Aim2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Aim2
Description: absent in melanoma 2
Alias: Gm1313, Ifi210, interferon-inducible protein AIM2, ifi-210, interferon-inducible protein 210, interferon-inducible protein p210
Species: mouse
Products:     Aim2

Top Publications

  1. Brunette R, Young J, Whitley D, Brodsky I, Malik H, Stetson D. Extensive evolutionary and functional diversity among mammalian AIM2-like receptors. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1969-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Certain members of the AIM2-like receptor (ALR) gene family contribute to each of these pathways, but most ALRs remain uncharacterized...
  2. Warren S, Armstrong A, Hamilton M, Mao D, Leaf I, Miao E, et al. Cutting edge: Cytosolic bacterial DNA activates the inflammasome via Aim2. J Immunol. 2010;185:818-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We now use biochemical and genetic approaches to demonstrate that the third detector senses bacterial DNA and identify it as Aim2, a receptor that has previously been shown to detect viral DNA.
  3. Fernandes Alnemri T, Yu J, Datta P, Wu J, Alnemri E. AIM2 activates the inflammasome and cell death in response to cytoplasmic DNA. Nature. 2009;458:509-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The nature of the cytoplasmic-DNA-sensing inflammasome is currently unknown. Here we show that AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2), an interferon-inducible HIN-200 family member that contains an amino-terminal pyrin domain ..
  4. Rathinam V, Jiang Z, Waggoner S, Sharma S, Cole L, Waggoner L, et al. The AIM2 inflammasome is essential for host defense against cytosolic bacteria and DNA viruses. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:395-402 pubmed publisher
    Inflammasomes regulate the activity of caspase-1 and the maturation of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-18. AIM2 has been shown to bind DNA and engage the caspase-1-activating adaptor protein ASC to form a caspase-1-activating ..
  5. Roberts T, Idris A, Dunn J, Kelly G, Burnton C, Hodgson S, et al. HIN-200 proteins regulate caspase activation in response to foreign cytoplasmic DNA. Science. 2009;323:1057-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, the related pyrin domain-containing HIN-200 factor, AIM2 (p210), was required for caspase activation by cytoplasmic dsDNA...
  6. Sauer J, Witte C, Zemansky J, Hanson B, Lauer P, Portnoy D. Listeria monocytogenes triggers AIM2-mediated pyroptosis upon infrequent bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;7:412-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Nlrp3 and Nlrc4 inflammasome receptors but dependent on the inflammasome adaptor ASC and the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2. Importantly, wild-type L...
  7. Kayagaki N, Warming S, Lamkanfi M, Vande Walle L, Louie S, Dong J, et al. Non-canonical inflammasome activation targets caspase-11. Nature. 2011;479:117-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight a unique pro-inflammatory role for caspase-11 in the innate immune response to clinically significant bacterial infections. ..
  8. Hornung V, Ablasser A, Charrel Dennis M, Bauernfeind F, Horvath G, Caffrey D, et al. AIM2 recognizes cytosolic dsDNA and forms a caspase-1-activating inflammasome with ASC. Nature. 2009;458:514-8 pubmed publisher
    ..cells, here we identify the PYHIN (pyrin and HIN domain-containing protein) family member absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) as a receptor for cytosolic DNA, which regulates caspase-1...
  9. Pierini R, Juruj C, Perret M, Jones C, Mangeot P, Weiss D, et al. AIM2/ASC triggers caspase-8-dependent apoptosis in Francisella-infected caspase-1-deficient macrophages. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:1709-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Caspase-1 causes pyroptosis, a necrotic-like cell death. AIM2 is an inflammasome sensor for cytosolic DNA. The adaptor molecule ASC mediates AIM2-dependent caspase-1 activation...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Shi C, Shenderov K, Huang N, Kabat J, Abu Asab M, Fitzgerald K, et al. Activation of autophagy by inflammatory signals limits IL-1β production by targeting ubiquitinated inflammasomes for destruction. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:255-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the induction of AIM2 or NLRP3 inflammasomes in macrophages triggered activation of the G protein RalB and autophagosome formation...
  2. Nakahira K, Haspel J, Rathinam V, Lee S, Dolinay T, Lam H, et al. Autophagy proteins regulate innate immune responses by inhibiting the release of mitochondrial DNA mediated by the NALP3 inflammasome. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:222-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that autophagic proteins regulate NALP3-dependent inflammation by preserving mitochondrial integrity. ..
  3. Jones J, Kayagaki N, Broz P, Henry T, Newton K, O Rourke K, et al. Absent in melanoma 2 is required for innate immune recognition of Francisella tularensis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9771-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that macrophages from mice lacking absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) cannot sense cytosolic double-stranded DNA and fail to trigger inflammasome assembly...
  4. Fernandes Alnemri T, Yu J, Juliana C, Solorzano L, Kang S, Wu J, et al. The AIM2 inflammasome is critical for innate immunity to Francisella tularensis. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Using mice deficient in the DNA-sensing inflammasome component AIM2, we demonstrate here that AIM2 is required for sensing F. tularensis...
  5. Tsuchiya K, Hara H, Kawamura I, Nomura T, Yamamoto T, Daim S, et al. Involvement of absent in melanoma 2 in inflammasome activation in macrophages infected with Listeria monocytogenes. J Immunol. 2010;185:1186-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate the role of absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), a recently described receptor of cytosolic DNA, in the activation of caspase-1 upon infection with L...
  6. Panchanathan R, Duan X, Shen H, Rathinam V, Erickson L, Fitzgerald K, et al. Aim2 deficiency stimulates the expression of IFN-inducible Ifi202, a lupus susceptibility murine gene within the Nba2 autoimmune susceptibility locus. J Immunol. 2010;185:7385-93 pubmed publisher
    Murine Aim2 and p202 proteins (encoded by the Aim2 and Ifi202 genes) are members of the IFN-inducible p200 protein family. Both proteins can sense dsDNA in the cytoplasm...
  7. Schattgen S, Gao G, Kurt Jones E, Fitzgerald K. Cutting Edge: DNA in the Lung Microenvironment during Influenza Virus Infection Tempers Inflammation by Engaging the DNA Sensor AIM2. J Immunol. 2016;196:29-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The released DNA, in turn, was sensed by the DNA receptor absent in melanoma 2. Aim2(-/-) mice showed similarly exaggerated immune responses to IAV...
  8. Suschak J, Wang S, Fitzgerald K, Lu S. Identification of Aim2 as a sensor for DNA vaccines. J Immunol. 2015;194:630-6 pubmed publisher
    ..signaling molecules in the innate immune system, the current study investigated the role of absent in melanoma 2 (Aim2) as a sensor for DNA vaccines...
  9. Periasamy S, Le H, Duffy E, Chin H, Harton J. Inflammasome-Independent NLRP3 Restriction of a Protective Early Neutrophil Response to Pulmonary Tularemia. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12:e1006059 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that both in vitro macrophage and in vivo IL-1? and IL-18 responses to Ft LVS and SchuS4 involve both the Aim2 and Nlrp3 inflammasomes...
  10. Furrer A, Hottiger M, Valaperti A. Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) limits pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription in cardiomyocytes by inhibiting STAT1 phosphorylation. Mol Immunol. 2016;74:47-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) is an IFN-inducible protein implicated as a component of the inflammasome...
  11. Wenzel M, Wunderlich M, Besch R, Poeck H, Willms S, Schwantes A, et al. Cytosolic DNA triggers mitochondrial apoptosis via DNA damage signaling proteins independently of AIM2 and RNA polymerase III. J Immunol. 2012;188:394-403 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA or infection with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) can trigger cell death via the absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome...
  12. Wilson J, Petrucelli A, Chen L, Koblansky A, Truax A, Oyama Y, et al. Inflammasome-independent role of AIM2 in suppressing colon tumorigenesis via DNA-PK and Akt. Nat Med. 2015;21:906-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome is activated by double-stranded DNA, and AIM2 expression is reduced in several types of cancer, but ..
  13. Kim M, Chae J, Park Y, De Nardo D, Stirzaker R, Ko H, et al. Aberrant actin depolymerization triggers the pyrin inflammasome and autoinflammatory disease that is dependent on IL-18, not IL-1β. J Exp Med. 2015;212:927-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, perturbation of actin polymerization by pathogens was shown to activate the pyrin inflammasome, so our data now extend this guard hypothesis to host-regulated actin-dependent processes and autoinflammatory disease. ..
  14. Kalantari P, Deoliveira R, Chan J, Corbett Y, Rathinam V, Stutz A, et al. Dual engagement of the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes by plasmodium-derived hemozoin and DNA during malaria. Cell Rep. 2014;6:196-210 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, infected erythrocytes activated both the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes...
  15. Mohammadi N, Midiri A, Mancuso G, Patanè F, Venza M, Venza I, et al. Neutrophils Directly Recognize Group B Streptococci and Contribute to Interleukin-1? Production during Infection. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0160249 pubmed publisher
    ..These cells directly recognize GBS by means of endosomal TLRs and cytosolic sensors, leading to activation of the caspase-1 inflammasome. ..
  16. Gray E, Winship D, Snyder J, Child S, Geballe A, Stetson D. The AIM2-like Receptors Are Dispensable for the Interferon Response to Intracellular DNA. Immunity. 2016;45:255-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple DNA sensors have been proposed to activate this pathway, including AIM2-like receptors (ALRs). Whether the ALRs are essential for activation of this pathway remains unknown...
  17. Zhang H, Luo J, Alcorn J, Chen K, Fan S, Pilewski J, et al. AIM2 Inflammasome Is Critical for Influenza-Induced Lung Injury and Mortality. J Immunol. 2017;198:4383-4393 pubmed publisher
    The absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome plays an important role in many viral and bacterial infections, but very little is known about its role in RNA virus infection, including influenza A virus (IAV)...
  18. Yang Y, Zhou X, Kouadir M, Shi F, Ding T, Liu C, et al. the AIM2 inflammasome is involved in macrophage activation during infection with virulent Mycobacterium bovis strain. J Infect Dis. 2013;208:1849-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism by which macrophages become activated and secrete IL-1? in tuberculosis has not yet been elucidated...
  19. Wu J, Fernandes Alnemri T, Alnemri E. Involvement of the AIM2, NLRC4, and NLRP3 inflammasomes in caspase-1 activation by Listeria monocytogenes. J Clin Immunol. 2010;30:693-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have used macrophages from AIM2-, NLRC4-, NLRP3-, and ASC-deficient mice to demonstrate that AIM2, NLRC4, and NLRP3 inflammasomes as well as the ..
  20. Ulland T, Janowski A, Buchan B, Faron M, CASSEL S, Jones B, et al. Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain folate metabolism and pseudouridine synthase gene mutants modulate macrophage caspase-1 activation. Infect Immun. 2013;81:201-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Escape of F. tularensis from the phagosome into the cytosol of the macrophage triggers the activation of the AIM2 inflammasome through a mechanism that is not well understood...
  21. Yin Q, Sester D, Tian Y, Hsiao Y, Lu A, Cridland J, et al. Molecular mechanism for p202-mediated specific inhibition of AIM2 inflammasome activation. Cell Rep. 2013;4:327-39 pubmed publisher
    ..p202 containing two hemopoietic expression, interferon inducibility, nuclear localization (HIN) domains antagonizes AIM2 inflammasome signaling and potentially modifies lupus susceptibility...
  22. Wang H, Yang L, Niu X. Conformation switching of AIM2 PYD domain revealed by NMR relaxation and MD simulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;473:636-41 pubmed publisher
    Protein absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a double-strand DNA (ds DNA) sensor mainly located in cytoplasm of cell. It includes one N terminal PYD domain and one C terminal HIN domain...
  23. Wallet P, Benaoudia S, Mosnier A, Lagrange B, Martin A, Lindgren H, et al. IFN-? extends the immune functions of Guanylate Binding Proteins to inflammasome-independent antibacterial activities during Francisella novicida infection. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006630 pubmed publisher
    ..GBPs have been functionally linked to the NLRP3, the AIM2 and the caspase-11 inflammasomes...
  24. Ratsimandresy R, Indramohan M, Dorfleutner A, Stehlik C. The AIM2 inflammasome is a central regulator of intestinal homeostasis through the IL-18/IL-22/STAT3 pathway. Cell Mol Immunol. 2017;14:127-142 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the inflammasome sensor absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) protects against colorectal cancer in an inflammasome-independent manner through DNA-dependent protein kinase and ..
  25. Swanson K, Junkins R, Kurkjian C, Holley Guthrie E, Pendse A, El Morabiti R, et al. A noncanonical function of cGAMP in inflammasome priming and activation. J Exp Med. 2017;214:3611-3626 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, when combined with a priming signal, cGAMP activates the inflammasome through an AIM2, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 dependent process...
  26. Jakobs C, Perner S, Hornung V. AIM2 Drives Joint Inflammation in a Self-DNA Triggered Model of Chronic Polyarthritis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0131702 pubmed publisher
    ..To this end, we studied the role of the DNA-sensing inflammasome receptor AIM2 in this self-DNA driven disease model...
  27. Kuriakose T, Man S, Subbarao Malireddi R, Karki R, Kesavardhana S, Place D, et al. ZBP1/DAI is an innate sensor of influenza virus triggering the NLRP3 inflammasome and programmed cell death pathways. Sci Immunol. 2016;1:aag2045 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these findings indicate that ZBP1 is an innate immune sensor of IAV and highlight its importance in the pathogenesis of IAV infection. ..
  28. Liu C, Yue R, Yang Y, Cui Y, Yang L, Zhao D, et al. AIM2 inhibits autophagy and IFN-? production during M. bovis infection. Oncotarget. 2016;7:46972-46987 pubmed publisher
    Mycobacteria can trigger the AIM2 inflammasome, autophagy activation and type-I interferon release, which are both activated by cytosolic DNA. We have recently demonstrated that activation of the AIM2 inflammasome during M...
  29. Shimada K, Crother T, Karlin J, Dagvadorj J, Chiba N, Chen S, et al. Oxidized mitochondrial DNA activates the NLRP3 inflammasome during apoptosis. Immunity. 2012;36:401-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a missing link between apoptosis and inflammasome activation, via binding of cytosolic oxidized mtDNA to the NLRP3 inflammasome. ..
  30. Denes A, Coutts G, Lénárt N, Cruickshank S, Pelegrin P, Skinner J, et al. AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammasomes contribute with ASC to acute brain injury independently of NLRP3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:4050-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, using a rodent model of stroke, we show that the NLRC4 (NLR family, CARD domain containing 4) and AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2) inflammasomes contribute to brain injury...
  31. Saiga H, Kitada S, Shimada Y, Kamiyama N, Okuyama M, Makino M, et al. Critical role of AIM2 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Int Immunol. 2012;24:637-44 pubmed
    Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a sensor of cytosolic DNA that is responsible for activation of the inflammasome and host immune responses to DNA viruses and intracellular bacteria...
  32. Qi X, Man S, Malireddi R, Karki R, Lupfer C, Gurung P, et al. Cathepsin B modulates lysosomal biogenesis and host defense against Francisella novicida infection. J Exp Med. 2016;213:2081-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identified a fundamental biological function of cathepsin B in providing a checkpoint for homeostatic maintenance of lysosome populations and basic recycling functions in the cell. ..
  33. Hu B, Jin C, Li H, Tong J, Ouyang X, Cetinbas N, et al. The DNA-sensing AIM2 inflammasome controls radiation-induced cell death and tissue injury. Science. 2016;354:765-768 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that mice deficient in the double-stranded DNA sensor AIM2 are protected from both subtotal body irradiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome and total body irradiation-..
  34. Elinav E, Strowig T, Kau A, Henao Mejia J, Thaiss C, Booth C, et al. NLRP6 inflammasome regulates colonic microbial ecology and risk for colitis. Cell. 2011;145:745-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, perturbations in this inflammasome pathway, including NLRP6, ASC, caspase-1, and IL-18, may constitute a predisposing or initiating event in some cases of human IBD. ..
  35. Yao Y, Chen S, Cao M, Fan X, Yang T, Huang Y, et al. Antigen-specific CD8+ T cell feedback activates NLRP3 inflammasome in antigen-presenting cells through perforin. Nat Commun. 2017;8:15402 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals a positive feedback loop between antigen-specific CTLs and APC to amplify adaptive immunity. ..
  36. Panchanathan R, Shen H, Duan X, Rathinam V, Erickson L, Fitzgerald K, et al. Aim2 deficiency in mice suppresses the expression of the inhibitory Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaRIIB) through the induction of the IFN-inducible p202, a lupus susceptibility protein. J Immunol. 2011;186:6762-70 pubmed publisher
    Murine Aim2 and Ifi202 genes (encoding for the Aim2 and p202 proteins) are members of the IFN-inducible Ifi200 gene family...
  37. Panchanathan R, Liu H, Liu H, Fang C, Erickson L, Pitha P, et al. Distinct regulation of murine lupus susceptibility genes by the IRF5/Blimp-1 axis. J Immunol. 2012;188:270-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the murine lupus susceptibility locus Nba2 includes the IFN-regulated genes Ifi202 (encoding for the p202 protein), Aim2 (encoding for the Aim2 protein), and Fcgr2b (encoding for the Fc?RIIB receptor), we investigated whether the IRF5/..
  38. Creasey E, Isberg R. The protein SdhA maintains the integrity of the Legionella-containing vacuole. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3481-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This vacuolar niche affords the bacterium protection from cytosolic host factors that degrade bacteria and initiate immune responses...
  39. Yang D, He Y, Muñoz Planillo R, Liu Q, Núñez G. Caspase-11 Requires the Pannexin-1 Channel and the Purinergic P2X7 Pore to Mediate Pyroptosis and Endotoxic Shock. Immunity. 2015;43:923-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a critical role for pannexin-1 and P2X7 downstream of caspase-11 for pyroptosis and susceptibility to sepsis induced by the noncanonical inflammasome. ..
  40. Liu Z, Zaki M, Vogel P, Gurung P, Finlay B, Deng W, et al. Role of inflammasomes in host defense against Citrobacter rodentium infection. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:16955-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, production of IL-1? and IL-18 downstream of the Nlrp3 and Nlrc4 inflammasomes plays a critical role in host defense against enteric infections caused by C. rodentium...
  41. Ge J, Gong Y, Xu Y, Shao F. Preventing bacterial DNA release and absent in melanoma 2 inflammasome activation by a Legionella effector functioning in membrane trafficking. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:6193-8 pubmed publisher
    ..activation phenotypes were independent of the established flagellin-NAIP5-NLRC4 axis, but relied on the DNA-sensing AIM2 inflammasome...
  42. Sung M, Watts T, Li P. Crystallographic characterization of mouse AIM2 HIN-200 domain bound to a 15 bp and an 18 bp double-stranded DNA. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2012;68:1081-4 pubmed publisher
    b>AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2) is an innate immune receptor for cytosolic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The engagement of dsDNA by AIM2 activates the AIM2 inflammasome, resulting in the cleavage of pro-interleukin-1? by caspase-1...
  43. Dang E, McDonald J, Russell D, Cyster J. Oxysterol Restraint of Cholesterol Synthesis Prevents AIM2 Inflammasome Activation. Cell. 2017;171:1057-1071.e11 pubmed publisher
    ..by macrophages is required to prevent inflammasome activation by the DNA sensor protein absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2)...
  44. Pan J, Lu L, Wang X, Liu D, Tian J, Liu H, et al. AIM2 regulates vascular smooth muscle cell migration in atherosclerosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;497:401-409 pubmed publisher
    ..Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), a member of HIN-200 family, plays an important role in activating inflammasome...
  45. Pan J, Han L, Guo J, Wang X, Liu D, Tian J, et al. AIM2 accelerates the atherosclerotic plaque progressions in ApoE-/- mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;498:487-494 pubmed publisher
    ..Pyroptosis is a newly discovered form of programmed cell death. Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), a member of the HIN-200 protein family, plays an important role in activating inflammasomes...
  46. Di Micco A, Frera G, Lugrin J, Jamilloux Y, Hsu E, Tardivel A, et al. AIM2 inflammasome is activated by pharmacological disruption of nuclear envelope integrity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E4671-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, deficiency of the cytosolic DNA-sensor AIM2 impaired Nelfinavir-mediated inflammasome activation...
  47. Christo S, Bachhuka A, Diener K, Vasilev K, Hayball J. The contribution of inflammasome components on macrophage response to surface nanotopography and chemistry. Sci Rep. 2016;6:26207 pubmed publisher
    ..BMDM) were harvested from genetically engineered mice deficient in the inflammasome components ASC, NLRP3 and AIM2. These cells were then cultured on these nanoengineered substrata and assessed for their capacity to attach and ..
  48. Hu G, Song P, Li N, Chen W, Lei Q, Yu S, et al. AIM2 contributes to the maintenance of intestinal integrity via Akt and protects against Salmonella mucosal infection. Mucosal Immunol. 2016;9:1330-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We herein demonstrate that Absent in melanoma-2 (AIM2) contributes to the maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity and defense against bacterial infection...
  49. Shah S, Bohsali A, Ahlbrand S, Srinivasan L, Rathinam V, Vogel S, et al. Cutting edge: Mycobacterium tuberculosis but not nonvirulent mycobacteria inhibits IFN-? and AIM2 inflammasome-dependent IL-1? production via its ESX-1 secretion system. J Immunol. 2013;191:3514-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is puzzling that this extracellular DNA of M. tuberculosis does not induce activation of the AIM2 inflammasome because AIM2 recognizes cytosolic DNA...
  50. Kayagaki N, Wong M, Stowe I, Ramani S, Gonzalez L, Akashi Takamura S, et al. Noncanonical inflammasome activation by intracellular LPS independent of TLR4. Science. 2013;341:1246-9 pubmed publisher
    ..coli LPS. These data unveil a TLR4-independent mechanism for innate immune recognition of LPS. ..
  51. Ru H, Ni X, Zhao L, CROWLEY C, Ding W, Hung L, et al. Structural basis for termination of AIM2-mediated signaling by p202. Cell Res. 2013;23:855-8 pubmed publisher
  52. Belhocine K, Monack D. Francisella infection triggers activation of the AIM2 inflammasome in murine dendritic cells. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:71-80 pubmed publisher
    ..escapes the initial phagosome and replicates in the cytosol, where it is detected by the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2 leading to activation of the AIM2 inflammasome...
  53. Kailasan Vanaja S, Rathinam V, Atianand M, Kalantari P, Skehan B, Fitzgerald K, et al. Bacterial RNA:DNA hybrids are activators of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:7765-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings identify RNA:DNA hybrids of bacterial origin as a unique microbial trigger of the NLRP3 inflammasome. ..