Aicda

Summary

Gene Symbol: Aicda
Description: activation-induced cytidine deaminase
Alias: Aid, Arp2, single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminase, activation induced deaminase, cytidine aminohydrolase
Species: mouse
Products:     Aicda

Top Publications

  1. Arakawa H, Saribasak H, Buerstedde J. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase initiates immunoglobulin gene conversion and hypermutation by a common intermediate. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E179 pubmed
    Depending on the species and the lymphoid organ, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression triggers diversification of the rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) genes by pseudo V (psiV) gene- templated gene conversion or somatic ..
  2. Callen E, Jankovic M, Difilippantonio S, Daniel J, Chen H, Celeste A, et al. ATM prevents the persistence and propagation of chromosome breaks in lymphocytes. Cell. 2007;130:63-75 pubmed
    ..Silencing this checkpoint permits DNA ends produced by V(D)J recombination in a lymphoid precursor to serve as substrates for translocations with chromosomes subsequently damaged by other means in mature cells. ..
  3. Shivarov V, Shinkura R, Honjo T. Dissociation of in vitro DNA deamination activity and physiological functions of AID mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15866-71 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for the DNA cleavage that initiates both somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) of the Ig gene...
  4. Chesi M, Robbiani D, Sebag M, Chng W, Affer M, Tiedemann R, et al. AID-dependent activation of a MYC transgene induces multiple myeloma in a conditional mouse model of post-germinal center malignancies. Cancer Cell. 2008;13:167-80 pubmed publisher
    By misdirecting the activity of Activation-Induced Deaminase (AID) to a conditional MYC transgene, we have achieved sporadic, AID-dependent MYC activation in germinal center B cells of Vk*MYC mice...
  5. Victora G, Dominguez Sola D, Holmes A, Deroubaix S, Dalla Favera R, Nussenzweig M. Identification of human germinal center light and dark zone cells and their relationship to human B-cell lymphomas. Blood. 2012;120:2240-8 pubmed publisher
  6. Kotani A, Kakazu N, Tsuruyama T, Okazaki I, Muramatsu M, Kinoshita K, et al. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) promotes B cell lymphomagenesis in Emu-cmyc transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:1616-20 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which is essential to both class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation of the Ig gene, is expressed in many types of human B cell lymphoma/leukemia...
  7. Kumazaki K, Tirosh B, Maehr R, Boes M, Honjo T, Ploegh H. AID-/-mus-/- mice are agammaglobulinemic and fail to maintain B220-CD138+ plasma cells. J Immunol. 2007;178:2192-203 pubmed
    ..To address this issue, we generated activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)/secretory mu-chain (mus) double-knockout mice, in which a normally diverse repertoire of B cell receptors is ..
  8. Kuraoka M, Holl T, Liao D, Womble M, Cain D, Reynolds A, et al. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase mediates central tolerance in B cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11560-5 pubmed publisher
    The Aicda gene product, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), initiates somatic hypermutation, class-switch recombination, and gene conversion of Ig genes by the deamination of deoxycytidine, followed by error-prone mismatch- or ..
  9. Kuraoka M, Liao D, Yang K, Allgood S, Levesque M, Kelsoe G, et al. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression and activity in the absence of germinal centers: insights into hyper-IgM syndrome. J Immunol. 2009;183:3237-48 pubmed publisher
    Somatic hypermutation normally occurs as a consequence of the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) by Ag-activated, mature B cells during T cell-dependent germinal center responses...

More Information

Publications95

  1. Rush J, Fugmann S, Schatz D. Staggered AID-dependent DNA double strand breaks are the predominant DNA lesions targeted to S mu in Ig class switch recombination. Int Immunol. 2004;16:549-57 pubmed
    ..breaks (dsbs), and that formation of these dsbs requires the function of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)...
  2. Morgan H, Dean W, Coker H, Reik W, Petersen Mahrt S. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase deaminates 5-methylcytosine in DNA and is expressed in pluripotent tissues: implications for epigenetic reprogramming. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52353-60 pubmed
    DNA deaminases of the Aid/Apobec family convert cytosine into uracil and play key roles in acquired and innate immunity...
  3. Yadav A, Olaru A, Saltis M, Setren A, Cerny J, Livak F. Identification of a ubiquitously active promoter of the murine activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) gene. Mol Immunol. 2006;43:529-41 pubmed
    ..recombination of immunoglobulin genes are dependent on the presence of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) enzyme. AICDA expression is restricted to activated B-lymphocytes in the germinal centers...
  4. Klemm L, Duy C, Iacobucci I, Kuchen S, von Levetzow G, Feldhahn N, et al. The B cell mutator AID promotes B lymphoid blast crisis and drug resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia. Cancer Cell. 2009;16:232-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that LBC but not CML cells express the B cell-specific mutator enzyme AID. We demonstrate that AID expression in CML cells promotes overall genetic instability by hypermutation of tumor ..
  5. Pasqualucci L, Bhagat G, Jankovic M, Compagno M, Smith P, Muramatsu M, et al. AID is required for germinal center-derived lymphomagenesis. Nat Genet. 2008;40:108-12 pubmed
    ..5,6) with mice lacking activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), the enzyme required for both CSR and SHM...
  6. Shen H, Tanaka A, Bozek G, Nicolae D, Storb U. Somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in Msh6(-/-)Ung(-/-) double-knockout mice. J Immunol. 2006;177:5386-92 pubmed
    ..hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) are initiated by activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID)...
  7. Hasham M, Donghia N, Coffey E, Maynard J, Snow K, Ames J, et al. Widespread genomic breaks generated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase are prevented by homologous recombination. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:820-6 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for somatic hypermutation and immunoglobulin class switching in activated B cells...
  8. Uchimura Y, Barton L, Rada C, Neuberger M. REG-? associates with and modulates the abundance of nuclear activation-induced deaminase. J Exp Med. 2011;208:2385-91 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) acts on the immunoglobulin loci in activated B lymphocytes to initiate antibody gene diversification...
  9. Zan H, Zhang J, Ardeshna S, Xu Z, Park S, Casali P. Lupus-prone MRL/faslpr/lpr mice display increased AID expression and extensive DNA lesions, comprising deletions and insertions, in the immunoglobulin locus: concurrent upregulation of somatic hypermutation and class switch DNA recombination. Autoimmunity. 2009;42:89-103 pubmed publisher
    ..including increased dG/dC transitions, increased targeting of the RGYW/WRCY mutational hotspot and the WGCW AID-targeting hotspot...
  10. Hasham M, Snow K, Donghia N, Branca J, Lessard M, Stavnezer J, et al. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase-initiated off-target DNA breaks are detected and resolved during S phase. J Immunol. 2012;189:2374-82 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the IgH gene (Igh) to stimulate isotype class switch recombination (CSR), and widespread breaks in non-Igh (off-target) loci throughout the genome...
  11. Metzner M, Schuh W, Roth E, Jack H, Wabl M. Two forms of activation-induced cytidine deaminase differing in their ability to bind agarose. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8883 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a B-cell-specific DNA mutator that plays a key role in the formation of the secondary antibody repertoire in germinal center B cells...
  12. Haddad D, Oruc Z, Puget N, Laviolette Malirat N, Philippe M, Carrion C, et al. Sense transcription through the S region is essential for immunoglobulin class switch recombination. EMBO J. 2011;30:1608-20 pubmed publisher
    ..highly repetitive sequences called switch (S) regions and is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)...
  13. Robert I, Dantzer F, Reina San Martin B. Parp1 facilitates alternative NHEJ, whereas Parp2 suppresses IgH/c-myc translocations during immunoglobulin class switch recombination. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1047-56 pubmed publisher
    ..class switch recombination (CSR) is initiated by DNA breaks triggered by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). These breaks activate DNA damage response proteins to promote appropriate repair and long-range recombination...
  14. Pone E, Zhang J, Mai T, White C, Li G, Sakakura J, et al. BCR-signalling synergizes with TLR-signalling for induction of AID and immunoglobulin class-switching through the non-canonical NF-?B pathway. Nat Commun. 2012;3:767 pubmed publisher
    ..and enhances the TLR-dependent canonical NF-?B pathway, thereby inducing activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which is critical for class switch DNA recombination...
  15. Bhutani N, Decker M, Brady J, Bussat R, Burns D, Corbel S, et al. A critical role for AID in the initiation of reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells. FASEB J. 2013;27:1107-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use an acute loss of function approach to demonstrate that activation-induced deaminase (AID) activity is necessary for the initiation of reprogramming to iPSCs...
  16. Van Maldegem F, Jibodh R, van Dijk R, Bende R, van Noesel C. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase splice variants are defective because of the lack of structural support for the catalytic site. J Immunol. 2010;184:2487-91 pubmed publisher
    Recently, conflicting results were reported on the hypermutation activity of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) splice variants...
  17. Yoshikawa K, Okazaki I, Eto T, Kinoshita K, Muramatsu M, Nagaoka H, et al. AID enzyme-induced hypermutation in an actively transcribed gene in fibroblasts. Science. 2002;296:2033-6 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a putative RNA-editing enzyme, is indispensable for somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch recombination, and gene conversion of immunoglobulin genes, which indicates a common molecular ..
  18. Doi T, Kato L, Ito S, Shinkura R, Wei M, Nagaoka H, et al. The C-terminal region of activation-induced cytidine deaminase is responsible for a recombination function other than DNA cleavage in class switch recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:2758-63 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an essential factor for the class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of Ig genes...
  19. Shinkura R, Ito S, Begum N, Nagaoka H, Muramatsu M, Kinoshita K, et al. Separate domains of AID are required for somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:707-12 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM). Mutants with changes in the C-terminal region of AID retain SHM but lose CSR activity...
  20. Okazaki I, Okawa K, Kobayashi M, Yoshikawa K, Kawamoto S, Nagaoka H, et al. Histone chaperone Spt6 is required for class switch recombination but not somatic hypermutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:7920-5 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is shown to be essential and sufficient to induce two genetic alterations in the Ig loci: class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM)...
  21. Muramatsu M, Kinoshita K, Fagarasan S, Yamada S, Shinkai Y, Honjo T. Class switch recombination and hypermutation require activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a potential RNA editing enzyme. Cell. 2000;102:553-63 pubmed
    Induced overexpression of AID in CH12F3-2 B lymphoma cells augmented class switching from IgM to IgA without cytokine stimulation...
  22. Takizawa M, Tolarová H, Li Z, DuBois W, Lim S, Callen E, et al. AID expression levels determine the extent of cMyc oncogenic translocations and the incidence of B cell tumor development. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1949-57 pubmed publisher
    ..event that changes the constant domain of antibody genes and is catalyzed by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)...
  23. Rush J, Liu M, Odegard V, Unniraman S, Schatz D. Expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase is regulated by cell division, providing a mechanistic basis for division-linked class switch recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:13242-7 pubmed
    ..In contrast, expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mRNA was found to increase with successive divisions, exhibiting a striking correlation with the frequency of CSR...
  24. Fagarasan S, Muramatsu M, Suzuki K, Nagaoka H, Hiai H, Honjo T. Critical roles of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in the homeostasis of gut flora. Science. 2002;298:1424-7 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) plays an essential role in class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin genes...
  25. Han J, Akira S, Calame K, Beutler B, Selsing E, Imanishi Kari T. Class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation in early mouse B cells are mediated by B cell and Toll-like receptors. Immunity. 2007;27:64-75 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for immunoglobulin (Ig) gene class switch recombination (CSR), somatic hypermutation (SHM), and somatic hyperconversion...
  26. Wojciechowski W, Harris D, Sprague F, Mousseau B, Makris M, Kusser K, et al. Cytokine-producing effector B cells regulate type 2 immunity to H. polygyrus. Immunity. 2009;30:421-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that B cells mediate protection from pathogens not only by presenting antigen and secreting antibody but also by producing cytokines that regulate the quality and magnitude of humoral and cellular immune responses...
  27. McBride K, Gazumyan A, Woo E, Schwickert T, Chait B, Nussenzweig M. Regulation of class switch recombination and somatic mutation by AID phosphorylation. J Exp Med. 2008;205:2585-94 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a mutator enzyme that initiates somatic mutation and class switch recombination in B lymphocytes by introducing uracil:guanine mismatches into DNA...
  28. Pauklin S, Sernández I, Bachmann G, Ramiro A, Petersen Mahrt S. Estrogen directly activates AID transcription and function. J Exp Med. 2009;206:99-111 pubmed publisher
    ..During a healthy immune response, activation-induced deaminase (AID) deaminates cytosines at immunoglobulin (Ig) loci, initiating somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch ..
  29. Xue K, Rada C, Neuberger M. The in vivo pattern of AID targeting to immunoglobulin switch regions deduced from mutation spectra in msh2-/- ung-/- mice. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2085-94 pubmed
    ..by deamination of C-->U within the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus, catalyzed by activation-induced deaminase (AID)...
  30. Geisberger R, Rada C, Neuberger M. The stability of AID and its function in class-switching are critically sensitive to the identity of its nuclear-export sequence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6736-41 pubmed publisher
    The carboxyterminal region of activation-induced deaminase (AID) is required for its function in Ig class switch recombination (CSR) and also contains a nuclear-export sequence (NES)...
  31. Papavasiliou F, Schatz D. The activation-induced deaminase functions in a postcleavage step of the somatic hypermutation process. J Exp Med. 2002;195:1193-8 pubmed
    ..the two reactions has been suggested by the finding that both require the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). It has been proposed that AID initiates both CSR and SHM by activating a common nuclease...
  32. Hsu H, Wu Y, Yang P, Wu Q, Job G, Chen J, et al. Overexpression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in B cells is associated with production of highly pathogenic autoantibodies. J Immunol. 2007;178:5357-65 pubmed
    ..that, in the BXD2 mouse model of autoimmune disease, elevated expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in recirculating follicular CD86(+) subsets of B cells and increased germinal center B cell activity are ..
  33. Conticello S, Ganesh K, Xue K, Lu M, Rada C, Neuberger M. Interaction between antibody-diversification enzyme AID and spliceosome-associated factor CTNNBL1. Mol Cell. 2008;31:474-84 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) deaminates deoxycytidine residues in immunoglobulin genes, triggering antibody diversification...
  34. Cheng H, Vuong B, Basu U, Franklin A, Schwer B, Astarita J, et al. Integrity of the AID serine-38 phosphorylation site is critical for class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:2717-22 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a single-stranded (ss) DNA-specific cytidine deaminase that initiates Ig heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) and Ig somatic hypermutation (SHM) by deaminating cytidines within,..
  35. Chen L, Guo L, Tian J, Zheng B, Han S. Deficiency in activation-induced cytidine deaminase promotes systemic autoimmunity in lpr mice on a C57BL/6 background. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;159:169-75 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) is a prerequisite for immunoglobulin (Ig) class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation, which is critical for antibody affinity maturation...
  36. Robbiani D, Bunting S, Feldhahn N, Bothmer A, Camps J, Deroubaix S, et al. AID produces DNA double-strand breaks in non-Ig genes and mature B cell lymphomas with reciprocal chromosome translocations. Mol Cell. 2009;36:631-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) produces widespread somatic mutation in mature B cells; however, the extent of "off-target" DSB ..
  37. Ronai D, Iglesias Ussel M, Fan M, Li Z, Martin A, Scharff M. Detection of chromatin-associated single-stranded DNA in regions targeted for somatic hypermutation. J Exp Med. 2007;204:181-90 pubmed
    ..Both SHM and CSR are initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which deaminates deoxycytidine to deoxyuridine in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)...
  38. Arioka Y, Watanabe A, Saito K, Yamada Y. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase alters the subcellular localization of Tet family proteins. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45031 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deminase (Aid), a unique enzyme that deaminates cytosine in DNA, shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm...
  39. Hakim O, Resch W, Yamane A, Klein I, Kieffer Kwon K, Jankovic M, et al. DNA damage defines sites of recurrent chromosomal translocations in B lymphocytes. Nature. 2012;484:69-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, non-targeted rearrangements reflect nuclear organization whereas DNA break formation governs the location and frequency of recurrent translocations, including those driving B-cell malignancies. ..
  40. Zaheen A, Boulianne B, Parsa J, Ramachandran S, Gommerman J, Martin A. AID constrains germinal center size by rendering B cells susceptible to apoptosis. Blood. 2009;114:547-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the GC, the B cell-specific enzyme, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), mutates the immunoglobulin locus, thereby altering binding affinity for antigen...
  41. Okazaki I, Kinoshita K, Muramatsu M, Yoshikawa K, Honjo T. The AID enzyme induces class switch recombination in fibroblasts. Nature. 2002;416:340-5 pubmed
    ..Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a putative RNA-editing cytidine deaminase, is expressed strictly in activated B cells and is indispensable in ..
  42. Wang L, Wuerffel R, Feldman S, Khamlichi A, Kenter A. S region sequence, RNA polymerase II, and histone modifications create chromatin accessibility during class switch recombination. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1817-30 pubmed publisher
    ..promoters to activate transcription and modulate chromatin accessibility to activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)...
  43. Doi T, Kinoshita K, Ikegawa M, Muramatsu M, Honjo T. De novo protein synthesis is required for the activation-induced cytidine deaminase function in class-switch recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:2634-8 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for class-switch recombination (CSR), somatic hypermutation, and gene conversion of Ig genes...
  44. Liu M, Schatz D. Balancing AID and DNA repair during somatic hypermutation. Trends Immunol. 2009;30:173-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The reaction is initiated by cytosine deamination of Ig loci by activation induced deaminase (AID) and is completed by error-prone DNA repair enzyme processing of AID-generated uracils...
  45. Chaudhuri J, Khuong C, Alt F. Replication protein A interacts with AID to promote deamination of somatic hypermutation targets. Nature. 2004;430:992-8 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a single-stranded (ss) DNA deaminase required for somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination of immunoglobulin genes...
  46. Rucci F, Cattaneo L, Marrella V, Sacco M, Sobacchi C, Lucchini F, et al. Tissue-specific sensitivity to AID expression in transgenic mouse models. Gene. 2006;377:150-8 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme with homology to members of the APOBEC family, is involved in somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes, either by direct deamination of DNA or by an indirect action ..
  47. Mai T, Zan H, Zhang J, Hawkins J, Xu Z, Casali P. Estrogen receptors bind to and activate the HOXC4/HoxC4 promoter to potentiate HoxC4-mediated activation-induced cytosine deaminase induction, immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination, and somatic hypermutation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37797-810 pubmed publisher
    ..shown, is induced by the HoxC4 homeodomain transcription factor, which binds to a conserved HoxC4/Oct site in the AICDA/Aicda promoter...
  48. Carragher D, Kaminski D, Moquin A, Hartson L, Randall T. A novel role for non-neutralizing antibodies against nucleoprotein in facilitating resistance to influenza virus. J Immunol. 2008;181:4168-76 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that vaccines designed to elicit optimal heterosubtypic immunity to influenza should promote both Ab and T cell responses to conserved internal proteins. ..
  49. Yan C, Boboila C, Souza E, Franco S, Hickernell T, Murphy M, et al. IgH class switching and translocations use a robust non-classical end-joining pathway. Nature. 2007;449:478-82 pubmed
    ..In the absence of C-NHEJ, this alternative end-joining pathway also frequently joins Igh locus breaks to other chromosomes to generate translocations...
  50. Jiang C, Zhao M, Waters K, Diaz M. Activation-induced deaminase contributes to the antibody-independent role of B cells in the development of autoimmunity. Autoimmunity. 2012;45:440-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data establish AID as an important contributor to the antibody-independent role of B cells in autoimmunity.
  51. Popp C, Dean W, Feng S, Cokus S, Andrews S, Pellegrini M, et al. Genome-wide erasure of DNA methylation in mouse primordial germ cells is affected by AID deficiency. Nature. 2010;463:1101-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously showed that the cytidine deaminases AID and APOBEC1 can deaminate 5-methylcytosine in vitro and in Escherichia coli, and in the mouse are expressed in ..
  52. Tran T, Nakata M, Suzuki K, Begum N, Shinkura R, Fagarasan S, et al. B cell-specific and stimulation-responsive enhancers derepress Aicda by overcoming the effects of silencers. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:148-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the transcriptional regulation of Aicda (which encodes AID) in class switch-inducible CH12F3-2 cells and found that Aicda regulation involved derepression ..
  53. Cattoretti G, Pasqualucci L, Ballon G, Tam W, Nandula S, Shen Q, et al. Deregulated BCL6 expression recapitulates the pathogenesis of human diffuse large B cell lymphomas in mice. Cancer Cell. 2005;7:445-55 pubmed
    ..These results define the oncogenic role of BCL6 in the pathogenesis of DLBCL and provide a faithful mouse model of this common disease. ..
  54. Wang L, Whang N, Wuerffel R, Kenter A. AID-dependent histone acetylation is detected in immunoglobulin S regions. J Exp Med. 2006;203:215-26 pubmed
    Class switch recombination (CSR) is regulated by the expression of activation-induced deaminase (AID) and germline transcripts (GLTs). AID-dependent double-strand breaks (DSBs) are introduced into switch (S) regions and stimulate CSR...
  55. Bross L, Jacobs H. DNA double strand breaks occur independent of AID in hypermutating Ig genes. Clin Dev Immunol. 2003;10:83-9 pubmed
    ..Both SHM and CSR are controlled by the Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID), an enzyme exclusively expressed in B cells of the GC...
  56. Okazaki I, Hiai H, Kakazu N, Yamada S, Muramatsu M, Kinoshita K, et al. Constitutive expression of AID leads to tumorigenesis. J Exp Med. 2003;197:1173-81 pubmed
    ..Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is shown to be essential and sufficient to induce both CSR and SHM in artificial substrates in fibroblasts as well ..
  57. Ise W, Kohyama M, Schraml B, Zhang T, Schwer B, Basu U, et al. The transcription factor BATF controls the global regulators of class-switch recombination in both B cells and T cells. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:536-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In B cells, BATF directly controlled the expression of both activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and of germline transcripts of the intervening heavy-chain region and constant heavy-chain region (I(H)-C(H))...
  58. Dorsett Y, Robbiani D, Jankovic M, Reina San Martin B, Eisenreich T, Nussenzweig M. A role for AID in chromosome translocations between c-myc and the IgH variable region. J Exp Med. 2007;204:2225-32 pubmed
    ..However, in mature B cells undergoing activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent somatic hypermutation (SHM), duplications or deletions that would necessitate a double-strand break make ..
  59. Recher M, Lang K, Navarini A, Hunziker L, Lang P, Fink K, et al. Extralymphatic virus sanctuaries as a consequence of potent T-cell activation. Nat Med. 2007;13:1316-23 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that sanctuary-site formation depends both on organ anatomy and on the induction of different adaptive immune effector mechanisms. Boosting T-cell responses alone may not reduce virus persistence. ..
  60. Takai A, Marusawa H, Minaki Y, Watanabe T, Nakase H, Kinoshita K, et al. Targeting activation-induced cytidine deaminase prevents colon cancer development despite persistent colonic inflammation. Oncogene. 2012;31:1733-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is induced by the inflammation and involved in various human carcinogenesis via its mutagenic activity...
  61. Chiarle R, Zhang Y, Frock R, Lewis S, Molinie B, Ho Y, et al. Genome-wide translocation sequencing reveals mechanisms of chromosome breaks and rearrangements in B cells. Cell. 2011;147:107-19 pubmed publisher
    ..DSBs) within the c-myc oncogene or IgH locus of B lymphocytes induced for activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent IgH class switching...
  62. Bhutani N, Brady J, Damian M, Sacco A, Corbel S, Blau H. Reprogramming towards pluripotency requires AID-dependent DNA demethylation. Nature. 2010;463:1042-7 pubmed publisher
    ..interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown showed that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, also known as AICDA) is required for promoter demethylation and induction of OCT4 (also known as POU5F1) and NANOG gene expression...
  63. Herbst T, Esser J, Prati M, Kulagin M, Stettler R, Zaiss M, et al. Antibodies and IL-3 support helminth-induced basophil expansion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14954-9 pubmed publisher
    ..polygyrus bakeri, parasite rejection following challenge infection was impaired. These data reveal a role for isotype-switched antibodies in promoting basophil expansion and effector function following helminth infection. ..
  64. Bothmer A, Robbiani D, Feldhahn N, Gazumyan A, Nussenzweig A, Nussenzweig M. 53BP1 regulates DNA resection and the choice between classical and alternative end joining during class switch recombination. J Exp Med. 2010;207:855-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that 53BP1 favors long-range CSR in part by protecting DNA ends against resection, which prevents A-NHEJ-dependent short-range rejoining of intra-switch region DSBs. ..
  65. Liu M, Duke J, Richter D, Vinuesa C, Goodnow C, Kleinstein S, et al. Two levels of protection for the B cell genome during somatic hypermutation. Nature. 2008;451:841-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The reaction is initiated by cytosine deamination by the activation-induced deaminase (AID) and completed by error-prone processing of the resulting uracils by mismatch and base excision repair factors...
  66. Orthwein A, Zahn A, Methot S, Godin D, Conticello S, Terada K, et al. Optimal functional levels of activation-induced deaminase specifically require the Hsp40 DnaJa1. EMBO J. 2012;31:679-91 pubmed publisher
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    ..and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of the Ig genes require the activity of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)...
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    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), produced by the Aicda gene, is essential for the immunoglobulin gene (Ig) alterations that form immune memory...
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    We previously reported that activation-induced deaminase (AID) heterozygous MRL/lpr mice have substantially lower levels of serum anti-dsDNA autoantibodies than AID wild-type littermates...
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    The cytidine deaminase AID (encoded by Aicda in mice and AICDA in humans) is critical for immunoglobulin class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM)...
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    ..Yet both depend on activation-induced deaminase (AID), the function of which in the two reactions has been an enigma...
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    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which is specific to B lymphocytes, is required for class switch recombination (CSR)--a process mediating isotype switching of immunoglobulin--and somatic hypermutation--the introduction of ..
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    ..by double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) in switch regions triggered by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)...
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    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is specifically expressed in the germinal centers of lymphoid organs, where it initiates targeted hypermutation of variable regions of immunoglobulin genes in response to stimulation by antigen...
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    Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR) is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which converts cytosines to uracils in switch (S) regions...
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    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) is expressed in activated B lymphocytes and initiates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination...
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    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates diversity of immunoglobulin genes through deamination of cytosine to uracil. Two opposing models have been proposed for the deamination of DNA or RNA by AID...
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    The cytidine deaminase AID hypermutates immunoglobulin genes but can also target oncogenes, leading to tumorigenesis. The extent of AID's promiscuity and its predilection for immunoglobulin genes are unknown...
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    ..To test this model, we measured translocations in mice deficient in activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) that lack class-switch recombination...
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    Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination (CSR) requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)...