Akt2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Akt2
Description: thymoma viral proto-oncogene 2
Alias: 2410016A19Rik, AW554154, PKB, PKBbeta, RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase, PKB beta, RAC-PK-beta, protein kinase Akt-2, protein kinase B, beta
Species: mouse
Products:     Akt2

Top Publications

  1. Cho H, Mu J, Kim J, Thorvaldsen J, Chu Q, Crenshaw E, et al. Insulin resistance and a diabetes mellitus-like syndrome in mice lacking the protein kinase Akt2 (PKB beta). Science. 2001;292:1728-31 pubmed
    ..We show that mice deficient in Akt2 are impaired in the ability of insulin to lower blood glucose because of defects in the action of the hormone on ..
  2. Peng X, Xu P, Chen M, Hahn Windgassen A, Skeen J, Jacobs J, et al. Dwarfism, impaired skin development, skeletal muscle atrophy, delayed bone development, and impeded adipogenesis in mice lacking Akt1 and Akt2. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1352-65 pubmed
    To elucidate the functions of the serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB in vivo, we generated mice lacking both akt1 and akt2 genes. Akt1/Akt2 double-knockout (DKO) mice exhibit severe growth deficiency and die shortly after birth...
  3. Nawa M, Kanekura K, Hashimoto Y, Aiso S, Matsuoka M. A novel Akt/PKB-interacting protein promotes cell adhesion and inhibits familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutant SOD1-induced neuronal death via inhibition of PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of Akt/PKB. Cell Signal. 2008;20:493-505 pubmed
    Akt/Protein Kinase B (PKB) family proteins (Akts), consisting of Akt1, 2, and 3, play a crucial role in multiple biological processes...
  4. Dillon R, Marcotte R, Hennessy B, Woodgett J, Mills G, Muller W. Akt1 and akt2 play distinct roles in the initiation and metastatic phases of mammary tumor progression. Cancer Res. 2009;69:5057-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the generation of transgenic mice expressing activated Akt2 in the mammary epithelium...
  5. Cotter L, Ozcelik M, Jacob C, Pereira J, Locher V, Baumann R, et al. Dlg1-PTEN interaction regulates myelin thickness to prevent damaging peripheral nerve overmyelination. Science. 2010;328:1415-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, the Dlg1 brake is no longer functional in a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Therefore, negative regulation of myelination appears to be essential for optimization of nerve conduction velocity and myelin maintenance. ..
  6. Lu M, Wan M, Leavens K, Chu Q, Monks B, Fernandez S, et al. Insulin regulates liver metabolism in vivo in the absence of hepatic Akt and Foxo1. Nat Med. 2012;18:388-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that mice with hepatic deletion of Akt1 and Akt2 were glucose intolerant, insulin resistant and defective in their transcriptional response to feeding in the liver...
  7. Gonzalez E, McGraw T. Insulin-modulated Akt subcellular localization determines Akt isoform-specific signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7004-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated potential mechanisms underlying Akt isoform functional specificity by using Akt2-specific regulation of glucose transport in insulin-stimulated adipocytes as a model system...
  8. Sugatani T, Hruska K. Akt1/Akt2 and mammalian target of rapamycin/Bim play critical roles in osteoclast differentiation and survival, respectively, whereas Akt is dispensable for cell survival in isolated osteoclast precursors. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3583-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Akt1/Akt2 play a critical role in osteoclast differentiation but not cell survival and that mammalian target of rapamycin (..
  9. Li G, Anderson R, Tomita H, Adler R, Liu X, Zack D, et al. Nonredundant role of Akt2 for neuroprotection of rod photoreceptor cells from light-induced cell death. J Neurosci. 2007;27:203-11 pubmed
    ..We investigated the functional roles of Akt1 and Akt2, two of the isoforms of Akt, and their biological significance in light-induced retinal degeneration...

More Information

Publications80

  1. Boxer R, Stairs D, Dugan K, Notarfrancesco K, Portocarrero C, Keister B, et al. Isoform-specific requirement for Akt1 in the developmental regulation of cellular metabolism during lactation. Cell Metab. 2006;4:475-90 pubmed
    ..By evaluating mice bearing targeted deletions in Akt1 or Akt2, we demonstrate that Akt1 is specifically required for lactating mice to synthesize sufficient quantities of milk ..
  2. Zhou G, Tucker D, Bae S, Bhatheja K, Birnbaum M, Field J. Opposing roles for Akt1 and Akt2 in Rac/Pak signaling and cell migration. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:36443-53 pubmed
    The Akt/PKB isoforms have different roles in animals, with Akt2 primarily regulating metabolic signaling and Akt1 regulating growth and survival...
  3. Rotwein P, Wilson E. Distinct actions of Akt1 and Akt2 in skeletal muscle differentiation. J Cell Physiol. 2009;219:503-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present evidence for distinct roles for Akt1 and Akt2 in different phases of muscle differentiation...
  4. Maroulakou I, Oemler W, Naber S, Klebba I, Kuperwasser C, Tsichlis P. Distinct roles of the three Akt isoforms in lactogenic differentiation and involution. J Cell Physiol. 2008;217:468-77 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, ablation of Akt1 inhibits and ablation of Akt2 accelerates mammary tumor development by both oncogenes, while ablation of Akt3 is phenotypically almost neutral...
  5. Espeillac C, Mitchell C, Celton Morizur S, Chauvin C, Koka V, Gillet C, et al. S6 kinase 1 is required for rapamycin-sensitive liver proliferation after mouse hepatectomy. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:2821-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of an S6K1-dependent mechanism participating in cell proliferation in vivo may be relevant for cancer cells displaying high mTOR complex 1 activity and cyclin D1 accumulation. ..
  6. Skeen J, Bhaskar P, Chen C, Chen W, Peng X, Nogueira V, et al. Akt deficiency impairs normal cell proliferation and suppresses oncogenesis in a p53-independent and mTORC1-dependent manner. Cancer Cell. 2006;10:269-80 pubmed
    ..These effects are compounded by deleting both Akt1 and Akt2. In vivo, Akt1 null mice are resistant to MMTV-v-H-Ras-induced tumors and to skin carcinogenesis...
  7. Iliopoulos D, Polytarchou C, Hatziapostolou M, Kottakis F, Maroulakou I, Struhl K, et al. MicroRNAs differentially regulated by Akt isoforms control EMT and stem cell renewal in cancer cells. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra62 pubmed publisher
    ..We expressed each isoform individually in an Akt1(-/-)/Akt2(-/-)/Akt3(-/-) cell line...
  8. Kramer H, Witczak C, Fujii N, Jessen N, Taylor E, Arnolds D, et al. Distinct signals regulate AS160 phosphorylation in response to insulin, AICAR, and contraction in mouse skeletal muscle. Diabetes. 2006;55:2067-76 pubmed
    ..Insulin-stimulated AS160 phosphorylation was fully blunted by wortmannin in vitro and in Akt2 knockout (KO) mice in vivo...
  9. Chen J, Tang H, Hay N, Xu J, Ye R. Akt isoforms differentially regulate neutrophil functions. Blood. 2010;115:4237-46 pubmed publisher
    ..the 2 major Akt isoforms in neutrophil activation on the basis of studies in which we used individual Akt1 and Akt2 knockout mice...
  10. He L, Hou X, Kanel G, Zeng N, Galicia V, Wang Y, et al. The critical role of AKT2 in hepatic steatosis induced by PTEN loss. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:2302-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the role of AKT2, the major liver AKT isoform in steatosis induced by deletion of Pten, we created mice lacking both Pten and Akt2 ..
  11. Heron Milhavet L, Franckhauser C, Rana V, Berthenet C, Fisher D, Hemmings B, et al. Only Akt1 is required for proliferation, while Akt2 promotes cell cycle exit through p21 binding. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:8267-80 pubmed
    ..RNA duplexes in nontransformed mammalian cells, we show that only Akt1 is essential for cell proliferation, while Akt2 promotes cell cycle exit...
  12. Yang Z, Tschopp O, Di Poï N, Bruder E, Baudry A, Dummler B, et al. Dosage-dependent effects of Akt1/protein kinase Balpha (PKBalpha) and Akt3/PKBgamma on thymus, skin, and cardiovascular and nervous system development in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10407-18 pubmed
    Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) plays a critical role in the regulation of metabolism, transcription, cell migration, cell cycle progression, and cell survival...
  13. Takenaka N, Izawa R, Wu J, Kitagawa K, Nihata Y, Hosooka T, et al. A critical role of the small GTPase Rac1 in Akt2-mediated GLUT4 translocation in mouse skeletal muscle. FEBS J. 2014;281:1493-504 pubmed publisher
    ..The serine/threonine kinase Akt2 has been implicated as a key regulator of this insulin action...
  14. Galicia V, He L, Dang H, Kanel G, Vendryes C, French B, et al. Expansion of hepatic tumor progenitor cells in Pten-null mice requires liver injury and is reversed by loss of AKT2. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:2170-82 pubmed publisher
    The tumor suppressor PTEN inhibits AKT2 signaling; both are aberrantly expressed in liver tumors. We investigated how PTEN and AKT2 regulate liver carcinogenesis...
  15. Easton R, Cho H, Roovers K, Shineman D, Mizrahi M, Forman M, et al. Role for Akt3/protein kinase Bgamma in attainment of normal brain size. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:1869-78 pubmed
    ..In mammals, three highly conserved proteins, Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3, comprise the Akt family, of which the first two are required for normal growth and metabolism, ..
  16. Mao C, Tili E, Dose M, Haks M, Bear S, Maroulakou I, et al. Unequal contribution of Akt isoforms in the double-negative to double-positive thymocyte transition. J Immunol. 2007;178:5443-53 pubmed
    ..signals activate Akt and that pharmacological inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway, or combined ablation of Akt1 and Akt2, and to a lesser extent Akt1 and Akt3, interfere with the differentiation of DN3 and the accumulation of DP ..
  17. Watson K, Moorehead R. Loss of Akt1 or Akt2 delays mammary tumor onset and suppresses tumor growth rate in MTB-IGFIR transgenic mice. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:375 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there are three mammalian isoforms of Akt (Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3) and these isoforms regulate distinct physiologic properties within cells...
  18. Ohba N, Kiryu Seo S, Maeda M, Muraoka M, Ishii M, Kiyama H. Transgenic mouse overexpressing the Akt reduced the volume of infarct area after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Neurosci Lett. 2004;359:159-62 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the DINE promoter is a useful promoter, which responds to neuronal insults and that the Akt-induced neuroprotective effect against ischemic damage is potent in vivo. ..
  19. Chen W, Peng X, Wang Y, Xu P, Chen M, Luo Y, et al. Leptin deficiency and beta-cell dysfunction underlie type 2 diabetes in compound Akt knockout mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3151-62 pubmed publisher
    ..analyses of mice null for the individual Akt isoforms suggested that they are functionally distinct and that only Akt2 plays a role in diabetes...
  20. Sumitani S, Goya K, Testa J, Kouhara H, Kasayama S. Akt1 and Akt2 differently regulate muscle creatine kinase and myogenin gene transcription in insulin-induced differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. Endocrinology. 2002;143:820-8 pubmed
    ..suppressed MCK gene transcription without affecting myogenin gene transcription, whereas heterologous expression of Akt2 increased myogenin and MCK gene transcription...
  21. Juntilla M, Wofford J, Birnbaum M, Rathmell J, Koretzky G. Akt1 and Akt2 are required for alphabeta thymocyte survival and differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12105-10 pubmed
    ..In this study, we explore the role of the two Akt isoforms most highly expressed in the thymus, Akt1 and Akt2, in early T cell development...
  22. Xu P, Chen M, Jeon S, Peng X, Hay N. The effect Akt2 deletion on tumor development in Pten(+/-) mice. Oncogene. 2012;31:518-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we analyzed the effect of Akt2 deficiency on the incidence of tumors in Pten(+/-) mice...
  23. Lazorchak A, Liu D, Facchinetti V, Di Lorenzo A, Sessa W, Schatz D, et al. Sin1-mTORC2 suppresses rag and il7r gene expression through Akt2 in B cells. Mol Cell. 2010;39:433-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We further show that Akt2 specifically mediates the Sin1-mTORC2 dependent suppression of il7r and rag gene expression in B cells by ..
  24. Datta S, Brunet A, Greenberg M. Cellular survival: a play in three Akts. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2905-27 pubmed
  25. Cleasby M, Reinten T, Cooney G, James D, Kraegen E. Functional studies of Akt isoform specificity in skeletal muscle in vivo; maintained insulin sensitivity despite reduced insulin receptor substrate-1 expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:215-28 pubmed
    ..These data indicate distinct roles for Akt-1 and Akt-2 in muscle glucose metabolism and that moderate reductions in IRS-1 expression do not result in the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle in vivo. ..
  26. Dummler B, Tschopp O, Hynx D, Yang Z, Dirnhofer S, Hemmings B. Life with a single isoform of Akt: mice lacking Akt2 and Akt3 are viable but display impaired glucose homeostasis and growth deficiencies. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:8042-51 pubmed
    ..and isoform specificity of the Akt family of protein kinases in vivo, we generated mice deficient in both Akt2 and Akt3...
  27. Garofalo R, Orena S, Rafidi K, Torchia A, Stock J, Hildebrandt A, et al. Severe diabetes, age-dependent loss of adipose tissue, and mild growth deficiency in mice lacking Akt2/PKB beta. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:197-208 pubmed
    ..To investigate the function of Akt2/PKBbeta, mice lacking this isoform were generated...
  28. Yang Z, Tschopp O, Hemmings Mieszczak M, Feng J, Brodbeck D, Perentes E, et al. Protein kinase B alpha/Akt1 regulates placental development and fetal growth. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:32124-31 pubmed
    Protein kinase B alpha (PKB alpha/Akt1) is implicated in the regulation of metabolism, transcription, cell survival, angiogenesis, cell migration, growth, and tumorigenesis...
  29. Xie X, Gong Z, Mansuy Aubert V, Zhou Q, Tatulian S, Sehrt D, et al. C2 domain-containing phosphoprotein CDP138 regulates GLUT4 insertion into the plasma membrane. Cell Metab. 2011;14:378-89 pubmed publisher
    The protein kinase B(?) (Akt2) pathway is known to mediate insulin-stimulated glucose transport through increasing glucose transporter GLUT4 translocation from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane (PM)...
  30. Wan M, Leavens K, Saleh D, Easton R, Guertin D, Peterson T, et al. Postprandial hepatic lipid metabolism requires signaling through Akt2 independent of the transcription factors FoxA2, FoxO1, and SREBP1c. Cell Metab. 2011;14:516-27 pubmed publisher
    ..activation of neither FoxA2 nor FoxO1 can account for the protection from steatosis afforded by deletion of Akt2 in liver...
  31. Ng Y, Ramm G, Lopez J, James D. Rapid activation of Akt2 is sufficient to stimulate GLUT4 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Cell Metab. 2008;7:348-56 pubmed publisher
    The serine/threonine kinase Akt2 has been implicated in insulin-regulated glucose uptake into muscle and fat cells by promoting the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the cell surface...
  32. Maroulakou I, Oemler W, Naber S, Tsichlis P. Akt1 ablation inhibits, whereas Akt2 ablation accelerates, the development of mammary adenocarcinomas in mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-ErbB2/neu and MMTV-polyoma middle T transgenic mice. Cancer Res. 2007;67:167-77 pubmed
    ..The effects of ablation of Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3 on the induction and the biology of these tumors were dramatically different, with ablation of Akt1 ..
  33. Hollander M, Maier C, Hobbs E, Ashmore A, Linnoila R, Dennis P. Akt1 deletion prevents lung tumorigenesis by mutant K-ras. Oncogene. 2011;30:1812-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that deletion of Akt1 but not Akt2 or Akt3 prevents lung tumorigenesis in a tobacco carcinogen-induced model and a genetic model...
  34. Chang Z, Zhang Q, Feng Q, Xu J, Teng T, Luan Q, et al. Deletion of Akt1 causes heart defects and abnormal cardiomyocyte proliferation. Dev Biol. 2010;347:384-91 pubmed publisher
    The PI3K-PDK1-PKB/Akt (PI3K, phosphoinositide-3 kinase; PDK1, phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1; PKB, protein kinase B) signaling pathway plays a critical role in a variety of biological processes including cell survival, ..
  35. Leavens K, Easton R, Shulman G, Previs S, Birnbaum M. Akt2 is required for hepatic lipid accumulation in models of insulin resistance. Cell Metab. 2009;10:405-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have demonstrated that Akt2/protein kinase B is critical to insulin's control of glucose metabolism, but its role in lipid metabolism has ..
  36. Gardner S, Anguiano M, Rotwein P. Defining Akt actions in muscle differentiation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012;303:C1292-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Akt1 is essential for initiation of differentiation in culture and is required for normal myoblast motility, while Akt2 is dispensable...
  37. Buzzi F, Xu L, Zuellig R, Boller S, Spinas G, Hynx D, et al. Differential effects of protein kinase B/Akt isoforms on glucose homeostasis and islet mass. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:601-12 pubmed publisher
    ..results in diabetes with insulin resistance and severe failure of beta-cell mass and function, only loss of the PKBbeta isoform leads to a mild metabolic phenotype with insulin resistance...
  38. Liu Q, Qiu J, Liang M, Golinski J, van Leyen K, Jung J, et al. Akt and mTOR mediate programmed necrosis in neurons. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1084 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest a novel, heretofore unexpected role for Akt and mTOR downstream of RIPK1 activation in neuronal cell death. ..
  39. Jeffery E, Church C, Holtrup B, Colman L, Rodeheffer M. Rapid depot-specific activation of adipocyte precursor cells at the onset of obesity. Nat Cell Biol. 2015;17:376-85 pubmed publisher
    ..find that in multiple models of obesity, the activation of APs is dependent on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT2 pathway; however, the development of WAT does not require AKT2...
  40. Wofford J, Wieman H, Jacobs S, Zhao Y, Rathmell J. IL-7 promotes Glut1 trafficking and glucose uptake via STAT5-mediated activation of Akt to support T-cell survival. Blood. 2008;111:2101-11 pubmed
  41. Mouton V, Toussaint L, Vertommen D, Gueuning M, Maisin L, Havaux X, et al. Heart 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activation by insulin requires PKB (protein kinase B), but not SGK3 (serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 3). Biochem J. 2010;431:267-75 pubmed publisher
    On the basis of transfection experiments using a dominant-negative approach, our previous studies suggested that PKB (protein kinase B) was not involved in heart PFK-2 (6-phosphofructo2-kinase) activation by insulin...
  42. Anai M, Shojima N, Katagiri H, Ogihara T, Sakoda H, Onishi Y, et al. A novel protein kinase B (PKB)/AKT-binding protein enhances PKB kinase activity and regulates DNA synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18525-35 pubmed
    Protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt reportedly plays a role in the survival and/or proliferation of cells. We identified a novel protein, which binds to PKB, using a yeast two-hybrid screening system...
  43. Tan Y, Timakhov R, Rao M, Altomare D, Xu J, Liu Z, et al. A novel recurrent chromosomal inversion implicates the homeobox gene Dlx5 in T-cell lymphomas from Lck-Akt2 transgenic mice. Cancer Res. 2008;68:1296-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Transgenic mice expressing a constitutively activated form of the cellular homologue Akt2 specifically in immature T cells develop spontaneous thymic lymphomas...
  44. Ren J, Yang L, Zhu L, Xu X, Ceylan A, Guo W, et al. Akt2 ablation prolongs life span and improves myocardial contractile function with adaptive cardiac remodeling: role of Sirt1-mediated autophagy regulation. Aging Cell. 2017;16:976-987 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined the impact of Akt2 ablation on life span and cardiac aging as well as the mechanisms involved with a focus on autophagy and ..
  45. Oellrich A, Meehan T, Parkinson H, Sarntivijai S, White J, Karp N. Reporting phenotypes in mouse models when considering body size as a potential confounder. J Biomed Semantics. 2016;7:2 pubmed publisher
  46. Koren S, DiPilato L, Emmett M, Shearin A, Chu Q, Monks B, et al. The role of mouse Akt2 in insulin-dependent suppression of adipocyte lipolysis in vivo. Diabetologia. 2015;58:1063-70 pubmed publisher
    ..To address the requirement for Akt2, the predominant isoform expressed in classic insulin target tissues, in the suppression of fatty acid release in ..
  47. Perry R, Camporez J, Kursawe R, Titchenell P, Zhang D, Perry C, et al. Hepatic acetyl CoA links adipose tissue inflammation to hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Cell. 2015;160:745-758 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data identify WAT-derived hepatic acetyl CoA as the main regulator of HGP by insulin and link it to inflammation-induced hepatic insulin resistance associated with obesity and T2D. ..
  48. Schultze S, Dietrich M, Hynx D, Geier A, Niessen M, Spinas G, et al. Reduced hepatic lipid content in Pten-haplodeficient mice because of enhanced AKT2/PKB? activation in skeletal muscle. Liver Int. 2015;35:1354-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Pten-deficiency in mice was shown previously to result in hepatic steatosis due to hyperactivated AKT2. However, the role of peripheral insulin-sensitive tissues on PTEN- and AKT2-dependent accumulation of hepatic ..
  49. Li X, Monks B, Ge Q, Birnbaum M. Akt/PKB regulates hepatic metabolism by directly inhibiting PGC-1alpha transcription coactivator. Nature. 2007;447:1012-6 pubmed
    ..Here we describe a mechanism by which insulin, through the intermediary protein kinase Akt2/protein kinase B (PKB)-beta, elicits the phosphorylation and inhibition of the transcriptional coactivator ..
  50. Panasyuk G, Espeillac C, Chauvin C, Pradelli L, Horie Y, Suzuki A, et al. PPAR? contributes to PKM2 and HK2 expression in fatty liver. Nat Commun. 2012;3:672 pubmed publisher
    ..gamma expression, liver steatosis, shift to aerobic glycolysis and tumorigenesis are under the control of the Akt2 kinase in PTEN-null mouse livers...
  51. Restuccia D, Hynx D, Hemmings B. Loss of PKB?/Akt2 predisposes mice to ovarian cyst formation and increases the severity of polycystic ovary formation in vivo. Dis Model Mech. 2012;5:403-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that aged mice specifically lacking the PKB? (also known as Akt2) isoform that is crucial for insulin signaling develop increased testosterone levels and ovarian cysts, both of ..
  52. Calamito M, Juntilla M, Thomas M, Northrup D, Rathmell J, Birnbaum M, et al. Akt1 and Akt2 promote peripheral B-cell maturation and survival. Blood. 2010;115:4043-50 pubmed publisher
    ..in the bone marrow (BM) and periphery in chimeras established with fetal liver progenitors lacking Akt1 and/or Akt2. We found that the generation of marginal zone (MZ) and B1 B cells, 2 key sources of antibacterial antibodies, was ..
  53. Marques L, Thorsteinsdóttir S. Dynamics of Akt activation during mouse embryo development: distinct subcellular patterns distinguish proliferating versus differentiating cells. Differentiation. 2013;86:48-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus demonstrate a subcellular change in the pattern of Akt activation when skeletal muscle and neural progenitor cells cease dividing and progress in their differentiation programs. ..
  54. Tan Y, You H, Wu C, Altomare D, Testa J. Appl1 is dispensable for mouse development, and loss of Appl1 has growth factor-selective effects on Akt signaling in murine embryonic fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:6377-89 pubmed publisher
    ..PH), phosphotyrosine binding (PTB), and leucine zipper motifs) was first identified as a binding protein of AKT2 by yeast two-hybrid screening...
  55. Zhang B, Ma Y, Guo H, Sun B, Niu R, Ying G, et al. Akt2 is required for macrophage chemotaxis. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:894-901 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the role of PKB/Akt in CSF-1-induced macrophage migration. Disruption of Akt2 expression by small interference RNA impaired chemotaxis of both THP-1 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages...
  56. Nawa M, Matsuoka M. KCTD20, a relative of BTBD10, is a positive regulator of Akt. BMC Biochem. 2013;14:27 pubmed publisher
    ..KCTD20 was ubiquitously expressed in non-nervous as well as nervous tissues. KCTD20 is a positive regulator of Akt and may play an important role in regulating the death and growth of some non-nervous and nervous cells. ..
  57. Yun S, Tucker D, Kim E, Kim M, Do K, Ha J, et al. Differential regulation of Akt/protein kinase B isoforms during cell cycle progression. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:685-90 pubmed publisher
    ..lacking Akt1/PKBalpha showed an attenuated proliferation as well as G(1)/S transition, whereas cells lacking Akt2/PKBbeta showed normal proliferation and G(1)/S transition...
  58. Chatterjee S, Browning E, Hong N, Debolt K, Sorokina E, Liu W, et al. Membrane depolarization is the trigger for PI3K/Akt activation and leads to the generation of ROS. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012;302:H105-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Akt1 phosphorylation follows cell membrane depolarization and precedes the activation of NOX2. These results indicate that PI3K/Akt and PKC serve as mediators between endothelial cell membrane depolarization and NOX2 assembly. ..
  59. Dang F, Sun X, Ma X, Wu R, Zhang D, Chen Y, et al. Insulin post-transcriptionally modulates Bmal1 protein to affect the hepatic circadian clock. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12696 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal the molecular mechanism of insulin signalling in regulating peripheral circadian rhythms. ..
  60. Kofuji S, Kimura H, Nakanishi H, Nanjo H, Takasuga S, Liu H, et al. INPP4B Is a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 Phosphatase That Can Act as a Tumor Suppressor. Cancer Discov. 2015;5:730-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our biochemical data demonstrate that INPP4B directly dephosphorylates PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. ..
  61. Wang S, Denny T, Steinbrecher U, Duronio V. Phosphorylation of Bad is not essential for PKB-mediated survival signaling in hemopoietic cells. Apoptosis. 2005;10:341-8 pubmed
    ..One key question is whether the survival signaling effect of the PI 3-kinase pathway is mediated by PKB phosphorylation of Bad...
  62. Yokoyama K, Tezuka T, Kotani M, Nakazawa T, Hoshina N, Shimoda Y, et al. NYAP: a phosphoprotein family that links PI3K to WAVE1 signalling in neurons. EMBO J. 2011;30:4739-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the NYAPs activate PI3K and concomitantly recruit the downstream effector WAVE complex to the close vicinity of PI3K and regulate neuronal morphogenesis. ..
  63. Bhandaru M, Yang W, Rotte A, Pasham V, Lang F. Regulation of Na+/H+ exchanger in dendritic cells by Akt2. Pflugers Arch. 2012;463:355-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study explored the putative involvement of the Akt isoform Akt2. To this end, experiments were performed in DCs isolated from bone marrow of mice lacking functional Akt2/PKBß (..
  64. Arranz A, Doxaki C, Vergadi E, Martinez de la Torre Y, Vaporidi K, Lagoudaki E, et al. Akt1 and Akt2 protein kinases differentially contribute to macrophage polarization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:9517-22 pubmed publisher
    ..that Akt kinases differentially contribute to macrophage polarization, with Akt1 ablation giving rise to an M1 and Akt2 ablation resulting in an M2 phenotype...
  65. Tang H, Chen J, Fraidenburg D, Song S, Sysol J, Drennan A, et al. Deficiency of Akt1, but not Akt2, attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;308:L208-20 pubmed publisher
    ..littermates, Akt1(-/-) mice were protected against the development and progression of chronic HPH, whereas Akt2(-/-) mice did not demonstrate any significant protection against the development of HPH...
  66. Sasaoka T, Wada T, Fukui K, Murakami S, Ishihara H, Suzuki R, et al. SH2-containing inositol phosphatase 2 predominantly regulates Akt2, and not Akt1, phosphorylation at the plasma membrane in response to insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:14835-43 pubmed
    ..In this regard, following insulin stimulation, a proportion of Akt2, and not Akt1, appeared to redistribute from the cytosol to the PM...
  67. Kum W, Lo B, Yu H, Finlay B. Protective role of Akt2 in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium-induced gastroenterocolitis. Infect Immun. 2011;79:2554-66 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize the role of Akt2 in host defense against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, wild-type (WT) mice and mice lacking ..
  68. O Brien K, Gartner T, Hay N, Du X. ADP-stimulated activation of Akt during integrin outside-in signaling promotes platelet spreading by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3?. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:2232-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that integrin outside-in signaling and platelet spreading requires Src family kinase-dependent and ADP receptor-amplified activation of the PI3K-Akt-GSK-3? pathway. ..
  69. Nie Y, Sun L, Wu Y, Yang Y, Wang J, He H, et al. AKT2 Regulates Pulmonary Inflammation and Fibrosis via Modulating Macrophage Activation. J Immunol. 2017;198:4470-4480 pubmed publisher
    ..Although AKT2-mediated signaling pathways modulate inflammatory responses, their role in IPF has not been defined...
  70. Tsika R, Schramm C, Simmer G, Fitzsimons D, Moss R, Ji J. Overexpression of TEAD-1 in transgenic mouse striated muscles produces a slower skeletal muscle contractile phenotype. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:36154-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel in vivo data support a role for TEAD-1 in modulating slow muscle gene expression. ..
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