Aldh1a1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Aldh1a1
Description: aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A1
Alias: Ahd-2, Ahd2, Aldh1, Aldh1a2, Raldh1, ALDH-E1, ALHDII, RALDH 1, alcohol dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A1, alcohol dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A2, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, liver cytosolic (class 1), aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A1, aldehyde dehydrogenase, cytosolic, retinal dehydrogenase 1
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. pmc Identification of Dlk1, Ptpru and Klhl1 as novel Nurr1 target genes in meso-diencephalic dopamine neurons
    Frank M J Jacobs
    Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Development 136:2363-73. 2009
  2. ncbi Retinoic acid counteracts developmental defects in the substantia nigra caused by Pitx3 deficiency
    Frank M J Jacobs
    Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology and Anatomy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Development 134:2673-84. 2007
  3. pmc Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 regulates a thermogenic program in white adipose tissue
    Florian W Kiefer
    Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Med 18:918-25. 2012
  4. pmc Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 coordinates hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism
    Florian W Kiefer
    Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Endocrinology 153:3089-99. 2012
  5. pmc Eliminating SF-1 (NR5A1) sumoylation in vivo results in ectopic hedgehog signaling and disruption of endocrine development
    Florence Y Lee
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Dev Cell 21:315-27. 2011
  6. pmc Tissue specific characterisation of Lim-kinase 1 expression during mouse embryogenesis
    Nils O Lindström
    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
    Gene Expr Patterns 11:221-32. 2011
  7. doi Functional significance of aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH1A1 to the nigrostriatal dopamine system
    David W Anderson
    Dept of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Brain Res 1408:81-7. 2011
  8. pmc Autocrine function of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 as a determinant of diet- and sex-specific differences in visceral adiposity
    Rumana Yasmeen
    Department of Human Nutrition, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
    Diabetes 62:124-36. 2013
  9. ncbi Tissue- and species-specific expression patterns of class I, III, and IV Adh and Aldh 1 mRNAs in rodent embryos
    Marie Westerlund
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Retzius vag 8, B2 4, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Cell Tissue Res 322:227-36. 2005
  10. pmc Targeted disruption of Aldh1a1 (Raldh1) provides evidence for a complex mechanism of retinoic acid synthesis in the developing retina
    Xiaohong Fan
    OncoDevelopmental Biology Program Center for Neuroscience and Aging, Burnham Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 23:4637-48. 2003

Research Grants

Scientific Experts

  • Paola Sgadò
  • I Piotr Maly
  • Lars Olson
  • Cheng Ji Zhou
  • Oliver Lieven
  • Raymond Romand
  • Nils O Lindström
  • Gregg Duester
  • Nilima Prakash
  • Florian W Kiefer
  • Pierre Chambon
  • Ouliana Ziouzenkova
  • Wolfgang Wurst
  • Frank M J Jacobs
  • Andrei Molotkov
  • Rumana Yasmeen
  • Barbara Reichert
  • Marie Westerlund
  • Pascal Dolle
  • Jorge Plutzky
  • Nicolas Matt
  • Karen Niederreither
  • Vasilis Vasiliou
  • Manuel Mark
  • Christine Dennefeld
  • Norbert B Ghyselinck
  • Natalie Lassen
  • Marten P Smidt
  • Simon R W Stott
  • Marc Estienne Roehrich
  • Mathilde Raverdeau
  • Andreas Ratzka
  • Sanjay Rajagopalan
  • Hansjuerg Alder
  • Fangping Yang
  • Margaret Chia Ying Wey
  • Kirsty D Shearer
  • Jonathan D Brown
  • P McCaffery
  • Shriram Nallamshetty
  • Laurent Dollé
  • Maura Gasparetto
  • Ngome L Makia
  • Florence Y Lee
  • S M Ulven
  • Giovanna Alfano
  • Rosalie Molenaar
  • Joseph B Vella
  • David W Anderson
  • Goncalo Castelo-Branco
  • Dmitri Chilov
  • Sandeep Kumar
  • Gera Goverse
  • Sebastian Stuebner
  • Molly Sharlach
  • Reina E Mebius
  • Michela Di Salvio
  • Brenda J Olivier
  • Gabriela Orasanu
  • E Wagner
  • Sue Ellen Touma
  • Serge A van de Pavert
  • Jiayi Huang
  • Boaz P Levi
  • Josephine Bowles
  • Maria Hörnberg
  • Antonio Simeone
  • Chad M Vezina
  • Lars von Oerthel
  • Chao Guo
  • Annemarie J A van der Linden
  • J Peter H Burbach
  • Ernest Arenas
  • Yoshiharu Sato
  • U C Drager
  • G Duester
  • Raja Kittappa
  • Francois Collard
  • Lachlan H Thompson
  • Dagmar Galter
  • Oleg Lioubinski
  • Sanjiv V Bhave
  • Simone M Smits
  • Valérie Dupé
  • Sarah Ivins
  • Merce Martin
  • Takako Makita
  • Sandrine Thuret
  • Yasuo Sakai
  • Helene Brodeur

Detail Information

Publications96

  1. pmc Identification of Dlk1, Ptpru and Klhl1 as novel Nurr1 target genes in meso-diencephalic dopamine neurons
    Frank M J Jacobs
    Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Development 136:2363-73. 2009
    ....
  2. ncbi Retinoic acid counteracts developmental defects in the substantia nigra caused by Pitx3 deficiency
    Frank M J Jacobs
    Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology and Anatomy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Development 134:2673-84. 2007
    ..We identified a developmental cascade in mice in which Ahd2 (Aldh1a1) is under the transcriptional control of Pitx3...
  3. pmc Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 regulates a thermogenic program in white adipose tissue
    Florian W Kiefer
    Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Med 18:918-25. 2012
    ..Here we show that Aldh1a1 is expressed predominately in white adipose tissue (WAT), including visceral depots in mice and humans...
  4. pmc Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 coordinates hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism
    Florian W Kiefer
    Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Endocrinology 153:3089-99. 2012
    ..b>Aldh1a1-deficient mice are protected from diet-induced obesity and hence diabetes...
  5. pmc Eliminating SF-1 (NR5A1) sumoylation in vivo results in ectopic hedgehog signaling and disruption of endocrine development
    Florence Y Lee
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Dev Cell 21:315-27. 2011
    ..We conclude that the sumoylation cycle greatly expands the functional capacity of transcription factors such as SF-1 and is leveraged during development to achieve cell-type-specific gene expression in multicellular organisms...
  6. pmc Tissue specific characterisation of Lim-kinase 1 expression during mouse embryogenesis
    Nils O Lindström
    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
    Gene Expr Patterns 11:221-32. 2011
    ..This detailed study of the spatial and temporal expression of LIMK1 shows that LIMK1 expression is more dynamic than previously reported, in particular at sites of tissue-tissue interactions guiding multiple developmental processes...
  7. doi Functional significance of aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH1A1 to the nigrostriatal dopamine system
    David W Anderson
    Dept of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Brain Res 1408:81-7. 2011
    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) is a member of a superfamily of detoxification enzymes found in various tissues that participate in the oxidation of both aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes...
  8. pmc Autocrine function of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 as a determinant of diet- and sex-specific differences in visceral adiposity
    Rumana Yasmeen
    Department of Human Nutrition, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
    Diabetes 62:124-36. 2013
    ..We investigated the role of retinoic acid (RA) production by aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1, -a2, and -a3), the major RA-producing enzymes, on sex-specific fat depot formation...
  9. ncbi Tissue- and species-specific expression patterns of class I, III, and IV Adh and Aldh 1 mRNAs in rodent embryos
    Marie Westerlund
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Retzius vag 8, B2 4, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Cell Tissue Res 322:227-36. 2005
    ....
  10. pmc Targeted disruption of Aldh1a1 (Raldh1) provides evidence for a complex mechanism of retinoic acid synthesis in the developing retina
    Xiaohong Fan
    OncoDevelopmental Biology Program Center for Neuroscience and Aging, Burnham Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 23:4637-48. 2003
    ..required for mouse retina development, controlled in part by an RA-generating aldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by Aldh1a2 (Raldh2) expressed transiently in the optic vesicles...
  11. pmc Multiple and additive functions of ALDH3A1 and ALDH1A1: cataract phenotype and ocular oxidative damage in Aldh3a1(-/-)/Aldh1a1(-/-) knock-out mice
    Natalie Lassen
    Molecular Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences Program, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, The Children s Hospital, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:25668-76. 2007
    ALDH3A1 (aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1) is abundant in the mouse cornea but undetectable in the lens, and ALDH1A1 is present at lower (catalytic) levels in the cornea and lens...
  12. pmc beta-Catenin regulates intercellular signalling networks and cell-type specific transcription in the developing mouse midbrain-rhombomere 1 region
    Dmitri Chilov
    Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    PLoS ONE 5:e10881. 2010
    ..These results highlight the role of beta-catenin in establishment of neuroectodermal signalling centers, promoting region-specific gene expression and regulation of cell fate determination...
  13. doi Otx2 controls neuron subtype identity in ventral tegmental area and antagonizes vulnerability to MPTP
    Michela Di Salvio
    CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate, Naples, Italy
    Nat Neurosci 13:1481-8. 2010
    ..These findings indicate that Otx2 is required to specify neuron subtype identity in VTA and may antagonize vulnerability to the Parkinsonian toxin MPTP...
  14. doi Murine hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 is a major contributor to oxidation of aldehydes formed by lipid peroxidation
    Ngome L Makia
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292, United States
    Chem Biol Interact 191:278-87. 2011
    ..The catalytic efficiencies for metabolism of acrolein by Aldh1a1 was comparable to that of Aldh3a1 (V(max)/K(m)=23)...
  15. ncbi A Wnt1-regulated genetic network controls the identity and fate of midbrain-dopaminergic progenitors in vivo
    Nilima Prakash
    GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Technical University Munich, Institute of Developmental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Munich Neuherberg, Germany
    Development 133:89-98. 2006
    ..They also suggest the Wnt1-controlled signaling pathway as a promising target for new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of Parkinson's disease...
  16. ncbi Dorsal pancreas agenesis in retinoic acid-deficient Raldh2 mutant mice
    Merce Martin
    INSERM, U682, Strasbourg, France
    Dev Biol 284:399-411. 2005
    ..We conclude that RA synthesized in the mesenchyme is specifically required for the normal development of the dorsal pancreatic endoderm at a stage preceding Pdx 1 function...
  17. pmc Identification of 3-deoxyglucosone dehydrogenase as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1)
    Francois Collard
    Universite Catholique de Louvain, Christian de Duve Institute of Cellular Pathology, Avenue Hippocrate 75, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    Biochimie 89:369-73. 2007
    ..with the enzymatic activity in the last step indicated that it corresponded to aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), an enzyme known to catalyze the oxidation of retinaldehyde to retinoic acid...
  18. pmc Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 is dispensable for stem cell function in the mouse hematopoietic and nervous systems
    Boaz P Levi
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Internal Medicine, and Center for Stem Cell Biology, Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2216, USA
    Blood 113:1670-80. 2009
    ..This activity has been attributed to Aldh1a1, an enzyme that is expressed at high levels in stem cells and that has been suggested to regulate stem cell ..
  19. ncbi Contribution of cellular retinol-binding protein type 1 to retinol metabolism during mouse development
    Nicolas Matt
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire IGBMC, Institut Clinique de la Souris ICS, CNRS INSERM ULP, College de France, BP10142, 67404 Illkirch Cedex, CU de Strasbourg, France
    Dev Dyn 233:167-76. 2005
    ..Therefore, CRBP1 is required in prenatal life to maintain normal amounts of ROL and to ensure its efficient storage but seems of secondary importance for RA synthesis, at least under conditions of maternal vitamin A sufficiency...
  20. pmc Retinoic acid induces Sertoli cell paracrine signals for spermatogonia differentiation but cell autonomously drives spermatocyte meiosis
    Mathilde Raverdeau
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche 7104, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 964, Universite de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:16582-7. 2012
    ....
  21. doi Successful isolation of liver progenitor cells by aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in naïve mice
    Laurent Dollé
    Liver Cell Biology Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels, Belgium
    Hepatology 55:540-52. 2012
    ..b>ALDH1A1 expression can be detected in canals of Hering and bile duct epithelial cells and is increased on liver injury...
  22. doi Astrocytes as a regulated source of retinoic acid for the brain
    Kirsty D Shearer
    Translational Neuroscience, Institute of Medical Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Glia 60:1964-76. 2012
    ..Similarly, in conditions of oxidative stress RALDH1 and RALDH2 moved from the cytoplasm to a predominantly nuclear position...
  23. pmc The atypical homeoprotein Pbx1a participates in the axonal pathfinding of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons
    Paola Sgadò
    Laboratory of Molecular Neuropathology, Centre for Integrative Biology, University of Trento, Trento, Italy
    Neural Dev 7:24. 2012
    ....
  24. doi Fibroblast growth factor 2 regulates dopaminergic neuron development in vivo
    Andreas Ratzka
    Institute of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
    J Neurochem 122:94-105. 2012
    ..Increased levels of nuclear FgfR1 in E14.5 FGF-2-deficient mice suggest alterations of integrative nuclear FgfR1 signaling (INFS). In summary, FGF-2 restricts SNpc DA neurogenesis in vivo during late stages of embryonic development...
  25. doi Foxa1 and foxa2 are required for the maintenance of dopaminergic properties in ventral midbrain neurons at late embryonic stages
    Simon R W Stott
    Developmental Neurobiology, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 33:8022-34. 2013
    ..These results extend previous findings and demonstrate a later role for Foxa genes in regulating the maintenance of dopaminergic phenotype in mDA neurons...
  26. pmc Neurodegeneration and motor dysfunction in mice lacking cytosolic and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenases: implications for Parkinson's disease
    Margaret Chia Ying Wey
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e31522. 2012
    ..To address this hypothesis, we generated mice null for Aldh1a1 and Aldh2, the two isoforms known to be expressed in substantia nigra dopamine neurons...
  27. doi Aldehyde dehydrogenases are regulators of hematopoietic stem cell numbers and B-cell development
    Maura Gasparetto
    British Columbia Cancer Agency Terry Fox Laboratory, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Exp Hematol 40:318-29.e2. 2012
    High levels of the aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform ALDH1A1 are expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); however, its importance in these cells remains unclear...
  28. pmc Murine and human myogenic cells identified by elevated aldehyde dehydrogenase activity: implications for muscle regeneration and repair
    Joseph B Vella
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stem Cell Research Center, Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e29226. 2011
    ..In this study, we hypothesized that elevated ALDH levels could identify murine and human muscle derived cell (hMDC) progenitors, endowed with enhanced stress resistance and muscle regeneration capacity...
  29. pmc Characterization of cardiac-resident progenitor cells expressing high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity
    Marc Estienne Roehrich
    Department of Cardiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois CHUV, avenue du Bugnon, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Biomed Res Int 2013:503047. 2013
    ..b>ALDH1A2 expression was highest in ALDH(very-br) cells, intermediate in ALDH(dim) cells, and lowest in ALDH(br) cells...
  30. doi Fzd3 and Fzd6 deficiency results in a severe midbrain morphogenesis defect
    Sebastian Stuebner
    Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Centre Munich, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, and Technical University Munich, Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen DZNE, Munich Neuherberg, Germany
    Dev Dyn 239:246-60. 2010
    ..Fzd3 and Fzd6 thus control proper midbrain morphogenesis by a yet unknown mechanism in the mouse...
  31. doi Vax2 regulates retinoic acid distribution and cone opsin expression in the vertebrate eye
    Giovanna Alfano
    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine TIGEM, Naples, Italy
    Development 138:261-71. 2011
    ..These data demonstrate for the first time that Vax2 is both necessary and sufficient for the control of intraretinal RA metabolism, which in turn contributes to the appropriate expression of cone opsins in the vertebrate eye...
  32. ncbi The cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (Aldh1) is developmentally expressed in Leydig cells
    L A Lopez-Fernandez
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas C S I C, Velazquez, Madrid, Spain
    FEBS Lett 407:225-9. 1997
    Cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase, ALDH1, participates in the oxidation of different aldehydes including that of all-trans retinal to retinoic acid...
  33. pmc Retinoic acid signaling in perioptic mesenchyme represses Wnt signaling via induction of Pitx2 and Dkk2
    Sandeep Kumar
    Burnham Institute for Medical Research, Development and Aging Program, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Dev Biol 340:67-74. 2010
    ..Genetic studies using Raldh1/Raldh3 double null mice deficient for ocular RA synthesis demonstrated that Pitx2 and Dkk2 were both down-..
  34. pmc The T-cell oncogenic protein HOX11 activates Aldh1 expression in NIH 3T3 cells but represses its expression in mouse spleen development
    W K Greene
    Division of Protein and Nucleic Acid Chemistry, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 2QH, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell Biol 18:7030-7. 1998
    ..The gene encoding the retinoic acid-synthesizing enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1), initially called Hdg-1, was found to be ectopically activated by HOX11 in this system...
  35. pmc Chemokine CXCL13 is essential for lymph node initiation and is induced by retinoic acid and neuronal stimulation
    Serge A van de Pavert
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Immunol 10:1193-9. 2009
    ..Therefore, our data show that the initiation of lymph node development is controlled by RA-mediated expression of CXCL13 and suggest that RA may be provided by adjacent neurons...
  36. doi Male-specific expression of Aldh1a1 in mouse and chicken fetal testes: implications for retinoid balance in gonad development
    Josephine Bowles
    Division of Molecular Genetics and Development, Institute for Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    Dev Dyn 238:2073-80. 2009
    ..We report here that the gene encoding a cytosolic class-1 aldehyde dehydrogenase, ALDH1A1, a weak catalyst of RA production, is strongly expressed in a male-specific manner in somatic cells of the ..
  37. pmc Retinoid metabolism and ALDH1A2 (RALDH2) expression are altered in the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate model
    Sue Ellen Touma
    Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 78:1127-38. 2009
    ..RT-PCR to measure transcripts for genes involved in retinoid signaling and metabolism, including ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, CYP26A1, LRAT, and RARbeta(2), in prostate tissue from TRAMP positive (+) and age-matched littermate ..
  38. doi Lmx1b-controlled isthmic organizer is essential for development of midbrain dopaminergic neurons
    Chao Guo
    Institute of Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China
    J Neurosci 28:14097-106. 2008
    ..Thus, our results indicate that the inductive activity of IsO is essential, but Lmx1b expression in mDA neurons is dispensable for their differentiation and maintenance...
  39. doi Delayed dopaminergic neuron differentiation in Lrp6 mutant mice
    Goncalo Castelo-Branco
    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Dev Dyn 239:211-21. 2010
    ..5. Our results, therefore, suggest a role for Lrp6 in the onset of DA neuron development in the VM as well as a role in midbrain morphogenesis...
  40. ncbi Levels of retinoic acid and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase expression in eyes of the Mitf-vit mouse model of retinal degeneration
    T Duncan
    Laboratory of Retinal Cell and Molecular Biology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Vis 5:9. 1999
    ..An additional purpose was to examine the expression of the RA generating enzyme, retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (AHD2), in the eyes of mutant and control mice.
  41. pmc Retinoic acid induces prostatic bud formation
    Chad M Vezina
    School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA
    Dev Dyn 237:1321-33. 2008
    ..These observations suggest that reciprocal changes in hedgehog and BMP signaling by RA may regulate bud initiation...
  42. pmc The foxa2 gene controls the birth and spontaneous degeneration of dopamine neurons in old age
    Raja Kittappa
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 5:e325. 2007
    ..Manipulating forkhead function may regulate both the birth of dopamine neurons and their spontaneous death, two major goals of regenerative medicine...
  43. ncbi Dopamine neuron agenesis in Nurr1-deficient mice
    R H Zetterström
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Science 276:248-50. 1997
    ..These results suggest that putative Nurr1 ligands may be useful for treatment of Parkinson's disease and other disorders of midbrain dopamine circuitry...
  44. doi Expression of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes in mucosal dendritic cells and gut-draining lymph node stromal cells is controlled by dietary vitamin A
    Rosalie Molenaar
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Vrije University Medical Center, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 186:1934-42. 2011
    ..Our results show that RA-dependent signaling within the intestine is indispensable for RALDH activity in the draining MLN...
  45. ncbi Genetics and ontogeny of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in the mouse: localization of Ahd-1 encoding the mitochondrial isozyme on chromosome 4
    R S Holmes
    Biochem Genet 16:1207-18. 1978
    ..Ontogenetic analyses demonstrated that both AHD isozymes exhibited low activity in late fetal and early neonatal liver and kidney extracts, and reached adult levels within 3 weeks of birth...
  46. ncbi Asymmetrical retinoic acid synthesis in the dorsoventral axis of the retina
    P McCaffery
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115
    Development 115:371-82. 1992
    ....
  47. ncbi Aldehyde dehydrogenase is a positional marker in the retina
    P McCaffery
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02115
    Development 112:693-702. 1991
    ....
  48. ncbi Isolation and characterization of a cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase-encoding cDNA from mouse liver
    P Rongnoparut
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois, Chicago 60680
    Gene 101:261-5. 1991
    ..The sequence of a 700-bp genomic fragment containing the first exon and 546 bp of 5'-flanking DNA was determined. TATA and CCAAT motifs are located 31 and 73 bp, respectively, from the major tsp...
  49. ncbi Studies with cDNA probes on the in vivo effect of ethanol on expression of the genes of alcohol metabolism
    S L Bond
    Department of Zoology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Alcohol Alcohol 25:385-94. 1990
    ....
  50. ncbi The retinal outer segment membrane protein-1 gene (Rom1) maps to the proximal end of mouse chromosome 19
    B A Taylor
    Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609
    Genomics 23:510-1. 1994
  51. ncbi Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding mouse mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase
    C Chang
    Department of Biochemical Genetics, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010
    Gene 148:331-6. 1994
    ..Northern blot hybridization demonstrated the existence of a high level of mALDH2 mRNA in mouse liver and a low level in mouse kidney...
  52. ncbi DNA sequence analysis of the cytosolic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene (Ahd-2) in mouse strains with variable ethanol preferences
    S L Bond
    Department of Zoology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Biochem Med Metab Biol 52:155-9. 1994
    ..These differences cannot explain their variable ethanol preference and the implications of sequence identities among the divergent strains in these regions has yet to be determined...
  53. ncbi Genes associated with immunoglobulin V(D)J recombination are linked on mouse chromosome 2 and human chromosome 11
    K Huppi
    Laboratory of Genetics, NCI NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Immunogenetics 37:288-91. 1993
  54. ncbi Enzymatic conversion of retinaldehyde to retinoic acid by cloned murine cytosolic and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenases
    M Chen
    Department of Pharmacology, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York 10021
    Mol Pharmacol 46:88-96. 1994
    ..AHD-2 is more active than AHD-M1 in this conversion, but AHD-2 is not the enzyme responsible for this conversion in F9 embryonic stem cells...
  55. doi The Dkk1 dose is critical for eye development
    Oliver Lieven
    Institute for Animal Developmental, Molecular Biology, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Dev Biol 355:124-37. 2011
    ..Therefore, our data essentially improve the knowledge of coloboma and anterior eye defects, which are common human eye developmental defects...
  56. pmc Concerted action of aldehyde dehydrogenases influences depot-specific fat formation
    Barbara Reichert
    Department of Human Nutrition, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43210, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 25:799-809. 2011
    ..The aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (Aldh1) family of enzymes (Aldh1a1, a2, and a3) catalyzes RA production from retinaldehyde and thereby controls concentrations of this ..
  57. ncbi Dorsal and ventral rentinoic territories defined by retinoic acid synthesis, break-down and nuclear receptor expression
    P McCaffery
    E Kennedy Shriver Center, Waltham, MA 02452, USA
    Mech Dev 85:203-14. 1999
    ....
  58. ncbi Distinct functions for Aldh1 and Raldh2 in the control of ligand production for embryonic retinoid signaling pathways
    R J Haselbeck
    Gene Regulation Program, Burnham Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Dev Genet 25:353-64. 1999
    ..Here we show that injection of Xenopus embryos with mRNAs for either mouse Aldh1 or mouse Raldh2 stimulates RA synthesis at low and high levels, respectively, while injection of human ALDH3 mRNA ..
  59. ncbi Quantitative axial profiles of retinoic acid in the embryonic mouse spinal cord: 9-cis retinoic acid only detected after all-trans-retinoic acid levels are super-elevated experimentally
    S M Ulven
    Institute for Nutrition Research, Institute for Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    Dev Dyn 222:341-53. 2001
    ..It sets definite limits on how much 9-cis-RA potentially is present and demonstrates that at-RA predominates over 9-cis-RA by at least 30- to 180-fold in different spinal cord regions...
  60. ncbi Retinoic acid, hypoxia, and GATA factors cooperatively control the onset of fetal liver erythropoietin expression and erythropoietic differentiation
    Takako Makita
    Institute for Genetic Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Dev Biol 280:59-72. 2005
    ..5 onward is enhancer-independent, and is driven instead by basal promoter elements that provide a sufficient level of expression to support further erythropoietic differentiation...
  61. ncbi RALDH3, a retinaldehyde dehydrogenase that generates retinoic acid, is expressed in the ventral retina, otic vesicle and olfactory pit during mouse development
    F A Mic
    Gene Regulation Program, Burnham Institute, 10901 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Mech Dev 97:227-30. 2000
    ..The developmental expression patterns of two ALDHs that function as retinaldehyde dehydrogenases, RALDH1 and RALDH2, have been described...
  62. ncbi CYP26A1 and CYP26C1 cooperate in degrading retinoic acid within the equatorial retina during later eye development
    Yasuo Sakai
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Waltham, MA, USA
    Dev Biol 276:143-57. 2004
    ..The safeguard of the RA-poor stripe by two distinct enzymes during later development points to a role in maturation of a significant functional feature like an area of higher visual acuity that develops at its location...
  63. ncbi A gene for susceptibility to small intestinal cancer, ssic1, maps to the distal part of mouse chromosome 4
    R J Fijneman
    The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Division of Molecular Genetics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Cancer Res 55:3179-82. 1995
    ..This difference is highly significant (chi 2 = 31 for D4Mit158). Therefore, one of the genes that influence susceptibility to small intestinal cancer, ssic1, maps to the distal part of chromosome 4...
  64. ncbi Identification of RALDH-3, a novel retinaldehyde dehydrogenase, expressed in the ventral region of the retina
    R Suzuki
    Division of Molecular Neurobiology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Department of Molecular Biomechanics, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, 38 Nishigonaka, Myodaiji cho, Okazaki, Japan
    Mech Dev 98:37-50. 2000
    ..These results suggested that Raldh-3 is the key enzyme in the formation of an RA gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during the early eye development, and also in the development of the olfactory system...
  65. ncbi The so-called "testis-specific aldehyde dehydrogenase" corresponds to type 2 retinaldehyde dehydrogenase in the mouse
    I Piotr Maly
    Institute of Anatomy, University of Basel, Pestalozzistrasse 20, Switzerland
    Histochem Cell Biol 119:169-74. 2003
    ..The tissue distribution as well as substrate specificity and isoelectric points indicate that the "testis-specific aldehyde dehydrogenase" corresponds to mouse type 2 retinaldehyde dehydrogenase...
  66. ncbi Cloning of monkey RALDH1 and characterization of retinoid metabolism in monkey kidney proximal tubule cells
    Helene Brodeur
    Laboratory of Nutrition and Cancer, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Lipid Res 44:303-13. 2003
    ..We have previously characterized and cloned from kidney tissues the rat retinal dehydrogenase type 1 (RALDH1), which oxidizes all-trans and 9-cis retinal with high efficiency but is inactive with 13-cis retinal...
  67. pmc Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2)- independent patterns of retinoic acid synthesis in the mouse embryo
    Karen Niederreither
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueInstitut National de la Santé et de la Recherche MédicaleUniversité Louis PasteurCollège de France, Strasbourg, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:16111-6. 2002
    ..mouse embryos and investigated whether these activities could be ascribed to the other known RALDH enzymes (RALDH1 and RALDH3)...
  68. ncbi Expression of genes for alcohol and aldehyde metabolizing enzymes in mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos
    Ujjwal Kumar Rout
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, C S Mott Center for Human Growth and Development, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 275 East Hancock, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Reprod Toxicol 16:253-8. 2002
    ..The absence of enzymes to convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, coupled with oocyte expression of the acetaldehyde-degrading enzyme, Ahd-5, may be protective for the early embryo...
  69. pmc Novel retinoic acid generating activities in the neural tube and heart identified by conditional rescue of Raldh2 null mutant mice
    Felix A Mic
    Gene Regulation Program, Burnham Institute, 10901 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Development 129:2271-82. 2002
    ..allows development to proceed and results in the establishment of additional sites of RA synthesis linked to Raldh1 expression in the dorsal retina and to Raldh3 expression in the ventral retina, olfactory pit and urinary tract...
  70. ncbi cis-Retinol/androgen dehydrogenase, isozyme 3 (CRAD3): a short-chain dehydrogenase active in a reconstituted path of 9-cis-retinoic acid biosynthesis in intact cells
    Run Zhuang
    Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3104, USA
    Biochemistry 41:3477-83. 2002
    ..production in intact cells, in conjunction with each of three retinal dehydrogenases that recognize 9-cis-retinal (RALDH1/AHD2, RALDH2, and ALDH12)...
  71. ncbi Retinoic acid-dependent eye morphogenesis is orchestrated by neural crest cells
    Nicolas Matt
    Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire IGBMC Collège de France, BP10142, 67404 Illkirch Cedex, CU de Strasbourg, France
    Development 132:4789-800. 2005
    ..is not the retina nor the corneal ectoderm, which both express RA-synthesizing retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDH1 and RALDH3), but the neural crest cell-derived periocular mesenchyme (POM), which is devoid of RALDH...
  72. ncbi Gene array profiles of alcohol and aldehyde metabolizing enzymes in brains of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice
    Sanjiv V Bhave
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado 80045 0511, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 30:1659-69. 2006
    ..Differences in ethanol metabolizing enzymes expressed in brain have been suggested to contribute to the significant differences in ethanol (alcohol) preference between inbred C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mouse strains...
  73. pmc Retinoic acid guides eye morphogenetic movements via paracrine signaling but is unnecessary for retinal dorsoventral patterning
    Andrei Molotkov
    Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Development 133:1901-10. 2006
    ..Here, we report Raldh1, Raldh2 and Raldh3 single, double and triple null mice exhibiting progressively less or no RA synthesis in the eye...
  74. ncbi High and complementary expression patterns of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases in the gastrointestinal tract: implications for Parkinson's disease
    Marie Westerlund
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    FEBS J 274:1212-23. 2007
    ..We investigated cellular expression of Adh1, Adh3, Adh4 and Aldh1 mRNA along the rodent GI tract...
  75. ncbi Identification of endogenous retinoids, enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors during early postimplantation development in mouse: important role of retinal dehydrogenase type 2 in synthesis of all-trans-retinoic acid
    S M Ulven
    Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo, Blindern, Oslo, 0316, Norway
    Dev Biol 220:379-91. 2000
    ..Therefore, our results suggest that RALDH2 is a key regulator in initiating retinoic acid synthesis sometime between the mid-primitive streak stage and the late allantoic bud stage in mouse embryos...
  76. ncbi Retinoic acid in the formation of the dorsoventral retina and its central projections
    E Wagner
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Dev Biol 222:460-70. 2000
    ..These observations indicate that the dorsoventral axis of the embryonic eye anlage determines the functional coordinates of both vision and eye movements in the adult...
  77. ncbi Neurogenin2 identifies a transplantable dopamine neuron precursor in the developing ventral mesencephalon
    Lachlan H Thompson
    Wallenberg Neuroscience Center, Department of Experimental Medical Science, and Lund Strategic Center for Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, Lund University, BMC A11, SE 221 84 Lund, Sweden
    Exp Neurol 198:183-98. 2006
    ..The Ngn2-GFP reporter construct used here thus provides a tool for the identification of mesDA neuron precursors in the VM and selective isolation of transplantable mesDA neuron precursors for transplantation...
  78. pmc Dynamic expression of retinoic acid-synthesizing and -metabolizing enzymes in the developing mouse inner ear
    Raymond Romand
    Institut Clinique de la Souris, Illkirch, France
    J Comp Neurol 496:643-54. 2006
    ..spatiotemporal expression patterns of four synthesizing enzymes, the retinaldehyde dehydrogenases 1, 2, 3, and 4 (Raldh1, Raldh2, Raldh3, and Raldh4) and two metabolizing enzymes (Cyp26A1 and Cyp26B1) in the embryonic and postnatal ..
  79. ncbi Retinoic acid signaling regulates murine bronchial tubule formation
    Claire Chazaud
    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Ontario, Toronto, Canada
    Mech Dev 120:691-700. 2003
    ..Furthermore, the expression patterns of the RA-producing enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Raldh1), as well as of transforming growth factor-3beta (Tgfb3), Foxa2, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance ..
  80. ncbi A mouse linkage testing stock possessing multiple copies of the endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus genome
    B A Taylor
    Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609
    Genomics 5:221-32. 1989
    ..Ways of further improving the MEV stock are discussed. The location of the Myb proto-oncogene is defined relative to Sl and one of the C58/J proviruses on chromosome 10...
  81. ncbi Aldehyde dehydrogenase 6, a cytosolic retinaldehyde dehydrogenase prominently expressed in sensory neuroepithelia during development
    F Grün
    Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi Shogoin, Kyoto, Japan
    J Biol Chem 275:41210-8. 2000
    ..The localization of ALDH6 to the developing sensory neuroepithelia of the eye, nose, and ear and discreet sites within the CNS suggests a role for RA signaling during primary neurogenesis at these sites...
  82. pmc Retinoic acid regulates murine enteric nervous system precursor proliferation, enhances neuronal precursor differentiation, and reduces neurite growth in vitro
    Yoshiharu Sato
    Department of Pediatrics, Department of Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8208, St Louis MO 63110, USA
    Dev Biol 320:185-98. 2008
    ..Collectively these data demonstrate diverse effects of RA on ENS precursor development and suggest that altered fetal retinoid availability or metabolism could contribute to intestinal motility disorders...
  83. ncbi Lipid and myelin abnormalities of brain in the crinkled mouse
    L L Theriault
    Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 155:549-53. 1977
  84. doi Retinoic acid selectively inhibits death of basal vomeronasal neurons during late stage of neural circuit formation
    Maria Hörnberg
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
    J Neurochem 110:1263-75. 2009
    ..Collectively, the results indicate a novel connection between pre-synaptic RA receptor signaling and neural activity-dependent events that together regulate neuronal survival and maintenance of synaptic contacts...
  85. ncbi Genetic evidence that retinaldehyde dehydrogenase Raldh1 (Aldh1a1) functions downstream of alcohol dehydrogenase Adh1 in metabolism of retinol to retinoic acid
    Andrei Molotkov
    OncoDevelopmental Biology Program, Burnham Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:36085-90. 2003
    ..We now present genetic evidence that aldehyde dehydrogenase Aldh1a1, also known as retinaldehyde dehydrogenase Raldh1, plays a dominant role in the second step of retinol clearance ..
  86. ncbi Changing patterns of the retinoic acid system in the developing retina
    P McCaffrery
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
    Dev Biol 158:390-9. 1993
    ....
  87. ncbi The neuregulin receptor, ErbB4, is not required for normal development and adult maintenance of the substantia nigra pars compacta
    Sandrine Thuret
    Interdisciplinary Center for Neuroscience, Department of Neuroanatomy, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    J Neurochem 91:1302-11. 2004
    ..Finally, an assessment of their motor function revealed no behavioral deficits. The apparent lack of any mutant phenotype suggests the presence of a strong compensatory mechanism...
  88. ncbi Cloning of a cDNA encoding rat aldehyde dehydrogenase with high activity for retinal oxidation
    P V Bhat
    Laboratory of Nutrition and Cancer, Hotel Dieu de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Gene 166:303-6. 1995
    ..Northern blot and RT-PCR-mediated analysis demonstrated that rat kidney ALDH is strongly expressed in kidney, lung, testis, intestine, stomach and trachea, but weakly in the liver...
  89. doi Retinoic acid signalling induces the differentiation of mouse fetal liver-derived hepatic progenitor cells
    Jiayi Huang
    Key Laboratory of Diagnostic Medicine designated by the Ministry of Education of China, The Affiliated Hospitals of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
    Liver Int 29:1569-81. 2009
    ..Retinoic acid (RA) signalling plays an important role in development, although the role of RA signalling in liver-specific progenitors is poorly understood...
  90. pmc Ocular coloboma and dorsoventral neuroretinal patterning defects in Lrp6 mutant eyes
    Cheng Ji Zhou
    Department of Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, USA
    Dev Dyn 237:3681-9. 2008
    ..In addition, the retinoic acid synthesizing enzymes Raldh1 and Raldh3 were significantly changed in the mutant eyes...
  91. ncbi Microarray analysis detects differentially expressed genes in the pharyngeal region of mice lacking Tbx1
    Sarah Ivins
    Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Dev Biol 285:554-69. 2005
    ..These experiments highlight which genes and pathways potentially affected by lack of Tbx1, and whose role may be explored further by testing for epistasis using mouse mutants...
  92. pmc Retinaldehyde represses adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity
    Ouliana Ziouzenkova
    Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Med 13:695-702. 2007
    ..In vivo, mice lacking the Rald-catabolizing enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Raldh1) resisted diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance and showed increased energy dissipation...
  93. ncbi Initiation of retinoid signaling in primitive streak mouse embryos: spatiotemporal expression patterns of receptors and metabolic enzymes for ligand synthesis
    H L Ang
    Burnham Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Dev Dyn 208:536-43. 1997
    ..These results suggest that upregulation of ADH-IV and ALDH-I gene expression in primitive streak mesoderm may lead to retinoic acid synthesis and initiation of retinoid signaling during mouse embryogenesis...
  94. ncbi A retinoic acid synthesizing enzyme in ventral retina and telencephalon of the embryonic mouse
    H Li
    E Kennedy Shriver Center, Waltham, MA 02452, USA
    Mech Dev 95:283-9. 2000
    Most retinoic acid (RA) in the embryonic mouse is generated by three retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs). RALDH1 (also called E1, AHD2 or ALDH1) is expressed in the dorsal retina, and RALDH2 (V2, ALDH11) generates most RA in the ..
  95. pmc Molecular analysis of two closely related mouse aldehyde dehydrogenase genes: identification of a role for Aldh1, but not Aldh-pb, in the biosynthesis of retinoic acid
    L C Hsu
    Department of Biochemical Genetics, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Biochem J 339:387-95. 1999
    Mammalian class I aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1) has been implicated as a retinal dehydrogenase in the biosynthesis of retinoic acid, a modulator of gene expression and cell differentiation...
  96. ncbi FGF signalling controls expression of vomeronasal receptors during embryogenesis
    Oleg Lioubinski
    Center for Molecular Neurobiology, University of Hamburg, Falkenried 94, D 20251 Hamburg, Germany
    Mech Dev 123:17-23. 2006
    ..The relevance of VR expression in these structures and for formation of the VNO is discussed...

Research Grants1

  1. Parkinsonian mouse model: impaired respiratory enzymes
    Lars Olson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..2. To determine if respiratory chain dysfunction in DA neurons will induce a PD like phenotype and validate this approach as a new and unique model of Parkinson's Disease. ..