Gene Symbol: Afp
Description: alpha fetoprotein
Alias: alpha-fetoprotein, alpha-1-fetoprotein, alpha-fetoglobulin, alpha-foetoprotein
Species: mouse
Products:     Afp

Top Publications

  1. De Mees C, Laes J, Bakker J, Smitz J, Hennuy B, Van Vooren P, et al. Alpha-fetoprotein controls female fertility and prenatal development of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone pathway through an antiestrogenic action. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:2012-8 pubmed
    It has been shown previously that female mice homozygous for an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) null allele are sterile as a result of anovulation, probably due to a defect in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis...
  2. Lin X, Jung J, Kang D, Xu B, Zaret K, Zoghbi H. Prenylcysteine carboxylmethyltransferase is essential for the earliest stages of liver development in mice. Gastroenterology. 2002;123:345-51 pubmed
    ..PCCMT is essential for several stages of hepatic induction, consistent with its role in modifying proteins required to transduce signals, such as FGF, that have been shown to promote liver specification and early growth. ..
  3. Huang M, Li K, Spear B. The mouse alpha-fetoprotein promoter is repressed in HepG2 hepatoma cells by hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 (FOXA). DNA Cell Biol. 2002;21:561-9 pubmed
    ..The repression is governed, at least in part, by the 250 base pair (bp) AFP promoter. We show here that the AFP promoter is dramatically repressed by HNF3 in HepG2 hepatoma cells...
  4. Bakker J, De Mees C, Douhard Q, Balthazart J, Gabant P, Szpirer J, et al. Alpha-fetoprotein protects the developing female mouse brain from masculinization and defeminization by estrogens. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:220-6 pubmed
    Two clearly opposing views exist on the function of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a fetal plasma protein that binds estrogens with high affinity, in the sexual differentiation of the rodent brain...
  5. Keng V, Yagi H, Ikawa M, Nagano T, Myint Z, Yamada K, et al. Homeobox gene Hex is essential for onset of mouse embryonic liver development and differentiation of the monocyte lineage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;276:1155-61 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Hex plays an essential role in progenitor cells which commit to the hepatic endoderm and in the hematopoietic differentiation of the monocyte lineage. ..
  6. Kuo C, Morrisey E, Anandappa R, Sigrist K, Lu M, Parmacek M, et al. GATA4 transcription factor is required for ventral morphogenesis and heart tube formation. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1048-60 pubmed
    ..However, they define a critical role for GATA4 in regulating the rostral-to-caudal and lateral-to-ventral folding of the embryo that is needed for normal cardiac morphogenesis. ..
  7. Jochheim A, Cieslak A, Hillemann T, Cantz T, Scharf J, Manns M, et al. Multi-stage analysis of differential gene expression in BALB/C mouse liver development by high-density microarrays. Differentiation. 2003;71:62-72 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the microarray approach led to the identification of a number of genes, which have not yet been associated with liver organogenesis and maturation. ..
  8. Kwon G, Viotti M, Hadjantonakis A. The endoderm of the mouse embryo arises by dynamic widespread intercalation of embryonic and extraembryonic lineages. Dev Cell. 2008;15:509-20 pubmed publisher
  9. Beck L, Leroy C, Beck Cormier S, Forand A, Salaun C, Paris N, et al. The phosphate transporter PiT1 (Slc20a1) revealed as a new essential gene for mouse liver development. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9148 pubmed publisher
    ..This work is the first to illustrate a specific in vivo role for PiT1 by uncovering it as being a critical gene for normal developmental liver growth. ..

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Olsson M, Lindahl G, Ruoslahti E. Genetic control of alpha-fetoprotein synthesis in the mouse. J Exp Med. 1977;145:819-27 pubmed
    To approach the genetic mechanism that turns off the synthesis of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) after birth, we assumed that a change in this mechanism might affect the low basal level of AFP that can be detected in the adult organism...
  2. Engelhardt N, Factor V, Medvinsky A, Baranov V, Lazareva M, Poltoranina V. Common antigen of oval and biliary epithelial cells (A6) is a differentiation marker of epithelial and erythroid cell lineages in early development of the mouse. Differentiation. 1993;55:19-26 pubmed
    ..Both fetal and adult erythrocytes are A6-negative. In the process of organogenesis A6 antigen was revealed in various mouse fetal organs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  3. Molkentin J, Lin Q, Duncan S, Olson E. Requirement of the transcription factor GATA4 for heart tube formation and ventral morphogenesis. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1061-72 pubmed
    ..We propose that GATA4 is required for the migration or folding morphogenesis of the precardiogenic splanchnic mesodermal cells at the level of the AIP. ..
  4. Gabant P, Forrester L, Nichols J, Van Reeth T, De Mees C, Pajack B, et al. Alpha-fetoprotein, the major fetal serum protein, is not essential for embryonic development but is required for female fertility. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12865-70 pubmed
    The alpha-fetoprotein gene (Afp) is a member of a multigenic family that comprises the related genes encoding albumin, alpha-albumin, and vitamin D binding protein...
  5. Li T, Huang J, Jiang Y, Zeng Y, He F, Zhang M, et al. Multi-stage analysis of gene expression and transcription regulation in C57/B6 mouse liver development. Genomics. 2009;93:235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..A group of uncharacterized genes which might be involved in the fetal hematopoiesis were detected. ..
  6. Hudson Q, Seidl C, Kulinski T, Huang R, Warczok K, Bittner R, et al. Extra-embryonic-specific imprinted expression is restricted to defined lineages in the post-implantation embryo. Dev Biol. 2011;353:420-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that the VYS is an improved model for studying the epigenetic mechanisms regulating extra-embryonic-lineage-specific imprinted expression. ..
  7. Gualdi R, Bossard P, Zheng M, Hamada Y, Coleman J, Zaret K. Hepatic specification of the gut endoderm in vitro: cell signaling and transcriptional control. Genes Dev. 1996;10:1670-82 pubmed
    ..The findings also provide insight into the evolutionary origin of different endodermal cell types. ..
  8. Jochheim Richter A, Rüdrich U, Koczan D, Hillemann T, Tewes S, Petry M, et al. Gene expression analysis identifies novel genes participating in early murine liver development and adult liver regeneration. Differentiation. 2006;74:167-73 pubmed
    ..This information may contribute to the development of new targets for the treatment of liver diseases in the future. ..
  9. Young M, Ibaraki K, Kerr J, Lyu M, Kozak C. Murine bone sialoprotein (BSP): cDNA cloning, mRNA expression, and genetic mapping. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:108-11 pubmed
  10. Martinez Barbera J, Clements M, Thomas P, Rodriguez T, Meloy D, Kioussis D, et al. The homeobox gene Hex is required in definitive endodermal tissues for normal forebrain, liver and thyroid formation. Development. 2000;127:2433-45 pubmed
    ..All together, these results demonstrate that Hex function is essential in definitive endoderm for normal development of the forebrain, liver and thyroid gland. ..
  11. Sosa Pineda B, Wigle J, Oliver G. Hepatocyte migration during liver development requires Prox1. Nat Genet. 2000;25:254-5 pubmed
    ..Here we report that Prox1 is required for hepatocyte migration. Loss of Prox1 leads to formation of a smaller liver with a reduced population of clustered hepatocytes surrounded by a laminin-rich basal membrane. ..
  12. Hou Y, Li F, Karin M, Ostrowski M. Analysis of the IKKbeta/NF-kappaB signaling pathway during embryonic angiogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:2926-35 pubmed publisher
  13. Naidu S, Peterson M, Spear B. Alpha-fetoprotein related gene (ARG): a new member of the albumin gene family that is no longer functional in primates. Gene. 2010;449:95-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Low expression and aberrant splicing of the ARG gene in the mouse liver suggests that ARG may have less functional significance than other members of the serum albumin gene family even in species where it is still intact. ..
  14. Park D, Choi D, Lee J, Lim D, Park C. Male-like sexual behavior of female mouse lacking fucose mutarotase. BMC Genet. 2010;11:62 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a reduction of fucosylated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in a mutant embryo relative to that of a wild-type embryo...
  15. Birkenmeier E, Schneider U, Thurston S. Fingerprinting genomes by use of PCR with primers that encode protein motifs or contain sequences that regulate gene expression. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:537-45 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrated that motif sequence-tagged PCR products are reliable markers for mapping the mouse genome and that motif primers can also be used for genomic fingerprinting of many divergent species. ..
  16. Smith E, Seldin M, Martinez L, Watson M, Choudhury G, Lalley P, et al. Mouse platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha gene is deleted in W19H and patch mutations on chromosome 5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:4811-5 pubmed
    ..Thus the W19H deletion removes at least two receptor tyrosine kinases and the results suggest Pdgfra as a candidate for the Ph locus. ..
  17. Muller R, Verma I, Adamson E. Expression of c-onc genes: c-fos transcripts accumulate to high levels during development of mouse placenta, yolk sac and amnion. EMBO J. 1983;2:679-84 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the c-fos and c-fms proteins may participate in differentiation, growth or transport processes occurring in mouse extra-embryonal tissues. ..
  18. Inglis J, Lee M. A novel tyrosine kinase-related sequence on mouse chromosome 5. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:285-7 pubmed
  19. Jochheim A, Hillemann T, Kania G, Scharf J, Attaran M, Manns M, et al. Quantitative gene expression profiling reveals a fetal hepatic phenotype of murine ES-derived hepatocytes. Int J Dev Biol. 2004;48:23-9 pubmed
    ..We analyzed albumin (ALB), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and hepatic transcription factor (TF) gene expression in tissues derived from embryonic, fetal and adult liver, ..
  20. Simon C, Downes D, Gosden M, Telenius J, Higgs D, Hughes J, et al. Functional characterisation of cis-regulatory elements governing dynamic Eomes expression in the early mouse embryo. Development. 2017;144:1249-1260 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, diverse regulatory mechanisms govern activation of lineage specifying TFs during early development. ..
  21. Shiojiri N. Transient expression of bile-duct-specific cytokeratin in fetal mouse hepatocytes. Cell Tissue Res. 1994;278:117-23 pubmed
    ..The differentiation of bile ducts from periportal hepatocytes may continue for 2 weeks after birth. ..
  22. Guan X, Arhin G, Leung J, Tilghman S. Linkage between vitamin D-binding protein and alpha-fetoprotein in the mouse. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:103-6 pubmed
  23. Torres Padilla M, Fougère Deschatrette C, Weiss M. Expression of HNF4alpha isoforms in mouse liver development is regulated by sequential promoter usage and constitutive 3' end splicing. Mech Dev. 2001;109:183-93 pubmed
  24. Wu X, Lin Z, Fan J, Lu J, Wang L, Tang Z. [Quantitation of alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA in peripheral blood of nude mice and its relationship with tumor recurrence and metastasis after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2002;10:189-91 pubmed
    To assess the level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) messenger RNA (mRNA) in peripheral blood of nude mice, and to study its relationship with tumor recurrence and metastasis after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  25. Nikolaou K, Moulos P, Chalepakis G, Hatzis P, Oda H, Reinberg D, et al. Spontaneous development of hepatocellular carcinoma with cancer stem cell properties in PR-SET7-deficient livers. EMBO J. 2015;34:430-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatocellular carcinoma in PR-SET7-deficient mice displays a cancer stem cell gene signature specified by the co-expression of ductal progenitor markers and oncofetal genes. ..
  26. Pittler S, Lee A, Altherr M, Howard T, Seldin M, Hurwitz R, et al. Primary structure and chromosomal localization of human and mouse rod photoreceptor cGMP-gated cation channel. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:6257-62 pubmed
    ..The mouse channel gene locus (Cncg) was mapped by interspecific backcross haplotype analysis 0.9 centimorgan proximal of the Kit locus on chromosome 5. ..
  27. Hart A, Hartley L, Sourris K, Stadler E, Li R, Stanley E, et al. Mixl1 is required for axial mesendoderm morphogenesis and patterning in the murine embryo. Development. 2002;129:3597-608 pubmed
    ..Mixl1 is therefore required for the morphogenesis of axial mesoderm, the heart and the gut during embryogenesis. ..
  28. Long L, Davidson J, Spear B. Striking differences between the mouse and the human alpha-fetoprotein enhancers. Genomics. 2004;83:694-705 pubmed
    The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene is expressed abundantly in the fetal liver and transcriptionally repressed in the adult liver, but can be reactivated during liver regeneration and in liver tumors...
  29. Taube J, Allton K, Duncan S, Shen L, Barton M. Foxa1 functions as a pioneer transcription factor at transposable elements to activate Afp during differentiation of embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:16135-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Although alpha-fetoprotein (Afp) falls into this class of genes, as it is silent in pluripotent stem cells and activated during differentiation of ..
  30. Xu C, Cole P, Meyers D, Kormish J, Dent S, Zaret K. Chromatin "prepattern" and histone modifiers in a fate choice for liver and pancreas. Science. 2011;332:963-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies reveal a functional "prepattern" of chromatin states within multipotent progenitors and potential targets to modulate cell fate induction. ..
  31. Dame C, Kirschner K, Bartz K, Wallach T, Hussels C, Scholz H. Wilms tumor suppressor, Wt1, is a transcriptional activator of the erythropoietin gene. Blood. 2006;107:4282-90 pubmed
    ..Both proteins were also detected in Sertoli cells of the adult murine testis. In conclusion, we identified Wt1(-KTS) as a novel transcriptional activator for the tissue-specific expression of the EPO gene. ..
  32. Kawamura N, Sun Wada G, Aoyama M, Harada A, Takasuga S, Sasaki T, et al. Delivery of endosomes to lysosomes via microautophagy in the visceral endoderm of mouse embryos. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1071 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of rab7 function results in severe inhibition of this endocytic pathway. Our results indicate that the microautophagic process and flow of the endocytic membrane have essential roles in early embryonic development...
  33. Hentsch B, Lyons I, Li R, Hartley L, Lints T, Adams J, et al. Hlx homeo box gene is essential for an inductive tissue interaction that drives expansion of embryonic liver and gut. Genes Dev. 1996;10:70-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, because mutation of Hlx blocked liver growth but not its specification, early morphogenesis, or differentiation, development of this organ appears to occur by step-wise inductive interactions under separate genetic control. ..
  34. Watanabe T, Nakagawa K, Ohata S, Kitagawa D, Nishitai G, Seo J, et al. SEK1/MKK4-mediated SAPK/JNK signaling participates in embryonic hepatoblast proliferation via a pathway different from NF-kappaB-induced anti-apoptosis. Dev Biol. 2002;250:332-47 pubmed
    ..Thus, SEK1 appears to play a crucial role in hepatoblast proliferation and survival in a manner apparently different from NF-kappaB or c-Jun. ..
  35. Micsenyi A, Tan X, Sneddon T, Luo J, Michalopoulos G, Monga S. Beta-catenin is temporally regulated during normal liver development. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:1134-46 pubmed
    ..Nuclear and cytoplasmic beta-catenin corresponded to cell proliferation in liver development. Finally, a smaller-molecular-weight species of beta-catenin might be maintaining normal interactions at the membrane. ..
  36. Lee C, Friedman J, Fulmer J, Kaestner K. The initiation of liver development is dependent on Foxa transcription factors. Nature. 2005;435:944-7 pubmed
    ..genes in the foregut endoderm, no liver bud is evident and expression of the hepatoblast marker alpha-fetoprotein (Afp) is lost...
  37. Schievenbusch S, Sauer E, Curth H, Schulte S, Demir M, Toex U, et al. Neighbor of Punc E 11: expression pattern of the new hepatic stem/progenitor cell marker during murine liver development. Stem Cells Dev. 2012;21:2656-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Nope should be most useful in future research to define the differentiation stage of hepatic-specified cells of various sources and is a promising candidate to identify and isolate hepatic stem cells from the adult liver. ..
  38. Simpson E, McLaren A, Chandler P, Tomonari K. Expression of H-Y antigen by female mice carrying Sxr. Transplantation. 1984;37:17-21 pubmed
    ..They also show that the presence of H-Y in adult females does not impair reproduction. ..
  39. Rosnet O, Stephenson D, Mattei M, Marchetto S, Shibuya M, Chapman V, et al. Close physical linkage of the FLT1 and FLT3 genes on chromosome 13 in man and chromosome 5 in mouse. Oncogene. 1993;8:173-9 pubmed
    ..The physical linkage is also evidenced in mouse, where the two genes appear to lie within a 350 kb Mlu I fragment, on mouse chromosome 5. ..
  40. Jin D, Feuerman M. Sequence requirements for Afr-2 regulation of alpha-fetoprotein gene expression during liver regeneration. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1996;22:211-26 pubmed
    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene expression occurs in the yolk sac, fetal liver and gut, and in the adult liver during regeneration and tumorigenesis...
  41. Jones E, Clement Jones M, James O, Wilson D. Differences between human and mouse alpha-fetoprotein expression during early development. J Anat. 2001;198:555-9 pubmed
    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the major serum protein during development. AFP is one of the earliest proteins to be synthesised by the embryonic liver...
  42. Covello K, Kehler J, Yu H, Gordan J, Arsham A, Hu C, et al. HIF-2alpha regulates Oct-4: effects of hypoxia on stem cell function, embryonic development, and tumor growth. Genes Dev. 2006;20:557-70 pubmed
  43. Hayhurst G, Strick Marchand H, Mulet C, Richard A, Morosan S, Kremsdorf D, et al. Morphogenetic competence of HNF4 alpha-deficient mouse hepatic cells. J Hepatol. 2008;49:384-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the lack of epithelialization characteristic of the HNF4 alpha-null embryonic liver is due, at least in part, to non-cell autonomous defects, and that null cells do not suffer intrinsic defects in polarization. ..
  44. Su H, Trombly M, Chen J, Wang X. Essential and overlapping functions for mammalian Argonautes in microRNA silencing. Genes Dev. 2009;23:304-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results demonstrate that mammalian Agos all contribute to miRNA silencing, and individual Agos have largely overlapping functions in this process. ..
  45. Koike S, Keino Masu K, Masu M. Deficiency of autotaxin/lysophospholipase D results in head cavity formation in mouse embryos through the LPA receptor-Rho-ROCK pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;400:66-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal the signal transduction defects that underlie the abnormalities in Enpp2(-/-) embryos. ..
  46. Blankenhorn E, Duncan R, Huppi K, Potter M. Chromosomal location of the regulator of mouse alpha-fetoprotein, Afr-1. Genetics. 1988;119:687-91 pubmed
    Afr-1 is a gene whose product contributes to the adult regulation of mouse alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). In Afr-1b/b homozygotes, the adult serum levels of AFP are 10- to 20-fold higher than in Afr-1a/a or Afr-1a/b mice...
  47. Keller M, Pawluski J, Brock O, Douhard Q, Bakker J. The alpha-fetoprotein knock-out mouse model suggests that parental behavior is sexually differentiated under the influence of prenatal estradiol. Horm Behav. 2010;57:434-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This was recently confirmed again by using the alpha-fetoprotein knockout (AFP-KO) mouse model, which lacks the protective actions of alpha-fetoprotein against maternal estradiol and as a result ..
  48. Opdecamp K, Riviere M, Molné M, Szpirer J, Szpirer C. Methylation of an alpha-foetoprotein gene intragenic site modulates gene activity. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:171-8 pubmed
    By comparing the methylation pattern of Mspl/Hpall sites in the 5' region of the mouse alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) gene of different cells (hepatoma cells, foetal and adult liver, fibroblasts), we found a correlation between gene expression ..
  49. Downs K, Martin G, Bishop J. Contrasting patterns of myc and N-myc expression during gastrulation of the mouse embryo. Genes Dev. 1989;3:860-9 pubmed
    ..Instead, the gene appeared to be regulated in concert with changes that affect a diversity of cellular properties, including proliferation, invasiveness, and differentiation. ..
  50. Waldrip W, Bikoff E, Hoodless P, Wrana J, Robertson E. Smad2 signaling in extraembryonic tissues determines anterior-posterior polarity of the early mouse embryo. Cell. 1998;92:797-808 pubmed
    ..Chimera experiments demonstrate these essential activities are contributed by the extraembryonic tissues. Thus, the extraembryonic tissues play critical roles in establishing the body plan during early mouse development. ..
  51. Huang J, Bi Y, Zhu G, He Y, Su Y, He B, et al. Retinoic acid signalling induces the differentiation of mouse fetal liver-derived hepatic progenitor cells. Liver Int. 2009;29:1569-81 pubmed publisher
    ..RA was further shown to induce glycogen synthesis in HP14.5 cells, an important function of mature hepatocytes. Our results strongly suggest that RA signalling may play an important role in regulating hepatic differentiation. ..
  52. Polydorou C, Georgiades P. Ets2-dependent trophoblast signalling is required for gastrulation progression after primitive streak initiation. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1658 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model that provides a genetic explanation as to how Ets2 in trophoblast mediates the progression of gastrulation within the epiblast. ..
  53. Cereghini S, Ott M, Power S, Maury M. Expression patterns of vHNF1 and HNF1 homeoproteins in early postimplantation embryos suggest distinct and sequential developmental roles. Development. 1992;116:783-97 pubmed
    ..Our results also provide evidence of a posttranscriptional level of control of vHNF1 and HNF1 gene expression during development, in addition to the spatial restriction in transcription. ..
  54. Danciger M, Farber D, Peyser M, Kozak C. The gene for the beta-subunit of retinal transducin (Gnb-1) maps to distal mouse chromosome 4, and related sequences map to mouse chromosomes 5 and 8. Genomics. 1990;6:428-35 pubmed
    ..The other sequence was on chromosome 8 and is either a pseudogene or an as yet undiscovered third G beta-subunit gene, here termed Gnb-3. ..
  55. Shumiya S, Nagase S. Mapping of the hooded, Gc protein, and albumin gene loci in linkage group VI of the laboratory rat. Biochem Genet. 1988;26:585-93 pubmed
    ..5 +/- 1.0% in h-Gc, 15.8 +/- 1.0% in h-Alb, and 0.32 +/- 0.16% in Gc-Alb. These data confirmed the relationship among the Gc, Alb, and Afp genes in the rat as well as in humans.
  56. Kamiya A, Kinoshita T, Ito Y, Matsui T, Morikawa Y, Senba E, et al. Fetal liver development requires a paracrine action of oncostatin M through the gp130 signal transducer. EMBO J. 1999;18:2127-36 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a paracrine mechanism of hepatogenesis; blood cells, transiently expanding in the fetal liver, produce OSM to promote development of hepatocytes in vivo. ..
  57. Bakker J, De Mees C, Szpirer J, Szpirer C, Balthazart J. Exposure to oestrogen prenatally does not interfere with the normal female-typical development of odour preferences. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:329-34 pubmed
    ..Female mice deficient in alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) due to a targeted mutation in the Afp gene (AFP-KO) do not show any female sexual behaviour when paired with an ..
  58. Morsut L, Yan K, Enzo E, Aragona M, Soligo S, Wendling O, et al. Negative control of Smad activity by ectodermin/Tif1gamma patterns the mammalian embryo. Development. 2010;137:2571-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study unveils that intracellular negative control of Smad function by ectodermin/Tif1gamma is a crucial element in the cellular response to TGFbeta signals in mammalian tissues. ..
  59. Taziaux M, Bakker J. Absence of Female-Typical Pheromone-Induced Hypothalamic Neural Responses and Kisspeptin Neuronal Activity in α-Fetoprotein Knockout Female Mice. Endocrinology. 2015;156:2595-607 pubmed publisher
    ..of estradiol by using female mice deficient in α-fetoprotein (AfpKO), which lack the protective actions of Afp against maternal estradiol...
  60. Emerson J, Vacher J, Cirillo L, Tilghman S, Tyner A. The zonal expression of alpha-fetoprotein transgenes in the livers of adult mice. Dev Dyn. 1992;195:55-66 pubmed
    The developmental regulation of the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene in liver results in high-level expression in the fetus, followed by dramatic transcriptional repression after birth...
  61. Birkenmeier E, Davisson M, Beamer W, Ganschow R, Vogler C, Gwynn B, et al. Murine mucopolysaccharidosis type VII. Characterization of a mouse with beta-glucuronidase deficiency. J Clin Invest. 1989;83:1258-66 pubmed
    ..Analysis of this mutant mouse may offer valuable information on the pathogenesis of human MPS VII and provide a useful system in which to study bone marrow transplantation and gene transfer methods of therapy. ..
  62. Awgulewitsch A, Utset M, Hart C, McGinnis W, Ruddle F. Spatial restriction in expression of a mouse homoeo box locus within the central nervous system. Nature. 1986;320:328-35 pubmed
  63. Pachnis V, Belayew A, Tilghman S. Locus unlinked to alpha-fetoprotein under the control of the murine raf and Rif genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:5523-7 pubmed
    ..This observation argues that the raf gene is a tissue-specific regulator of mRNA levels. ..
  64. Spear B. Mouse alpha-fetoprotein gene 5' regulatory elements are required for postnatal regulation by raf and Rif. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:6497-505 pubmed
    The mouse alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene is expressed at high levels in the yolk sac and fetal liver and at low levels in the fetal gut...
  65. Richards W, Yoder B, Isfort R, Detilleux P, Foster C, Neilsen N, et al. Oval cell proliferation associated with the murine insertional mutation TgN737Rpw. Am J Pathol. 1996;149:1919-30 pubmed
  66. Tomomura M, Nakagawa K, Saheki T. Proto-oncogene c-jun and c-fos messenger RNAs increase in the liver of carnitine-deficient juvenile visceral steatosis (jvs) mice. FEBS Lett. 1992;311:63-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the pattern of the gene expression in jvs mice partly resembles the one that occurs in undifferentiated hepatocytes and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. ..
  67. Belanger L, Roy S, Allard D. New albumin gene 3' adjacent to the alpha 1-fetoprotein locus. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:5481-4 pubmed
    ..The albumin (ALB), alpha 1-fetoprotein (AFP), and vitamin D-binding protein genes are syntenic, the ALB and AFP genes are organized in tandem, and the AFP gene ..
  68. Cirillo L, Emerson J, Vacher J, Tyner A. Developmental regulation of alpha-fetoprotein expression in intestinal epithelial cells of transgenic mice. Dev Biol. 1995;168:395-405 pubmed
    The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene is transcribed in most epithelial cells lining the fetal mouse small intestine, but transcription persists in only a subset of enteroendocrine cells representing less than 1% of the total intestinal ..
  69. Nakabayashi H, Koyama Y, Sakai M, Li H, Wong N, Nishi S. Glucocorticoid stimulates primate but inhibits rodent alpha-fetoprotein gene promoter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;287:160-72 pubmed
    Glucocorticoids inhibit rodent alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene activity but stimulate expression of the human homologue...
  70. Rathjen J, Haines B, Hudson K, Nesci A, Dunn S, Rathjen P. Directed differentiation of pluripotent cells to neural lineages: homogeneous formation and differentiation of a neurectoderm population. Development. 2002;129:2649-61 pubmed
    ..Neurectoderm formation in culture allows elucidation of signals involved in neural specification and generation of implantable cell populations for therapeutic use. ..
  71. Jiang F, Herman G. Analysis of Nsdhl-deficient embryos reveals a role for Hedgehog signaling in early placental development. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:3293-305 pubmed
  72. Tomizawa M, Toyama Y, Ito C, Toshimori K, Iwase K, Takiguchi M, et al. Hepatoblast-like cells enriched from mouse embryonic stem cells in medium without glucose, pyruvate, arginine, and tyrosine. Cell Tissue Res. 2008;333:17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..5 days of gestation) and expression of C/EBPbeta at a similar level to that of fetal liver. These data support our conclusion that HSM allows the selection of hepatoblast-like cells. ..
  73. Jiang J, Creasy K, Purnell J, Peterson M, Spear B. Zhx2 (zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2) regulates major urinary protein gene expression in the mouse liver. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:6765-6774 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify Zhx2 as a novel regulator of Mup expression and indicate that Zhx2 activates as well as represses expression of target genes. ..
  74. Henriette M, Gabant P, Dreze P, Szpirer C, Szpirer J. Negative regulation of the alpha-foetoprotein gene in fibroblasts: identification and characterization of cis and trans elements. Folia Biol (Praha). 1997;43:5-13 pubmed
    The alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) gene is extinguished in hybrids formed between hepatoma cells (expressing cells) and fibroblasts (non-expressing cells)...
  75. Guerra C, Koza R, Walsh K, Kurtz D, Wood P, Kozak L. Abnormal nonshivering thermogenesis in mice with inherited defects of fatty acid oxidation. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:1724-31 pubmed
    ..From a clinical perspective, it is important to determine whether defects in thermogenesis may be a phenotype in human neonates with inherited deficiencies in fatty acid beta-oxidation. ..
  76. Xu C, Liguori G, Persico M, Adamson E. Abrogation of the Cripto gene in mouse leads to failure of postgastrulation morphogenesis and lack of differentiation of cardiomyocytes. Development. 1999;126:483-94 pubmed
    ..Therefore, lethality in the absence of Cr1, likely resulted largely from defective precardiac mesoderm that was unable to differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes. ..
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