra dopamine neurons...
  52. Bond S, Singh S. Studies with cDNA probes on the in vivo effect of ethanol on expression of the genes of alcohol metabolism. Alcohol Alcohol. 1990;25:385-94 pubmed
  53. Krause U, Ryan D, Clough B, Gregory C. An unexpected role for a Wnt-inhibitor: Dickkopf-1 triggers a novel cancer survival mechanism through modulation of aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1 activity. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1093 pubmed publisher part to upregulation of the stress response enzyme and cancer stem cell marker aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1)...
  54. Zhuang R, Lin M, Napoli J. cis-Retinol/androgen dehydrogenase, isozyme 3 (CRAD3): a short-chain dehydrogenase active in a reconstituted path of 9-cis-retinoic acid biosynthesis in intact cells. Biochemistry. 2002;41:3477-83 pubmed
    ..production in intact cells, in conjunction with each of three retinal dehydrogenases that recognize 9-cis-retinal (RALDH1/AHD2, RALDH2, and ALDH12)...
  55. Fijneman R, Demant P. A gene for susceptibility to small intestinal cancer, ssic1, maps to the distal part of mouse chromosome 4. Cancer Res. 1995;55:3179-82 pubmed
    ..This difference is highly significant (chi 2 = 31 for D4Mit158). Therefore, one of the genes that influence susceptibility to small intestinal cancer, ssic1, maps to the distal part of chromosome 4. ..
  56. Brodeur H, Gagnon I, Mader S, Bhat P. Cloning of monkey RALDH1 and characterization of retinoid metabolism in monkey kidney proximal tubule cells. J Lipid Res. 2003;44:303-13 pubmed
    ..We have previously characterized and cloned from kidney tissues the rat retinal dehydrogenase type 1 (RALDH1), which oxidizes all-trans and 9-cis retinal with high efficiency but is inactive with 13-cis retinal...
  57. Bateman O, Purkiss A, van Montfort R, Slingsby C, Graham C, Wistow G. Crystal structure of eta-crystallin: adaptation of a class 1 aldehyde dehydrogenase for a new role in the eye lens. Biochemistry. 2003;42:4349-56 pubmed publisher
    ..It has a better-defined NAD binding site than those of related mammalian ALDH1 enzymes with the cofactor bound in the "hydride transfer" position in all four monomers with small differences ..
  58. Bowles J, Feng C, Miles K, Ineson J, Spiller C, Koopman P. ALDH1A1 provides a source of meiosis-inducing retinoic acid in mouse fetal ovaries. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10845 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that a third RA-synthesizing enzyme, ALDH1A1, is expressed in fetal ovaries, providing a likely source of RA in the absence of ALDH1A2 and ALDH1A3...
  59. Dollé L, Best J, Empsen C, Mei J, Van Rossen E, Roelandt P, et al. Successful isolation of liver progenitor cells by aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in naïve mice. Hepatology. 2012;55:540-52 pubmed publisher
    ..b>ALDH1A1 expression can be detected in canals of Hering and bile duct epithelial cells and is increased on liver injury...
  60. Niederreither K, Vermot J, Fraulob V, Chambon P, Dolle P. Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2)- independent patterns of retinoic acid synthesis in the mouse embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:16111-6 pubmed
    ..mouse embryos and investigated whether these activities could be ascribed to the other known RALDH enzymes (RALDH1 and RALDH3)...
  61. Oberbeck N, Langevin F, King G, de Wind N, Crossan G, Patel K. Maternal aldehyde elimination during pregnancy preserves the fetal genome. Mol Cell. 2014;55:807-817 pubmed publisher
  62. Gushchina L, Yasmeen R, Ziouzenkova O. Moderate vitamin A supplementation in obese mice regulates tissue factor and cytokine production in a sex-specific manner. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2013;539:239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..IU vitA/g and 20 IU vitA/g HF diet) on multiple conditions and mediators of Msyn in wild-type (WT, C57Bl/6) and Aldh1a1(-/-) mice...
  63. Zhang Y, Wang C, Tian Y, Zhang F, Xu W, Li X, et al. Inhibition of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 Protects Chronic Alcoholic Liver Injury. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:3117-3130 pubmed publisher
  64. McCaffery P, Lee M, Wagner M, Sladek N, Drager U. Asymmetrical retinoic acid synthesis in the dorsoventral axis of the retina. Development. 1992;115:371-82 pubmed
  65. Hoekstra E, von Oerthel L, van der Heide L, Kouwenhoven W, Veenvliet J, Wever I, et al. Lmx1a encodes a rostral set of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic neurons marked by the Wnt/B-catenin signaling activator R-spondin 2. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74049 pubmed publisher
  66. Wright Jin E, Grider J, Duester G, Heuckeroth R. Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes regulate colon enteric nervous system structure and function. Dev Biol. 2013;381:28-37 pubmed publisher
    ..RA is produced by three different enzymes called retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDH1, RALDH2 and RALDH3) that are all expressed in the developing bowel...
  67. Hou W, He W, Li Y, Ma R, Wang Z, Zhu X, et al. Increased expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 A1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma is associated with enhanced invasiveness. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2014;271:171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, whether member A1 of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A1) is involved in the formation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unknown...
  68. McIlroy G, Delibegovic M, Owen C, Stoney P, Shearer K, McCaffery P, et al. Fenretinide treatment prevents diet-induced obesity in association with major alterations in retinoid homeostatic gene expression in adipose, liver, and hypothalamus. Diabetes. 2013;62:825-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, FEN induced RA-responsive genes in RALDH1 KO mice, demonstrating that FEN can augment RA signaling when RA synthesis is impaired...
  69. Huang J, Bi Y, Zhu G, He Y, Su Y, He B, et al. Retinoic acid signalling induces the differentiation of mouse fetal liver-derived hepatic progenitor cells. Liver Int. 2009;29:1569-81 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Retinal dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (Raldh1 and Raldh2) were expressed in all tissues, while Raldh3 was weakly expressed in prenatal ..
  70. Bowles J, Feng C, Knight D, Smith C, Roeszler K, Bagheri Fam S, et al. Male-specific expression of Aldh1a1 in mouse and chicken fetal testes: implications for retinoid balance in gonad development. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2073-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that the gene encoding a cytosolic class-1 aldehyde dehydrogenase, ALDH1A1, a weak catalyst of RA production, is strongly expressed in a male-specific manner in somatic cells of the ..
  71. Romand R, Niederreither K, Abu Abed S, Petkovich M, Fraulob V, Hashino E, et al. Complementary expression patterns of retinoid acid-synthesizing and -metabolizing enzymes in pre-natal mouse inner ear structures. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;4:123-33 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the distribution of three synthesizing enzymes, retinaldehyde dehydrogenases 1, 2 and 3 (RALDH1, RALDH2 and RALDH3) and two catabolizing enzymes (CYP26A1 and CYP26B1) in the mouse inner ear at embryonic day 18...
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    ..The gene encoding the retinoic acid-synthesizing enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1), initially called Hdg-1, was found to be ectopically activated by HOX11 in this system...
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    ..Our findings will impact embryonic stem cell protocols that utilize Wnt pathway reagents to derive mDA neuron models and therapeutics for Parkinson's disease. ..
  74. Kittappa R, Chang W, Awatramani R, McKay R. The foxa2 gene controls the birth and spontaneous degeneration of dopamine neurons in old age. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e325 pubmed
    ..Manipulating forkhead function may regulate both the birth of dopamine neurons and their spontaneous death, two major goals of regenerative medicine. ..
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    Mammalian class I aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1) has been implicated as a retinal dehydrogenase in the biosynthesis of retinoic acid, a modulator of gene expression and cell differentiation...
  76. Khan S, Stott S, Chabrat A, Truckenbrodt A, Spencer Dene B, Nave K, et al. Survival of a Novel Subset of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons Projecting to the Lateral Septum Is Dependent on NeuroD Proteins. J Neurosci. 2017;37:2305-2316 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings highlight the molecular and anatomical heterogeneity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and contribute to a better understanding of this functionally complex group of neurons. ..
  77. El Shahawy M, Reibring C, Neben C, Hallberg K, Marangoni P, Harfe B, et al. Cell fate specification in the lingual epithelium is controlled by antagonistic activities of Sonic hedgehog and retinoic acid. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006914 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal key functions for SHH and RA in cell fate specification in the lingual epithelium and aid in deciphering the molecular mechanisms that assign cell identity. ..