Agrn

Summary

Gene Symbol: Agrn
Description: agrin
Alias: Agrin, nmf380, agrin
Species: mouse
Products:     Agrn

Top Publications

  1. Li Z, Massengill J, O Dowd D, Smith M. Agrin gene expression in mouse somatosensory cortical neurons during development in vivo and in cell culture. Neuroscience. 1997;79:191-201 pubmed
    b>Agrin is an extracellular matrix protein involved in the formation of the postsynaptic apparatus of the neuromuscular junction...
  2. Yang X, Arber S, William C, Li L, Tanabe Y, Jessell T, et al. Patterning of muscle acetylcholine receptor gene expression in the absence of motor innervation. Neuron. 2001;30:399-410 pubmed
    ..Neurally derived Agrin is dispensable for this early phase of AChR expression, but MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase activated by Agrin, ..
  3. Terakawa J, Hondo E, Sugiyama M, Wakitani S, Stewart C, Kiso Y. Agrin pathway is controlled by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in murine implantation. J Reprod Dev. 2009;55:293-8 pubmed
    b>Agrin is the heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) that is well known as the molecule that aggregates acetylcholine receptor (AChR) through muscle specific kinase (MuSK) and rapsyn at neuromuscular junctions...
  4. Gramolini A, Burton E, Tinsley J, Ferns M, Cartaud A, Cartaud J, et al. Muscle and neural isoforms of agrin increase utrophin expression in cultured myotubes via a transcriptional regulatory mechanism. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:736-43 pubmed
    ..J. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8117-8120). In the present study, we have therefore focused on the effect of agrin on utrophin expression in cultured C2 myotubes...
  5. Harvey S, Jarad G, Cunningham J, Rops A, van der Vlag J, Berden J, et al. Disruption of glomerular basement membrane charge through podocyte-specific mutation of agrin does not alter glomerular permselectivity. Am J Pathol. 2007;171:139-52 pubmed
    ..b>Agrin is the predominant GBM-HSPG, but evidence that it contributes to the charge barrier is lacking, because newborn ..
  6. Luo Z, Je H, Wang Q, Yang F, Dobbins G, Yang Z, et al. Implication of geranylgeranyltransferase I in synapse formation. Neuron. 2003;40:703-17 pubmed
    b>Agrin activates the transmembrane tyrosine kinase MuSK to mediate acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). However, the intracellular signaling mechanism downstream of MuSK is poorly characterized...
  7. Bütikofer L, Zurlinden A, Bolliger M, Kunz B, Sonderegger P. Destabilization of the neuromuscular junction by proteolytic cleavage of agrin results in precocious sarcopenia. FASEB J. 2011;25:4378-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested the destabilization of the NMJ through proteolytic cleavage of agrin at the onset of a pathogenic pathway ending in sarcopenia...
  8. Serpinskaya A, Feng G, Sanes J, Craig A. Synapse formation by hippocampal neurons from agrin-deficient mice. Dev Biol. 1999;205:65-78 pubmed
    b>Agrin, a proteoglycan secreted by motoneurons, is a critical organizer of synaptic differentiation at skeletal neuromuscular junctions...
  9. Bixby J, Baerwald de la Torre K, Wang C, Rathjen F, Ruegg M. A neuronal inhibitory domain in the N-terminal half of agrin. J Neurobiol. 2002;50:164-79 pubmed
    b>Agrin is required for appropriate pre- and postsynaptic differentiation of neuromuscular junctions...

More Information

Publications75

  1. Bromann P, Zhou H, Sanes J. Kinase- and rapsyn-independent activities of the muscle-specific kinase (MuSK). Neuroscience. 2004;125:417-26 pubmed
    ..Studies in vitro have shown that Z(+)-agrin, a nerve-derived proteoglycan, activates MuSK's kinase activity to promote clustering of AChRs and MuSK itself ..
  2. Chen F, Qian L, Yang Z, Huang Y, Ngo S, Ruan N, et al. Rapsyn interaction with calpain stabilizes AChR clusters at the neuromuscular junction. Neuron. 2007;55:247-60 pubmed
    b>Agrin induces, whereas acetylcholine (ACh) disperses, ACh receptor (AChR) clusters during neuromuscular synaptogenesis...
  3. Levi S, Grady R, Henry M, Campbell K, Sanes J, Craig A. Dystroglycan is selectively associated with inhibitory GABAergic synapses but is dispensable for their differentiation. J Neurosci. 2002;22:4274-85 pubmed
    ..in synaptogenesis of the major transmembrane component of the DGC, dystroglycan; one of its extracellular ligands, agrin; and one of its cytoskeletal binding partners, dystrophin...
  4. Linnoila J, Wang Y, Yao Y, Wang Z. A mammalian homolog of Drosophila tumorous imaginal discs, Tid1, mediates agrin signaling at the neuromuscular junction. Neuron. 2008;60:625-41 pubmed publisher
    Motoneuron-derived agrin clusters nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in mammalian muscle cells...
  5. Zhang B, Luo S, Wang Q, Suzuki T, Xiong W, Mei L. LRP4 serves as a coreceptor of agrin. Neuron. 2008;60:285-97 pubmed publisher
    Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation requires agrin, a factor released from motoneurons, and MuSK, a transmembrane tyrosine kinase that is activated by agrin. However, how signal is transduced from agrin to MuSK remains unclear...
  6. Moll J, Barzaghi P, Lin S, Bezakova G, Lochmuller H, Engvall E, et al. An agrin minigene rescues dystrophic symptoms in a mouse model for congenital muscular dystrophy. Nature. 2001;413:302-7 pubmed
    ..With the aim to restore muscle function in a mouse model for this disease, we have designed a minigene of agrin, a protein known for its role in the formation of the neuromuscular junction...
  7. Kim N, Stiegler A, Cameron T, Hallock P, Gomez A, Huang J, et al. Lrp4 is a receptor for Agrin and forms a complex with MuSK. Cell. 2008;135:334-42 pubmed publisher
    ..MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase that is expressed in skeletal muscle, and Agrin, a motor neuron-derived ligand that stimulates MuSK phosphorylation, play critical roles in synaptic ..
  8. Luo Z, Wang Q, Zhou J, Wang J, Luo Z, Liu M, et al. Regulation of AChR clustering by Dishevelled interacting with MuSK and PAK1. Neuron. 2002;35:489-505 pubmed
    ..Disruption of the MuSK-Dvl interaction inhibits Agrin- and neuron-induced AChR clustering...
  9. Lin W, Burgess R, Dominguez B, Pfaff S, Sanes J, Lee K. Distinct roles of nerve and muscle in postsynaptic differentiation of the neuromuscular synapse. Nature. 2001;410:1057-64 pubmed
    ..Much evidence suggests that the nerve-derived protein agrin activates muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) to cluster AChRs through the synapse-specific cytoplasmic protein rapsyn...
  10. Gautam M, Noakes P, Moscoso L, Rupp F, Scheller R, Merlie J, et al. Defective neuromuscular synaptogenesis in agrin-deficient mutant mice. Cell. 1996;85:525-35 pubmed
    ..The protein agrin, originally isolated from the basal lamina of the synaptic cleft, is synthesized and secreted by motoneurons and ..
  11. Noakes P, Miner J, Gautam M, Cunningham J, Sanes J, Merlie J. The renal glomerulus of mice lacking s-laminin/laminin beta 2: nephrosis despite molecular compensation by laminin beta 1. Nat Genet. 1995;10:400-6 pubmed
    ..Laminin beta 2-deficient mice may provide a model for human congenital or idiopathic nephrotic syndromes...
  12. Kim M, Chandrasekharan K, Glass M, Shi S, Stahl M, Kaspar B, et al. O-fucosylation of muscle agrin determines its ability to cluster acetylcholine receptors. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;39:452-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that agrin is O-fucosylated in a Pofut1-dependent manner, and that this glycosylation can regulate agrin function...
  13. Choi H, Liu Y, Tennert C, Sugiura Y, Karakatsani A, Kroger S, et al. APP interacts with LRP4 and agrin to coordinate the development of the neuromuscular junction in mice. elife. 2013;2:e00220 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Agrin, a ligand for LRP4, also binds to APP and co-operatively enhances the interaction of APP with LRP4...
  14. Lennon G, Auffray C, Polymeropoulos M, Soares M. The I.M.A.G.E. Consortium: an integrated molecular analysis of genomes and their expression. Genomics. 1996;33:151-2 pubmed
  15. Kim N, Burden S. MuSK controls where motor axons grow and form synapses. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:19-27 pubmed
    ..In addition, ectopic Musk expression stimulates synapse formation in the absence of Agrin and rescues the lethality of Agrn mutant mice, demonstrating that the postsynaptic cell, and MuSK in particular, ..
  16. Burgess R, Nguyen Q, Son Y, Lichtman J, Sanes J. Alternatively spliced isoforms of nerve- and muscle-derived agrin: their roles at the neuromuscular junction. Neuron. 1999;23:33-44 pubmed
    b>Agrin induces synaptic differentiation at the skeletal neuromuscular junction (NMJ); both pre- and postsynaptic differentiation are drastically impaired in its absence...
  17. Rupp F, Ozcelik T, Linial M, Peterson K, Francke U, Scheller R. Structure and chromosomal localization of the mammalian agrin gene. J Neurosci. 1992;12:3535-44 pubmed
    b>Agrin, a component of the synaptic basal lamina, has been shown to induce clustering of ACh receptors on the surface of muscle fibers...
  18. Denzer A, Brandenberger R, Gesemann M, Chiquet M, Ruegg M. Agrin binds to the nerve-muscle basal lamina via laminin. J Cell Biol. 1997;137:671-83 pubmed
    b>Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is required for the formation and maintenance of neuromuscular junctions...
  19. Noell S, Fallier Becker P, Deutsch U, Mack A, Wolburg H. Agrin defines polarized distribution of orthogonal arrays of particles in astrocytes. Cell Tissue Res. 2009;337:185-95 pubmed publisher
    Accumulating evidence indicates that agrin, a heparan sulphate proteoglycan of the extracellular matrix, plays a role in the organization and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier...
  20. Skarnes W, Moss J, Hurtley S, Beddington R. Capturing genes encoding membrane and secreted proteins important for mouse development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:6592-6 pubmed
    ..Analysis of homozygous mice carrying insertions in LAR and PTP kappa showed that both genes were effectively disrupted, but neither was essential for normal embryonic development. ..
  21. Lin S, Maj M, Bezakova G, Magyar J, Brenner H, Ruegg M. Muscle-wide secretion of a miniaturized form of neural agrin rescues focal neuromuscular innervation in agrin mutant mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11406-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Agrin and its receptor MuSK are required for the formation of the postsynaptic apparatus at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
  22. Zhang W, Coldefy A, Hubbard S, Burden S. Agrin binds to the N-terminal region of Lrp4 protein and stimulates association between Lrp4 and the first immunoglobulin-like domain in muscle-specific kinase (MuSK). J Biol Chem. 2011;286:40624-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Motor axons supply Agrin, which binds Lrp4 and stimulates further MuSK phosphorylation, stabilizing nascent synapses...
  23. Hilgenberg L, Ho K, Lee D, O Dowd D, Smith M. Agrin regulates neuronal responses to excitatory neurotransmitters in vitro and in vivo. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2002;19:97-110 pubmed
    b>Agrin mediates motor neuron-induced differentiation of the postsynaptic apparatus of the neuromuscular junction but its function in brain remains unknown...
  24. Burgess R, Skarnes W, Sanes J. Agrin isoforms with distinct amino termini: differential expression, localization, and function. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:41-52 pubmed
    The proteoglycan agrin is required for postsynaptic differentiation at the skeletal neuromuscular junction, but is also associated with basal laminae in numerous other tissues, and with the surfaces of some neurons...
  25. Li Z, Hilgenberg L, O Dowd D, Smith M. Formation of functional synaptic connections between cultured cortical neurons from agrin-deficient mice. J Neurobiol. 1999;39:547-57 pubmed
    Numerous studies suggest that the extracellular matrix protein agrin directs the formation of the postsynaptic apparatus at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
  26. Eusebio A, Oliveri F, Barzaghi P, Ruegg M. Expression of mouse agrin in normal, denervated and dystrophic muscle. Neuromuscul Disord. 2003;13:408-15 pubmed
    b>Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is required for the development of postsynaptic specializations at the neuromuscular junction...
  27. Ksiazek I, Burkhardt C, Lin S, Seddik R, Maj M, Bezakova G, et al. Synapse loss in cortex of agrin-deficient mice after genetic rescue of perinatal death. J Neurosci. 2007;27:7183-95 pubmed
    b>Agrin-deficient mice die at birth because of aberrant development of the neuromuscular junctions. Here, we examined the role of agrin at brain synapses...
  28. Gingras J, Rassadi S, Cooper E, Ferns M. Agrin plays an organizing role in the formation of sympathetic synapses. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:1109-18 pubmed
    b>Agrin is a nerve-derived factor that directs neuromuscular synapse formation, however its role in regulating interneuronal synaptogenesis is less clear...
  29. Lin W, Dominguez B, Yang J, Aryal P, Brandon E, Gage F, et al. Neurotransmitter acetylcholine negatively regulates neuromuscular synapse formation by a Cdk5-dependent mechanism. Neuron. 2005;46:569-79 pubmed
    ..Although the nerve-derived protein agrin has been suggested to be a positive signal, the negative signals remain elusive...
  30. Ruggiu M, Herbst R, Kim N, Jevsek M, Fak J, Mann M, et al. Rescuing Z+ agrin splicing in Nova null mice restores synapse formation and unmasks a physiologic defect in motor neuron firing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3513-8 pubmed publisher
    Synapse formation at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) requires an alternatively spliced variant of agrin (Z(+) agrin) that is produced only by neurons...
  31. Gee S, Montanaro F, Lindenbaum M, Carbonetto S. Dystroglycan-alpha, a dystrophin-associated glycoprotein, is a functional agrin receptor. Cell. 1994;77:675-86 pubmed
    ..of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on skeletal muscle fibers is thought to be mediated by the basal lamina protein agrin. Structural similarities shared by agrin and laminin suggested that the laminin receptor dystroglycan-alpha, part ..
  32. Glass D, Bowen D, Stitt T, Radziejewski C, Bruno J, Ryan T, et al. Agrin acts via a MuSK receptor complex. Cell. 1996;85:513-23 pubmed
    ..b>Agrin is a nerve-derived factor that can induced molecular reorganizations at the motor endplate, but the mechanism of ..
  33. An M, Lin W, Yang J, Dominguez B, Padgett D, Sugiura Y, et al. Acetylcholine negatively regulates development of the neuromuscular junction through distinct cellular mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10702-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in contrast to the effects of blocking ACh biosynthesis, eliminating postsynaptic AChRs in agrin-deficient mice failed to restore deficits in pre- and postsynaptic differentiation, suggesting that ACh negatively ..
  34. Weatherbee S, Anderson K, Niswander L. LDL-receptor-related protein 4 is crucial for formation of the neuromuscular junction. Development. 2006;133:4993-5000 pubmed
    ..The identification of Lrp4 as a crucial factor for NMJ formation may have implications for human neuromuscular diseases such as myasthenia syndromes. ..
  35. Bogdanik L, Burgess R. A valid mouse model of AGRIN-associated congenital myasthenic syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:4617-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in AGRIN (AGRN) and other genes in the AGRIN signaling pathway cause CMS, and gene targeting studies in mice confirm the ..
  36. Misgeld T, Kummer T, Lichtman J, Sanes J. Agrin promotes synaptic differentiation by counteracting an inhibitory effect of neurotransmitter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:11088-93 pubmed
    ..junction to assess the interdependence of effects evoked by an essential synaptic organizing protein, agrin, and the neuromuscular transmitter, acetylcholine (ACh)...
  37. Yumoto N, Kim N, Burden S. Lrp4 is a retrograde signal for presynaptic differentiation at neuromuscular synapses. Nature. 2012;489:438-42 pubmed publisher
    ..lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related protein 4), an LDLR family member that forms a complex with MuSK, binds neural agrin and stimulates MuSK kinase activity...
  38. Winzen U, Cole G, Halfter W. Agrin is a chimeric proteoglycan with the attachment sites for heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate located in two multiple serine-glycine clusters. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:30106-14 pubmed
    b>Agrin is a large extracellular matrix protein that plays a key role in the formation and maintenance of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction...
  39. Eldridge S, Nalesso G, Ismail H, Vicente Greco K, Kabouridis P, Ramachandran M, et al. Agrin mediates chondrocyte homeostasis and requires both LRP4 and ?-dystroglycan to enhance cartilage formation in vitro and in vivo. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016;75:1228-35 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan which, through binding to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (..
  40. Mazzon C, Anselmo A, Soldani C, Cibella J, Ploia C, Moalli F, et al. Agrin is required for survival and function of monocytic cells. Blood. 2012;119:5502-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Agrin, an extracellular matrix protein belonging to the heterogeneous family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), is expressed by cells of the hematopoietic system but its role in leukocyte biology is not yet clear...
  41. Daryadel A, Haubitz M, Figueiredo M, Steubl D, Roos M, Mäder A, et al. The C-Terminal Fragment of Agrin (CAF), a Novel Marker of Renal Function, Is Filtered by the Kidney and Reabsorbed by the Proximal Tubule. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0157905 pubmed publisher
    b>Agrin, a multidomain proteoglycan and neurotrypsin, a neuronal serine protease, are important for forming (neuromuscular) synapses...
  42. Hilgenberg L, Su H, Gu H, O Dowd D, Smith M. Alpha3Na+/K+-ATPase is a neuronal receptor for agrin. Cell. 2006;125:359-69 pubmed
    b>Agrin, through its interaction with the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK, mediates accumulation of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) at the developing neuromuscular junction. Agrin has also been implicated in several functions in brain...
  43. Arikawa Hirasawa E, Rossi S, Rotundo R, Yamada Y. Absence of acetylcholinesterase at the neuromuscular junctions of perlecan-null mice. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:119-23 pubmed
  44. Smirnov S, Barzaghi P, McKee K, Ruegg M, Yurchenco P. Conjugation of LG domains of agrins and perlecan to polymerizing laminin-2 promotes acetylcholine receptor clustering. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41449-57 pubmed
    ..We show that the cell surface-binding LG domains of non-neural (muscle) agrin and perlecan promote AChR clustering in the presence of laminin-2...
  45. Dierker T, Bachvarova V, Krause Y, Li J, Kjellén L, Seidler D, et al. Altered heparan sulfate structure in Glce(-/-) mice leads to increased Hedgehog signaling in endochondral bones. Matrix Biol. 2016;49:82-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our results strongly indicate that not only the level, but also the structure of HS is critical in regulating the distribution and signaling activity of Ihh in chondrocytes. ..
  46. Pun S, Sigrist M, Santos A, Ruegg M, Sanes J, Jessell T, et al. An intrinsic distinction in neuromuscular junction assembly and maintenance in different skeletal muscles. Neuron. 2002;34:357-70 pubmed
    ..Differences between classes were intrinsic to the muscles and manifested in the absence of innervation or agrin. Paralysis or denervation of young adult muscles resulted in disassembly of AChR clusters on DeSyn muscles, ..
  47. Vrontou S, Petrou P, Meyer B, Galanopoulos V, Imai K, Yanagi M, et al. Fras1 deficiency results in cryptophthalmos, renal agenesis and blebbed phenotype in mice. Nat Genet. 2003;34:209-14 pubmed
    ..In sum, our data suggest that perturbations in the composition of the extracellular space underlying epithelia could account for the onset of the blebbed phenotype in mouse and Fraser syndrome manifestation in human...
  48. Borges L, Yechikhov S, Lee Y, Rudell J, Friese M, Burden S, et al. Identification of a motif in the acetylcholine receptor beta subunit whose phosphorylation regulates rapsyn association and postsynaptic receptor localization. J Neurosci. 2008;28:11468-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we define a phosphorylation-dependent binding site on the receptor that mediates agrin-induced clustering...
  49. Petrou P, Pavlakis E, Dalezios Y, Galanopoulos V, Chalepakis G. Basement membrane distortions impair lung lobation and capillary organization in the mouse model for fraser syndrome. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10350-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings identify Fras1 as an important structural component of the sub-lamina densa of basement membranes required for lobar septation and the organization of blood capillaries in the peripheral lung. ..
  50. Qiao C, Li J, Zhu T, Draviam R, Watkins S, Ye X, et al. Amelioration of laminin-alpha2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy by somatic gene transfer of miniagrin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:11999-2004 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that somatic gene delivery of a structurally unrelated protein, a miniature version of agrin, functionally compensates for laminin-alpha2 deficiency in the murine models of CMD...
  51. Daniels M. The role of agrin in synaptic development, plasticity and signaling in the central nervous system. Neurochem Int. 2012;61:848-53 pubmed publisher
    Development of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) requires secretion of specific isoforms of the proteoglycan agrin by motor neurons...
  52. Steiner E, Enzmann G, Lyck R, Lin S, Ruegg M, Kroger S, et al. The heparan sulfate proteoglycan agrin contributes to barrier properties of mouse brain endothelial cells by stabilizing adherens junctions. Cell Tissue Res. 2014;358:465-79 pubmed publisher
    ..During embryogenesis, the accumulation of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan agrin in the basement membranes ensheathing brain vessels correlates with BBB maturation...
  53. Misgeld T, Burgess R, Lewis R, Cunningham J, Lichtman J, Sanes J. Roles of neurotransmitter in synapse formation: development of neuromuscular junctions lacking choline acetyltransferase. Neuron. 2002;36:635-48 pubmed
    ..At subsequent stages, neurotransmission delays some steps in synaptic maturation but accelerates others. Thus, neurotransmission affects synaptogenesis from early stages and coordinates rather than drives synaptic maturation. ..
  54. Hoover C, Hilgenberg L, Smith M. The COOH-terminal domain of agrin signals via a synaptic receptor in central nervous system neurons. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:923-32 pubmed
    b>Agrin is a motor neuron-derived factor that directs formation of the postsynaptic apparatus of the neuromuscular junction...
  55. Yang J, Dominguez B, De Winter F, Gould T, Eriksson J, Lee K. Nestin negatively regulates postsynaptic differentiation of the neuromuscular synapse. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:324-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Acetylcholine (ACh) and agrin are two opposing signals that regulate ACh receptor (AChR) clustering during neuromuscular junction (NMJ) ..
  56. Schéele S, Falk M, Franzén A, Ellin F, Ferletta M, Lonai P, et al. Laminin alpha1 globular domains 4-5 induce fetal development but are not vital for embryonic basement membrane assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1502-6 pubmed
    ..Yet, stem cells could not develop into polarized epiblast cells. Thus, alpha1LG4-5 provides vital signals for the conversion of stem cells to polarized epithelium. ..
  57. Kikkawa Y, Virtanen I, Miner J. Mesangial cells organize the glomerular capillaries by adhering to the G domain of laminin alpha5 in the glomerular basement membrane. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:187-96 pubmed
    ..Our results elucidate a mechanism whereby mesangial cells organize the glomerular capillaries by adhering to the G domain of laminin alpha5 in the GBM. ..
  58. Kirshenbaum G, Clapcote S, Petersen J, Vilsen B, Ralph M, Roder J. Genetic suppression of agrin reduces mania-like behavior in Na+ , K+ -ATPase ?3 mutant mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2012;11:436-43 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Agrin is a proteoglycan implicated as a regulator of synapses that has been proposed to inhibit activity of Na(+) ,K(+) -..
  59. Chang Y, Chou H, Yen Y, Chang H, Hong Y, Huang H, et al. Agrin induces association of Chrna1 mRNA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in C2C12 myotubes. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:3111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we test whether an mRNA localization mechanism also exists in the postsynaptic specialization induced by agrin in C2C12 myotubes...
  60. Henriquez J, Webb A, Bence M, Bildsoe H, Sahores M, Hughes S, et al. Wnt signaling promotes AChR aggregation at the neuromuscular synapse in collaboration with agrin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:18812-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In cultured myotubes, Wnt3 increases the number and size of AChR clusters induced by agrin, a nerve-derived signal critical for NMJ development...
  61. Bruneau E, Macpherson P, Goldman D, Hume R, Akaaboune M. The effect of agrin and laminin on acetylcholine receptor dynamics in vitro. Dev Biol. 2005;288:248-58 pubmed
    ..clusters on cultured myotubes in the absence or presence of the nerve-derived clustering factor, agrin. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) on fluorescent bungarotoxin-labeled receptors, we found ..
  62. Böse K, Nischt R, Page A, Bader B, Paulsson M, Smyth N. Loss of nidogen-1 and -2 results in syndactyly and changes in limb development. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:39620-9 pubmed
    ..Further, in certain animals more severe changes in bone formation occur, providing evidence for the interplay between growth factors and the extracellular matrix. ..
  63. Mohseni P, Sung H, Murphy A, Laliberté C, Pallari H, Henkelman M, et al. Nestin is not essential for development of the CNS but required for dispersion of acetylcholine receptor clusters at the area of neuromuscular junctions. J Neurosci. 2011;31:11547-52 pubmed publisher
    ..we demonstrate that nestin deficiency can rescue maintenance of acetylcholine receptor clusters in the absence of agrin, similar to Cdk5/agrin double knock-outs, suggesting that the observed nestin deficiency phenotype is the ..
  64. Williams S, Jacobson C. ?-Dystroglycan is essential for the induction of Egr3, a transcription factor important in muscle spindle formation. Dev Neurobiol. 2010;70:498-507 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, our initial experiments addressed potential roles for agrin (AGRN) and laminin (LN) in the expression of the transcription factor Egr3...
  65. Baumeister P, Luo S, Skarnes W, Sui G, Seto E, Shi Y, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induction of the Grp78/BiP promoter: activating mechanisms mediated by YY1 and its interactive chromatin modifiers. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:4529-40 pubmed
    ..A model for the ER stress-mediated transcription factor binding and chromatin modifications at the Grp78 promoter leading to its activation is proposed. ..
  66. Annies M, Bittcher G, Ramseger R, Löschinger J, Wöll S, Porten E, et al. Clustering transmembrane-agrin induces filopodia-like processes on axons and dendrites. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;31:515-24 pubmed
    The transmembrane form of agrin (TM-agrin) is primarily expressed in the CNS, particularly on neurites. To analyze its function, we clustered TM-agrin on neurons using anti-agrin antibodies...