Gene Symbol: Akt1
Description: thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1
Alias: Akt, LTR-akt, PKB, PKB/Akt, PKBalpha, Rac, RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase, AKT1 kinase, Akt1m protein, PKB alpha, RAC-PK-alpha, protein kinase B-alpha, proto-oncogene c-AKT, related to A and C kinases, tumor rejection antigen peptide pRLib
Species: mouse
Products:     Akt1

Top Publications

  1. Liu X, Bruxvoort K, Zylstra C, Liu J, Cichowski R, Faugere M, et al. Lifelong accumulation of bone in mice lacking Pten in osteoblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:2259-64 pubmed
    ..phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), which enhances cell survival and antagonizes apoptosis through activation of Akt/PKB. This process is negatively regulated by the Pten phosphatase, which inhibits the activity of PI3K...
  2. Palamarchuk A, Efanov A, Maximov V, Aqeilan R, Croce C, Pekarsky Y. Akt phosphorylates and regulates Pdcd4 tumor suppressor protein. Cancer Res. 2005;65:11282-6 pubmed
    ..Pdcd4 also suppresses the transactivation of activator protein-1 (AP-1)-responsive promoters by c-Jun. The Akt (protein kinase B) serine/threonine kinase is a key mediator of phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway involved in the ..
  3. Calautti E, Li J, Saoncella S, Brissette J, Goetinck P. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling to Akt promotes keratinocyte differentiation versus death. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:32856-65 pubmed
    ..We show here that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is activated at early stages of mouse keratinocyte differentiation both in culture and in the intact ..
  4. Sumitani S, Goya K, Testa J, Kouhara H, Kasayama S. Akt1 and Akt2 differently regulate muscle creatine kinase and myogenin gene transcription in insulin-induced differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. Endocrinology. 2002;143:820-8 pubmed
    ..Heterologous expression of Akt1/PKB(alpha) potently suppressed MCK gene transcription without affecting myogenin gene transcription, whereas ..
  5. Humphrey S, Yang G, Yang P, Fazakerley D, Stöckli J, Yang J, et al. Dynamic adipocyte phosphoproteome reveals that Akt directly regulates mTORC2. Cell Metab. 2013;17:1009-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This led to the identification of an Akt substrate, SIN1, a core component of the mTORC2 complex...
  6. Watson K, Moorehead R. Loss of Akt1 or Akt2 delays mammary tumor onset and suppresses tumor growth rate in MTB-IGFIR transgenic mice. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:375 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there are three mammalian isoforms of Akt (Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3) and these isoforms regulate distinct physiologic properties within cells...
  7. Kovacina K, Park G, Bae S, Guzzetta A, Schaefer E, Birnbaum M, et al. Identification of a proline-rich Akt substrate as a 14-3-3 binding partner. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:10189-94 pubmed
    ..of an inducible Akt was alone sufficient to stimulate the phosphorylation of PRAS40; and 3) cells lacking Akt1 and Akt2 exhibit a diminished ability to phosphorylate this protein...
  8. Nawa M, Kanekura K, Hashimoto Y, Aiso S, Matsuoka M. A novel Akt/PKB-interacting protein promotes cell adhesion and inhibits familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutant SOD1-induced neuronal death via inhibition of PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of Akt/PKB. Cell Signal. 2008;20:493-505 pubmed
    Akt/Protein Kinase B (PKB) family proteins (Akts), consisting of Akt1, 2, and 3, play a crucial role in multiple biological processes...
  9. Albinsson S, Suarez Y, Skoura A, Offermanns S, Miano J, Sessa W. MicroRNAs are necessary for vascular smooth muscle growth, differentiation, and function. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:1118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Dicer-dependent miRNAs are important for VSM development and function by regulating proliferation and contractile differentiation. ..

More Information

Publications106 found, 100 shown here

  1. Balu D, Carlson G, Talbot K, Kazi H, Hill Smith T, Easton R, et al. Akt1 deficiency in schizophrenia and impairment of hippocampal plasticity and function. Hippocampus. 2012;22:230-40 pubmed publisher
    Genetic studies have associated deficient function of the serine/threonine kinase Akt1 with schizophrenia...
  2. Yecies J, Zhang H, Menon S, Liu S, Yecies D, Lipovsky A, et al. Akt stimulates hepatic SREBP1c and lipogenesis through parallel mTORC1-dependent and independent pathways. Cell Metab. 2011;14:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These phenotypes result from attenuation of Akt signaling driven by mTORC1-dependent insulin resistance...
  3. Sakoda H, Gotoh Y, Katagiri H, Kurokawa M, Ono H, Onishi Y, et al. Differing roles of Akt and serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase in glucose metabolism, DNA synthesis, and oncogenic activity. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25802-7 pubmed
    ..Serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK) is a serine kinase that has a catalytic domain homologous to that of Akt, but lacks the pleckstrin homology domain present in Akt...
  4. Burchfield J, Lennard A, Narasimhan S, Hughes W, Wasinger V, Corthals G, et al. Akt mediates insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Ndrg2: evidence for cross-talk with protein kinase C theta. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:18623-32 pubmed
    The protein kinase Akt mediates several metabolic and mitogenic effects of insulin, whereas activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms has been implicated in the inhibition of insulin action...
  5. DeBosch B, Sambandam N, Weinheimer C, Courtois M, Muslin A. Akt2 regulates cardiac metabolism and cardiomyocyte survival. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:32841-51 pubmed
    ..All three known Akt family members, Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3, are expressed in the myocardium, although Akt1 and Akt2 are most abundant...
  6. Facchinetti V, Ouyang W, Wei H, Soto N, Lazorchak A, Gould C, et al. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 controls folding and stability of Akt and protein kinase C. EMBO J. 2008;27:1932-43 pubmed publisher
    ..we demonstrate that mTOR, SIN1 and rictor, components of mammalian (m)TORC2, are required for phosphorylation of Akt and conventional protein kinase C (PKC) at the turn motif (TM) site...
  7. Lin J, Li P, Snook A, Schulz S, Dasgupta A, Hyslop T, et al. The hormone receptor GUCY2C suppresses intestinal tumor formation by inhibiting AKT signaling. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:241-54 pubmed publisher
    ..and signaling were examined, and the role of AKT in GUCY2C-dependent tumorigenesis was defined in Gucy2c(-/-)Akt1(-/-) mice...
  8. Bae S, Cho H, Mu J, Birnbaum M. Isoform-specific regulation of insulin-dependent glucose uptake by Akt/protein kinase B. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:49530-6 pubmed
    ..Partial clarification derived from the observation that mice deficient in either of the two isoforms, Akt1/PKBalpha or Akt2/PKBbeta, demonstrate distinct abnormalities, i.e...
  9. Emamian E, Hall D, Birnbaum M, Karayiorgou M, Gogos J. Convergent evidence for impaired AKT1-GSK3beta signaling in schizophrenia. Nat Genet. 2004;36:131-7 pubmed
    ..Specifically, we present convergent evidence for a decrease in AKT1 protein levels and levels of phosphorylation of GSK3beta at Ser9 in the peripheral lymphocytes and brains of ..
  10. Woulfe D, Jiang H, Morgans A, Monks R, Birnbaum M, Brass L. Defects in secretion, aggregation, and thrombus formation in platelets from mice lacking Akt2. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:441-50 pubmed
    ..Two isoforms of Akt were detected in mouse platelets, with expression of Akt2 being greater than Akt1. Deletion of the gene encoding Akt2 impaired platelet aggregation, fibrinogen binding, and granule secretion, ..
  11. Xie L, Overbeek P, Reneker L. Ras signaling is essential for lens cell proliferation and lens growth during development. Dev Biol. 2006;298:403-14 pubmed
    ..Biochemical analysis indicated that ERK activity, but not Akt activity, was significantly reduced in the dn-Ras transgenic lenses...
  12. Dummler B, Tschopp O, Hynx D, Yang Z, Dirnhofer S, Hemmings B. Life with a single isoform of Akt: mice lacking Akt2 and Akt3 are viable but display impaired glucose homeostasis and growth deficiencies. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:8042-51 pubmed
    ..In these mice, only the Akt1 isoform remains to perform essential Akt functions, such as glucose homeostasis, proliferation, differentiation, ..
  13. Ju X, Katiyar S, Wang C, Liu M, Jiao X, Li S, et al. Akt1 governs breast cancer progression in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7438-43 pubmed
    The serine threonine kinase Akt1 has been implicated in the control of cellular metabolism, survival and growth...
  14. Ulici V, Hoenselaar K, Agoston H, McErlain D, Umoh J, Chakrabarti S, et al. The role of Akt1 in terminal stages of endochondral bone formation: angiogenesis and ossification. Bone. 2009;45:1133-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In this current study, we aimed to investigate the role of Akt1, an important target of PI3K, in endochondral ossification...
  15. Grashoff C, Aszodi A, Sakai T, Hunziker E, Fassler R. Integrin-linked kinase regulates chondrocyte shape and proliferation. EMBO Rep. 2003;4:432-8 pubmed
    ..and kinases, and is thought to stimulate downstream signalling events through phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt (Pkb/Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3-beta)...
  16. Papaiahgari S, Zhang Q, Kleeberger S, Cho H, Reddy S. Hyperoxia stimulates an Nrf2-ARE transcriptional response via ROS-EGFR-PI3K-Akt/ERK MAP kinase signaling in pulmonary epithelial cells. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006;8:43-52 pubmed
    ..Because phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling promotes cell survival, the significance of this pathway in mediating reactive oxygen species (ROS)-..
  17. Riobo N, Lu K, Ai X, Haines G, Emerson C. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt are essential for Sonic Hedgehog signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4505-10 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent Akt activation is essential for Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling in the specification of neuronal fates in chicken neural ..
  18. Wang H, Karikomi M, Naidu S, Rajmohan R, Caserta E, Chen H, et al. Allele-specific tumor spectrum in pten knockin mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5142-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the variable tumor phenotypes observed in patients with Cowden and BRR syndromes can be attributed to specific mutations in PTEN that alter protein function through distinct mechanisms...
  19. Tu Q, Zhang J, Dong L, Saunders E, Luo E, Tang J, et al. Adiponectin inhibits osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption via APPL1-mediated suppression of Akt1. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:12542-53 pubmed publisher
    ..we found that the inhibitory effect of adiponectin on osteoclasts was induced by APPL1-mediated down-regulation of Akt1 activity...
  20. Stiles B, Gilman V, Khanzenzon N, Lesche R, Li A, Qiao R, et al. Essential role of AKT-1/protein kinase B alpha in PTEN-controlled tumorigenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:3842-51 pubmed
    ..Activation of AKT is a common event in tumors in which the PTEN gene has been inactivated...
  21. Fujita N, Sato S, Katayama K, Tsuruo T. Akt-dependent phosphorylation of p27Kip1 promotes binding to 14-3-3 and cytoplasmic localization. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28706-13 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of serine/threonine kinase Akt signaling by some pharmacological agents or by PTEN induces G(1) arrest, in part by up-regulating p27(Kip1)...
  22. Tsujita Y, Muraski J, Shiraishi I, Kato T, Kajstura J, Anversa P, et al. Nuclear targeting of Akt antagonizes aspects of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:11946-51 pubmed
    The serine/threonine kinase Akt regulates cellular survival, proliferation, gene transcription, protein translation, metabolism, and differentiation...
  23. Bayascas J, Wullschleger S, Sakamoto K, García Martínez J, Clacher C, Komander D, et al. Mutation of the PDK1 PH domain inhibits protein kinase B/Akt, leading to small size and insulin resistance. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:3258-72 pubmed publisher
    PDK1 activates a group of kinases, including protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K), and serum and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase (SGK), that mediate many of the effects of insulin as well as other agonists...
  24. Chen W, Peng X, Wang Y, Xu P, Chen M, Luo Y, et al. Leptin deficiency and beta-cell dysfunction underlie type 2 diabetes in compound Akt knockout mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3151-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Haplodeficiency of Akt1 in Akt2(-/-) mice, however, converts prediabetes to overt type 2 diabetes, which is also reversed by ..
  25. Ho C, Wang C, Mattu S, Destefanis G, Ladu S, Delogu S, et al. AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) and N-Ras (neuroblastoma ras viral oncogene homolog) coactivation in the mouse liver promotes rapid carcinogenesis by way of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1), FOXM1 (forkhead box M1)/S. Hepatology. 2012;55:833-45 pubmed publisher
    Activation of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) and Ras pathways is often implicated in carcinogenesis...
  26. Cho H, Thorvaldsen J, Chu Q, Feng F, Birnbaum M. Akt1/PKBalpha is required for normal growth but dispensable for maintenance of glucose homeostasis in mice. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:38349-52 pubmed
    ..Here we show that mice deficient in another closely related isoform of the kinase, Akt1/PKBalpha, display a conspicuous impairment in organismal growth...
  27. Hammerman P, Fox C, Birnbaum M, Thompson C. Pim and Akt oncogenes are independent regulators of hematopoietic cell growth and survival. Blood. 2005;105:4477-83 pubmed
    The Akt kinases promote hematopoietic cell growth and accumulation through phosphorylation of apoptotic effectors and stimulation of mTOR-dependent translation...
  28. Zhong J, Li X, McNamee C, Chen A, Baccarini M, Snider W. Raf kinase signaling functions in sensory neuron differentiation and axon growth in vivo. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:598-607 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Raf function is crucial for several aspects of DRG neuron development, including differentiation and axon growth. ..
  29. Brown C, LaRocca J, Pietruska J, Ota M, Anderson L, Smith S, et al. Subfertility caused by altered follicular development and oocyte growth in female mice lacking PKB alpha/Akt1. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:246-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority of ovarian follicles, including the oocytes, undergo atresia through apoptotic cell death. As PKB alpha/Akt1 is known to regulate apoptosis, we asked whether Akt1 functioned in the regulation of folliculogenesis in ..
  30. Shiraishi I, Melendez J, Ahn Y, Skavdahl M, Murphy E, Welch S, et al. Nuclear targeting of Akt enhances kinase activity and survival of cardiomyocytes. Circ Res. 2004;94:884-91 pubmed
    ..Previous studies using membrane-targeted Akt (myristolated-Akt), an enzyme involved in antiapoptotic signaling, showed inhibition of cell death and prevention ..
  31. Harrington L, Findlay G, Gray A, Tolkacheva T, Wigfield S, Rebholz H, et al. The TSC1-2 tumor suppressor controls insulin-PI3K signaling via regulation of IRS proteins. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:213-23 pubmed
    ..Our results argue that the low malignant potential of tumors arising from TSC1-2 dysfunction may be explained by the failure of TSC mutant cells to activate PI3K and its downstream effectors. ..
  32. Easton R, Cho H, Roovers K, Shineman D, Mizrahi M, Forman M, et al. Role for Akt3/protein kinase Bgamma in attainment of normal brain size. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:1869-78 pubmed
    ..In mammals, three highly conserved proteins, Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3, comprise the Akt family, of which the first two are required for normal growth and metabolism, ..
  33. Phung T, Ziv K, Dabydeen D, Eyiah Mensah G, Riveros M, Perruzzi C, et al. Pathological angiogenesis is induced by sustained Akt signaling and inhibited by rapamycin. Cancer Cell. 2006;10:159-70 pubmed
    Endothelial cells in growing tumors express activated Akt, which when modeled by transgenic endothelial expression of myrAkt1 was sufficient to recapitulate the abnormal structural and functional features of tumor blood vessels in ..
  34. Ben Zaken O, Gingis Velitski S, Vlodavsky I, Ilan N. Heparanase induces Akt phosphorylation via a lipid raft receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;361:829-34 pubmed
    ..Among these is the induction of Akt/PKB phosphorylation noted in endothelial- and tumor-derived cells...
  35. Maroulakou I, Oemler W, Naber S, Klebba I, Kuperwasser C, Tsichlis P. Distinct roles of the three Akt isoforms in lactogenic differentiation and involution. J Cell Physiol. 2008;217:468-77 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, ablation of Akt1 inhibits and ablation of Akt2 accelerates mammary tumor development by both oncogenes, while ablation of Akt3 is ..
  36. Chen J, Tang H, Hay N, Xu J, Ye R. Akt isoforms differentially regulate neutrophil functions. Blood. 2010;115:4237-46 pubmed publisher
    ..between the 2 major Akt isoforms in neutrophil activation on the basis of studies in which we used individual Akt1 and Akt2 knockout mice...
  37. Goncalves M, Pistilli E, Balduzzi A, Birnbaum M, Lachey J, Khurana T, et al. Akt deficiency attenuates muscle size and function but not the response to ActRIIB inhibition. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12707 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we hypothesized that mice deficient in either Akt1 or Akt2 would not respond to in vivo inhibition of ActRIIB with ActRIIB-mFc treatment.
  38. Ackah E, Yu J, Zoellner S, Iwakiri Y, Skurk C, Shibata R, et al. Akt1/protein kinase Balpha is critical for ischemic and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:2119-27 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the genetic loss of Akt1, but not Akt2, in mice results in defective ischemia and VEGF-induced angiogenesis as well as severe peripheral ..
  39. Granado M, Gangoiti P, Ouro A, Arana L, Gonzalez M, Trueba M, et al. Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) promotes cell migration Involvement of a specific C1P receptor. Cell Signal. 2009;21:405-12 pubmed publisher
    ..and causes phosphorylation of extracellularly regulated kinases 1 and 2, and protein kinase B (also known as Akt) upon ligation with C1P...
  40. Madakashira B, Kobrinski D, Hancher A, Arneman E, Wagner B, Wang F, et al. Frs2? enhances fibroblast growth factor-mediated survival and differentiation in lens development. Development. 2012;139:4601-12 pubmed publisher
    ..cells express numerous RTKs with the ability to initiate the phosphorylation (activation) of Erk1/2 and PI3-K/Akt signaling...
  41. Biggs W, Meisenhelder J, Hunter T, Cavenee W, Arden K. Protein kinase B/Akt-mediated phosphorylation promotes nuclear exclusion of the winged helix transcription factor FKHR1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:7421-6 pubmed
    ..Protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt, a key mediator of PI3 kinase signal transduction, phosphorylated recombinant FKHR1 in vitro at threonine-24 and ..
  42. Peng X, Xu P, Chen M, Hahn Windgassen A, Skeen J, Jacobs J, et al. Dwarfism, impaired skin development, skeletal muscle atrophy, delayed bone development, and impeded adipogenesis in mice lacking Akt1 and Akt2. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1352-65 pubmed
    To elucidate the functions of the serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB in vivo, we generated mice lacking both akt1 and akt2 genes. Akt1/Akt2 double-knockout (DKO) mice exhibit severe growth deficiency and die shortly after birth...
  43. Somanath P, Chen J, Byzova T. Akt1 is necessary for the vascular maturation and angiogenesis during cutaneous wound healing. Angiogenesis. 2008;11:277-88 pubmed publisher
    Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that Akt1 serves as a crucial regulator of vascular maturation, extracellular matrix composition, and angiogenesis in tumors...
  44. Flores A, Narayanan S, Morse E, Shick H, Yin X, Kidd G, et al. Constitutively active Akt induces enhanced myelination in the CNS. J Neurosci. 2008;28:7174-83 pubmed publisher
    The serine/threonine kinase Akt regulates multiple cellular functions. The current studies identify a new role for Akt in CNS myelination...
  45. Dillon R, Marcotte R, Hennessy B, Woodgett J, Mills G, Muller W. Akt1 and akt2 play distinct roles in the initiation and metastatic phases of mammary tumor progression. Cancer Res. 2009;69:5057-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous studies have shown that coexpression of activated Akt1 with activated ErbB2 or polyoma virus middle T antigen uncoupled from the PI3K pathway (PyVmT Y315/322F) ..
  46. Xiang B, Zhang G, Liu J, Morris A, Smyth S, Gartner T, et al. A G(i) -independent mechanism mediating Akt phosphorylation in platelets. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:2032-41 pubmed publisher
    The serine-threonine kinase Akt plays an important role in regulating platelet activation. Stimulation of platelets with various agonists results in Akt activation as indicated by Akt phosphorylation...
  47. Laine J, Künstle G, Obata T, Sha M, Noguchi M. The protooncogene TCL1 is an Akt kinase coactivator. Mol Cell. 2000;6:395-407 pubmed
    ..In yeast two-hybrid screening, we found that TCL1 interacts with Akt. All TCL1 isoforms bind to the Akt pleckstrin homology domain...
  48. Yang Z, Tschopp O, Baudry A, Dummler B, Hynx D, Hemmings B. Physiological functions of protein kinase B/Akt. Biochem Soc Trans. 2004;32:350-4 pubmed
    ..During the past few years, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of PKB (protein kinase B)/Akt have been generated and investigated...
  49. Zhou G, Tucker D, Bae S, Bhatheja K, Birnbaum M, Field J. Opposing roles for Akt1 and Akt2 in Rac/Pak signaling and cell migration. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:36443-53 pubmed
    The Akt/PKB isoforms have different roles in animals, with Akt2 primarily regulating metabolic signaling and Akt1 regulating growth and survival...
  50. Cotter L, Ozcelik M, Jacob C, Pereira J, Locher V, Baumann R, et al. Dlg1-PTEN interaction regulates myelin thickness to prevent damaging peripheral nerve overmyelination. Science. 2010;328:1415-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, the Dlg1 brake is no longer functional in a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Therefore, negative regulation of myelination appears to be essential for optimization of nerve conduction velocity and myelin maintenance. ..
  51. Khwaja A. Akt is more than just a Bad kinase. Nature. 1999;401:33-4 pubmed
  52. Kunkel M, Ni Q, Tsien R, Zhang J, Newton A. Spatio-temporal dynamics of protein kinase B/Akt signaling revealed by a genetically encoded fluorescent reporter. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:5581-7 pubmed
    The serine/threonine kinase protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt is a critical regulator of insulin signaling, cell survival, and oncogenesis. The activation mechanisms of this key kinase are well characterized...
  53. Katsanakis K, Pillay T. Cross-talk between the two divergent insulin signaling pathways is revealed by the protein kinase B (Akt)-mediated phosphorylation of adapter protein APS on serine 588. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:37827-32 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have identified APS as a novel substrate for protein kinase B/Akt using an antibody that exhibits insulin-dependent immunoreactivity with a phosphospecific antibody raised against ..
  54. Guertin D, Stevens D, Thoreen C, Burds A, Kalaany N, Moffat J, et al. Ablation in mice of the mTORC components raptor, rictor, or mLST8 reveals that mTORC2 is required for signaling to Akt-FOXO and PKCalpha, but not S6K1. Dev Cell. 2006;11:859-71 pubmed
    ..raptor-mTOR, interaction, and both mLST8 and rictor are required for the hydrophobic motif phosphorylation of Akt/PKB and PKCalpha, but not S6K1...
  55. Juntilla M, Wofford J, Birnbaum M, Rathmell J, Koretzky G. Akt1 and Akt2 are required for alphabeta thymocyte survival and differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12105-10 pubmed
    ..In this study, we explore the role of the two Akt isoforms most highly expressed in the thymus, Akt1 and Akt2, in early T cell development...
  56. Peter A, Ko C, Kim M, Hsu N, Ouchi N, Rhie S, et al. Myogenic Akt signaling upregulates the utrophin-glycoprotein complex and promotes sarcolemma stability in muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:318-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that myogenic Akt signaling in mouse models of dystrophy promotes increased expression of utrophin, which replaces the function of ..
  57. Di R, Wu X, Chang Z, Zhao X, Feng Q, Lu S, et al. S6K inhibition renders cardiac protection against myocardial infarction through PDK1 phosphorylation of Akt. Biochem J. 2012;441:199-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of PDK1 (phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1) and Akt1/3 abolished cardioprotection after MI in the presence of rapamycin administration...
  58. Jones R, Parsons M, Bonnard M, Chan V, Yeh W, Woodgett J, et al. Protein kinase B regulates T lymphocyte survival, nuclear factor kappaB activation, and Bcl-X(L) levels in vivo. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1721-34 pubmed
    The serine/threonine kinase protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt mediates cell survival in a variety of systems...
  59. Schwertfeger K, Richert M, Anderson S. Mammary gland involution is delayed by activated Akt in transgenic mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2001;15:867-81 pubmed
    Activation of the antiapoptotic protein kinase Akt is induced by a number of growth factors that regulate mammary gland development. Akt is expressed during mammary gland development, and expression decreases at the onset of involution...
  60. Sun J, Phung T, Shiojima I, Felske T, Upalakalin J, Feng D, et al. Microvascular patterning is controlled by fine-tuning the Akt signal. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:128-33 pubmed
    We investigated the functions of Akt during vascular development and remodeling by using an inducible endothelial cell-specific driver of the dominant-active myrAkt...
  61. Beaulieu J, Sotnikova T, Marion S, Lefkowitz R, Gainetdinov R, Caron M. An Akt/beta-arrestin 2/PP2A signaling complex mediates dopaminergic neurotransmission and behavior. Cell. 2005;122:261-73 pubmed
    ..Here we show that D2 class-receptor-mediated Akt regulation involves the formation of signaling complexes containing beta-arrestin 2, PP2A, and Akt...
  62. Zhang H, Lipovsky A, Dibble C, Sahin M, Manning B. S6K1 regulates GSK3 under conditions of mTOR-dependent feedback inhibition of Akt. Mol Cell. 2006;24:185-97 pubmed
    Feedback inhibition of the PI3K-Akt pathway by the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) has emerged as an important signaling event in tumor syndromes, cancer, and insulin resistance...
  63. Maroulakou I, Oemler W, Naber S, Tsichlis P. Akt1 ablation inhibits, whereas Akt2 ablation accelerates, the development of mammary adenocarcinomas in mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-ErbB2/neu and MMTV-polyoma middle T transgenic mice. Cancer Res. 2007;67:167-77 pubmed
    ..The effects of ablation of Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3 on the induction and the biology of these tumors were dramatically different, with ablation of Akt1 ..
  64. Haxhinasto S, Mathis D, Benoist C. The AKT-mTOR axis regulates de novo differentiation of CD4+Foxp3+ cells. J Exp Med. 2008;205:565-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify AKT as a strong repressor of entry into the T reg phenotype in vitro and in vivo...
  65. Calmont A, Wandzioch E, Tremblay K, Minowada G, Kaestner K, Martin G, et al. An FGF response pathway that mediates hepatic gene induction in embryonic endoderm cells. Dev Cell. 2006;11:339-48 pubmed
    ..The finding of separate pathways for endoderm tissue specification and growth provides insights for guiding cellular regeneration and stem cell differentiation. ..
  66. Izumiya Y, Hopkins T, Morris C, Sato K, Zeng L, Viereck J, et al. Fast/Glycolytic muscle fiber growth reduces fat mass and improves metabolic parameters in obese mice. Cell Metab. 2008;7:159-72 pubmed publisher
    ..we generated a skeletal muscle-specific, conditional transgenic mouse expressing a constitutively active form of Akt1. Transgene activation led to muscle hypertrophy due to the growth of type IIb muscle fibers, which was accompanied ..
  67. Jacobs S, Herman C, Maciver N, Wofford J, Wieman H, Hammen J, et al. Glucose uptake is limiting in T cell activation and requires CD28-mediated Akt-dependent and independent pathways. J Immunol. 2008;180:4476-86 pubmed
    ..To further examine the regulation of glucose uptake, we analyzed CD28 activation of Akt, which appeared necessary for maximal glucose uptake of stimulated cells and which we have shown can promote Glut1 ..
  68. Byon C, Javed A, Dai Q, Kappes J, Clemens T, Darley Usmar V, et al. Oxidative stress induces vascular calcification through modulation of the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2 by AKT signaling. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:15319-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of H2O2-activated AKT signaling blocked VSMC calcification and Runx2 induction concurrently. This blockage did not cause VSMC apoptosis...
  69. Huang J, Dibble C, Matsuzaki M, Manning B. The TSC1-TSC2 complex is required for proper activation of mTOR complex 2. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4104-15 pubmed publisher
    ..mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) phosphorylates S6K1, while mTORC2 phosphorylates Akt. The TSC1-TSC2 complex is a critical negative regulator of mTORC1...
  70. Larance M, Rowland A, Hoehn K, Humphreys D, Preiss T, Guilhaus M, et al. Global phosphoproteomics identifies a major role for AKT and 14-3-3 in regulating EDC3. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010;9:682-94 pubmed publisher
    ..and many of the underlying biochemical pathways are regulated via the canonical phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway...
  71. Bae G, Lee J, Kim B, Han J, Leem Y, Lee H, et al. Cdo interacts with APPL1 and activates Akt in myoblast differentiation. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2399-411 pubmed publisher
    ..Cdo activates p38MAPK via interaction with two scaffold proteins JLP and Bnip-2 to promote myogenesis. p38MAPK and Akt signaling are required for myogenic differentiation and activation of both signaling pathways is crucial for ..
  72. Mounir Z, Krishnamoorthy J, Wang S, Papadopoulou B, Campbell S, Muller W, et al. Akt determines cell fate through inhibition of the PERK-eIF2? phosphorylation pathway. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra62 pubmed publisher
    ..of eIF2? in mammalian cells after either pharmacological inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway or genetic or small interfering RNA-mediated ablation of Akt...
  73. Cong L, Chen H, Li Y, Zhou L, McGibbon M, Taylor S, et al. Physiological role of Akt in insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4 in transfected rat adipose cells. Mol Endocrinol. 1997;11:1881-90 pubmed
    ..b>Akt is a serine-threonine kinase recently identified as a direct downstream target of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase...
  74. Kane S, Sano H, Liu S, Asara J, Lane W, Garner C, et al. A method to identify serine kinase substrates. Akt phosphorylates a novel adipocyte protein with a Rab GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22115-8 pubmed
    ..This method was applied to the identification of substrates for the protein kinase Akt, which specifically phosphorylates the RXRXXS/T motif...
  75. Chen J, De S, Damron D, Chen W, Hay N, Byzova T. Impaired platelet responses to thrombin and collagen in AKT-1-deficient mice. Blood. 2004;104:1703-10 pubmed
    We investigated the role of Akt-1, one of the major downstream effectors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), in platelet function using mice in which the gene for Akt-1 had been inactivated...
  76. Ganesan L, Wei G, Pengal R, Moldovan L, Moldovan N, Ostrowski M, et al. The serine/threonine kinase Akt Promotes Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis in murine macrophages through the activation of p70S6 kinase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:54416-25 pubmed
    ..We and others have previously reported that Akt is phosphorylated in response to Fc gamma R clustering...
  77. Blaauw B, Mammucari C, Toniolo L, Agatea L, Abraham R, Sandri M, et al. Akt activation prevents the force drop induced by eccentric contractions in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:3686-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Using inducible transgenesis in mice, we show that when Akt activity is increased the force drop induced by eccentric contractions in mdx mice becomes similar to that of wild-..
  78. Yang W, Wang J, Chan C, Lee S, Campos A, Lamothe B, et al. The E3 ligase TRAF6 regulates Akt ubiquitination and activation. Science. 2009;325:1134-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Akt signaling plays a central role in many biological functions, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis...
  79. Hagiwara A, Cornu M, Cybulski N, Polak P, Betz C, Trapani F, et al. Hepatic mTORC2 activates glycolysis and lipogenesis through Akt, glucokinase, and SREBP1c. Cell Metab. 2012;15:725-38 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) phosphorylates and activates AGC kinase family members, including Akt, SGK1, and PKC, in response to insulin/IGF1. The liver is a key organ in insulin-mediated regulation of metabolism...
  80. Chen C, Stairs D, Boxer R, Belka G, Horseman N, Alvarez J, et al. Autocrine prolactin induced by the Pten-Akt pathway is required for lactation initiation and provides a direct link between the Akt and Stat5 pathways. Genes Dev. 2012;26:2154-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Conditional activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway in the mammary glands of virgin mice by either Akt1 expression or Pten deletion rapidly induced terminal mammary epithelial differentiation accompanied by the ..
  81. Takahashi A, Kureishi Y, Yang J, Luo Z, Guo K, Mukhopadhyay D, et al. Myogenic Akt signaling regulates blood vessel recruitment during myofiber growth. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:4803-14 pubmed
    ..VEGF synthesis were specifically inhibited by the transduction of a dominant-negative mutant of the Akt1 serine-threonine protein kinase...
  82. Di Poï N, Tan N, Michalik L, Wahli W, Desvergne B. Antiapoptotic role of PPARbeta in keratinocytes via transcriptional control of the Akt1 signaling pathway. Mol Cell. 2002;10:721-33 pubmed
    ..We show herein that PPARbeta modulates Akt1 activation via transcriptional upregulation of ILK and PDK1, revealing a mechanism for the control of Akt1 ..
  83. Trotman L, Niki M, Dotan Z, Koutcher J, Di Cristofano A, Xiao A, et al. Pten dose dictates cancer progression in the prostate. PLoS Biol. 2003;1:E59 pubmed
    ..The dose of Pten affects key downstream targets such as Akt, p27(Kip1), mTOR, and FOXO3...
  84. Sugatani T, Hruska K. Akt1/Akt2 and mammalian target of rapamycin/Bim play critical roles in osteoclast differentiation and survival, respectively, whereas Akt is dispensable for cell survival in isolated osteoclast precursors. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3583-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Akt1/Akt2 play a critical role in osteoclast differentiation but not cell survival and that mammalian target of ..
  85. Dogra C, Changotra H, Wergedal J, Kumar A. Regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle in response to mechanical stretch. J Cell Physiol. 2006;208:575-85 pubmed
    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling pathways play a critical role in mediating survival signals...
  86. Chang R, Wang E. Mouse translation elongation factor eEF1A-2 interacts with Prdx-I to protect cells against apoptotic death induced by oxidative stress. J Cell Biochem. 2007;100:267-78 pubmed
    ..is correlated with reduced activation of caspases 3 and 8, and with increased expression of pro-survival factor Akt. Thus, our results suggest that eEF1A-2 interacts with Prdx-I to functionally provide cells with extraordinary ..
  87. Mao C, Tili E, Dose M, Haks M, Bear S, Maroulakou I, et al. Unequal contribution of Akt isoforms in the double-negative to double-positive thymocyte transition. J Immunol. 2007;178:5443-53 pubmed
    ..pre-TCR signals activate Akt and that pharmacological inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway, or combined ablation of Akt1 and Akt2, and to a lesser extent Akt1 and Akt3, interfere with the differentiation of DN3 and the accumulation of ..
  88. Kawamura N, Kugimiya F, Oshima Y, Ohba S, Ikeda T, Saito T, et al. Akt1 in osteoblasts and osteoclasts controls bone remodeling. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1058 pubmed
    ..This study initially showed that the disruption of Akt1, a major Akt in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, in mice led to low-turnover osteopenia through dysfunctions of both ..
  89. Fernandez Hernando C, Ackah E, Yu J, Suarez Y, Murata T, Iwakiri Y, et al. Loss of Akt1 leads to severe atherosclerosis and occlusive coronary artery disease. Cell Metab. 2007;6:446-57 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the genetic ablation of Akt1 on an apolipoprotein E knockout background (ApoE(-/-)Akt1(-/-)) increases aortic lesion expansion and promotes ..
  90. Humphrey R, Yu S, Flores L, Jhala U. Glucose regulates steady-state levels of PDX1 via the reciprocal actions of GSK3 and AKT kinases. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:3406-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucose-stimulated activation of AKT and inhibition of GSK3 decrease PDX1 phosphorylation and delay degradation...
  91. DeBosch B, Treskov I, Lupu T, Weinheimer C, Kovacs A, Courtois M, et al. Akt1 is required for physiological cardiac growth. Circulation. 2006;113:2097-104 pubmed
    ..that includes the protein kinase Akt regulates the growth and survival of many cell types, but the precise role of Akt1 in either form of cardiac hypertrophy is unknown...
  92. Boxer R, Stairs D, Dugan K, Notarfrancesco K, Portocarrero C, Keister B, et al. Isoform-specific requirement for Akt1 in the developmental regulation of cellular metabolism during lactation. Cell Metab. 2006;4:475-90 pubmed
    ..By evaluating mice bearing targeted deletions in Akt1 or Akt2, we demonstrate that Akt1 is specifically required for lactating mice to synthesize sufficient quantities ..