Gene Symbol: Adrb2
Description: adrenergic receptor, beta 2
Alias: Adrb-2, Badm, Gpcr7, beta-2 adrenergic receptor, beta 2-AR, beta-2 adrenoceptor, beta-2 adrenoreceptor
Species: mouse
Products:     Adrb2

Top Publications

  1. Itoh C, Kizaki T, Hitomi Y, Hanawa T, Kamiya S, Ookawara T, et al. Down-regulation of beta2-adrenergic receptor expression by exercise training increases IL-12 production by macrophages following LPS stimulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;322:979-84 pubmed
  2. Liu R, Ramani B, Soto D, De Arcangelis V, Xiang Y. Agonist dose-dependent phosphorylation by protein kinase A and G protein-coupled receptor kinase regulates beta2 adrenoceptor coupling to G(i) proteins in cardiomyocytes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:32279-87 pubmed publisher
  3. Wang W, Schillinger R, Malone M, Liggett S. Paradoxical attenuation of ?2-AR function in airway smooth muscle by Gi-mediated counterregulation in transgenic mice overexpressing type 5 adenylyl cyclase. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011;300:L472-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ERK1/2 inhibition had no effect on the phenotype. Thus perturbing the ratio of ?(2)-AR to AC in ASM by increasing AC fails to improve (and actually decreases) ?-agonist efficacy due to counterregulatory events. ..
  4. Chow A, Lucas D, Hidalgo A, Mendez Ferrer S, Hashimoto D, Scheiermann C, et al. Bone marrow CD169+ macrophages promote the retention of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the mesenchymal stem cell niche. J Exp Med. 2011;208:261-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, strategies that target BM M? hold the potential to augment stem cell yields in patients that mobilize HSCs/progenitors poorly. ..
  5. Mutlu G, Dumasius V, Burhop J, McShane P, Meng F, Welch L, et al. Upregulation of alveolar epithelial active Na+ transport is dependent on beta2-adrenergic receptor signaling. Circ Res. 2004;94:1091-100 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that betaAR signaling may not be necessary for basal AFC, and that beta2AR is essential for the adaptive physiological response needed to clear excess fluid from the alveolar airspace of normal and injured lungs. ..
  6. Nguyen L, Lin R, Parra S, Omoluabi O, Hanania N, Tuvim M, et al. Beta2-adrenoceptor signaling is required for the development of an asthma phenotype in a murine model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:2435-40 pubmed publisher
  7. Soto D, De Arcangelis V, Zhang J, Xiang Y. Dynamic protein kinase a activities induced by beta-adrenoceptors dictate signaling propagation for substrate phosphorylation and myocyte contraction. Circ Res. 2009;104:770-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data have revealed insights into kinetics of PKA activities in signaling propagation under neurohormonal stimulation. ..
  8. Nikolaev V, Moshkov A, Lyon A, Miragoli M, Novak P, Paur H, et al. Beta2-adrenergic receptor redistribution in heart failure changes cAMP compartmentation. Science. 2010;327:1653-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the redistribution of beta(2)ARs in heart failure changes compartmentation of cAMP and might contribute to the failing myocardial phenotype...
  9. Tan K, Nackley A, Satterfield K, Maixner W, Diatchenko L, Flood P. Beta2 adrenergic receptor activation stimulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages via PKA- and NF-kappaB-independent mechanisms. Cell Signal. 2007;19:251-60 pubmed

More Information


  1. Ecker P, Lin C, Powers J, Kobilka B, Dubin A, Bernstein D. Effect of targeted deletions of beta1- and beta2-adrenergic-receptor subtypes on heart rate variability. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;290:H192-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the differential role of beta-AR subtypes in regulating autonomic signaling. ..
  2. Bernstein D, Fajardo G, Zhao M, Urashima T, Powers J, Berry G, et al. Differential cardioprotective/cardiotoxic effects mediated by beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H2441-9 pubmed
  3. Elefteriou F, Ahn J, Takeda S, Starbuck M, Yang X, Liu X, et al. Leptin regulation of bone resorption by the sympathetic nervous system and CART. Nature. 2005;434:514-20 pubmed
    ..Sympathetic signalling via beta2-adrenergic receptors (Adrb2) present on osteoblasts controls bone formation downstream of leptin...
  4. Chruscinski A, Brede M, Meinel L, Lohse M, Kobilka B, Hein L. Differential distribution of beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes in blood vessels of knockout mice lacking beta(1)- or beta(2)-adrenergic receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;60:955-62 pubmed
  5. Xiang Y, Kobilka B. The PDZ-binding motif of the beta2-adrenoceptor is essential for physiologic signaling and trafficking in cardiac myocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:10776-81 pubmed
  6. Yoo B, Lemaire A, Mangmool S, Wolf M, Curcio A, Mao L, et al. Beta1-adrenergic receptors stimulate cardiac contractility and CaMKII activation in vivo and enhance cardiac dysfunction following myocardial infarction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297:H1377-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it appears that beta(1)AR signaling is detrimental to cardiac function following MI, possibly through activation of CaMKII. ..
  7. De Arcangelis V, Liu R, Soto D, Xiang Y. Differential association of phosphodiesterase 4D isoforms with beta2-adrenoceptor in cardiac myocytes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33824-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data underscore the complex regulation of intracellular cAMP by beta(2)AR-associated phosphodiesterase enzymes to enforce the specificity of the receptor signaling for physiological responses. ..
  8. Balijepalli R, Foell J, Hall D, Hell J, Kamp T. Localization of cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channels to a caveolar macromolecular signaling complex is required for beta(2)-adrenergic regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:7500-5 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that subcellular localization of L-type Ca(2+) channels to caveolar macromolecular signaling complexes is essential for regulation of the channels by specific signaling pathways. ..
  9. Kiriazis H, Wang K, Xu Q, Gao X, Ming Z, Su Y, et al. Knockout of beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptors attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153:684-92 pubmed publisher
  10. Hinoi E, Gao N, Jung D, Yadav V, Yoshizawa T, Myers M, et al. The sympathetic tone mediates leptin's inhibition of insulin secretion by modulating osteocalcin bioactivity. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:1235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..By showing that leptin inhibits insulin secretion by decreasing osteocalcin bioactivity, this study illustrates the importance of the relationship existing between fat and skeleton for the regulation of glucose homeostasis. ..
  11. Shcherbakova O, Hurt C, Xiang Y, Dell Acqua M, Zhang Q, Tsien R, et al. Organization of beta-adrenoceptor signaling compartments by sympathetic innervation of cardiac myocytes. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:521-33 pubmed
  12. Lee S, Grafweg S, Schneider T, Jimenez M, Giacobino J, Ghanem A, et al. Total beta-adrenoceptor deficiency results in cardiac hypotrophy and negative inotropy. Physiol Res. 2010;59:679-89 pubmed
    ..The decreased SERCA 2a activity following beta-adrenoceptor deficiency may be partly compensated by an increased myofibrillar calcium-sensitivity. ..
  13. Jimenez M, Leger B, Canola K, Lehr L, Arboit P, Seydoux J, et al. Beta(1)/beta(2)/beta(3)-adrenoceptor knockout mice are obese and cold-sensitive but have normal lipolytic responses to fasting. FEBS Lett. 2002;530:37-40 pubmed
    ..Hence, beta-adrenergic signalling is essential for the resistance to obesity and cold, but not for the lipolytic response to fasting. ..
  14. Jiang Y, Zhang Q, Ye E, Steinle J. ?1-adrenergic receptor stimulation by agonist Compound 49b restores insulin receptor signal transduction in vivo. Mol Vis. 2014;20:872-80 pubmed
  15. Rohrer D, Chruscinski A, Schauble E, Bernstein D, Kobilka B. Cardiovascular and metabolic alterations in mice lacking both beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:16701-8 pubmed
  16. Devic E, Xiang Y, Gould D, Kobilka B. Beta-adrenergic receptor subtype-specific signaling in cardiac myocytes from beta(1) and beta(2) adrenoceptor knockout mice. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;60:577-83 pubmed
    ..These studies show that all three beta AR subtypes are expressed in neonatal cardiac myocytes, and the beta(1)AR and beta(2)AR couple to distinct signaling pathways. ..
  17. Lizaso A, Tan K, Lee Y. ?-adrenergic receptor-stimulated lipolysis requires the RAB7-mediated autolysosomal lipid degradation. Autophagy. 2013;9:1228-43 pubmed publisher
    ..By convention, activation of cytosolic lipases via the ?-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2)-cAMP signaling pathway is the only molecular mechanism considered to liberate fatty acids from triglycerides ..
  18. Chruscinski A, Rohrer D, Schauble E, Desai K, Bernstein D, Kobilka B. Targeted disruption of the beta2 adrenergic receptor gene. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:16694-700 pubmed
    ..In summary, the primary physiologic consequences of the beta2-AR gene disruption are observed only during the stress of exercise and are the result of alterations in both vascular tone and energy metabolism. ..
  19. Jiang Y, Zhang Q, Liu L, Tang J, Kern T, Steinle J. ?2-adrenergic receptor knockout mice exhibit A diabetic retinopathy phenotype. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70555 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the effects occurred in vivo under normal glucose conditions, we postulate that aspects of the diabetic retinopathy phenotype might be triggered by loss of ?2-adrenergic receptor signaling. ..
  20. Rohrer D, Desai K, Jasper J, Stevens M, Regula D, Barsh G, et al. Targeted disruption of the mouse beta1-adrenergic receptor gene: developmental and cardiovascular effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:7375-80 pubmed
    ..These findings occur despite persistent cardiac beta 2-AR expression, demonstrating the importance of beta 1-ARs for proper mouse development and cardiac function, while highlighting functional differences between beta-AR subtypes. ..
  21. Wang Y, De Arcangelis V, Gao X, Ramani B, Jung Y, Xiang Y. Norepinephrine- and epinephrine-induced distinct beta2-adrenoceptor signaling is dictated by GRK2 phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:1799-807 pubmed
  22. Xiang Y, Rybin V, Steinberg S, Kobilka B. Caveolar localization dictates physiologic signaling of beta 2-adrenoceptors in neonatal cardiac myocytes. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:34280-6 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that beta(2)ARs are normally restricted to caveolae in myocyte membranes and that this localization is essential for physiologic signaling of this receptor subtype. ..
  23. Mendez Ferrer S, Lucas D, Battista M, Frenette P. Haematopoietic stem cell release is regulated by circadian oscillations. Nature. 2008;452:442-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that a circadian, neurally driven release of HSC during the animal's resting period may promote the regeneration of the stem cell niche and possibly other tissues. ..
  24. Richter W, Day P, Agrawal R, Bruss M, Granier S, Wang Y, et al. Signaling from beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors is defined by differential interactions with PDE4. EMBO J. 2008;27:384-93 pubmed publisher
  25. Schutsky K, Ouyang M, Thomas S. Xamoterol impairs hippocampus-dependent emotional memory retrieval via Gi/o-coupled ?2-adrenergic signaling. Learn Mem. 2011;18:598-604 pubmed publisher
  26. Zhao M, Fajardo G, Urashima T, Spin J, Poorfarahani S, Rajagopalan V, et al. Cardiac pressure overload hypertrophy is differentially regulated by ?-adrenergic receptor subtypes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301:H1461-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiogenesis is not a prerequisite for compensated cardiac hypertrophy. ..
  27. Hayakawa Y, Sakitani K, Konishi M, Asfaha S, Niikura R, Tomita H, et al. Nerve Growth Factor Promotes Gastric Tumorigenesis through Aberrant Cholinergic Signaling. Cancer Cell. 2017;31:21-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This feedforward ACh-NGF axis activates the gastric cancer niche and offers a compelling target for tumor treatment and prevention. ..
  28. Remmers E, Goldmuntz E, Zha H, Crofford L, Cash J, Mathern P, et al. Linkage map of seven polymorphic markers on rat chromosome 18. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:265-70 pubmed
    ..SSLPs) associated with five genes: transthyretin (TTR), trypsin inhibitor-like protein (TILP), beta 2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), olfactory neuron-specific G protein (OLF), and gap junction protein (GJA1)...
  29. Khan M, Mohsin S, Avitabile D, Siddiqi S, Nguyen J, Wallach K, et al. ?-Adrenergic regulation of cardiac progenitor cell death versus survival and proliferation. Circ Res. 2013;112:476-86 pubmed publisher
    ..adrenergic stimulation promotes expansion and survival of CPCs through ?2-AR, but acquisition of ?1-AR on commitment to the myocyte lineage results in loss of CPCs and early myocyte precursors. ..
  30. Li S, Jin M, Zhang D, Yang T, Koeglsperger T, Fu H, et al. Environmental novelty activates ?2-adrenergic signaling to prevent the impairment of hippocampal LTP by A? oligomers. Neuron. 2013;77:929-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These mechanistic insights support using prolonged exposure to cognitive novelty and/or oral ?-adrenergic agonists to lessen the effects of A? accumulation during aging. ..
  31. Kizaki T, Izawa T, Sakurai T, Haga S, Taniguchi N, Tajiri H, et al. Beta2-adrenergic receptor regulates Toll-like receptor-4-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation through beta-arrestin 2. Immunology. 2008;124:348-56 pubmed publisher
  32. Hernandez M, Janusonis S. Quantitative mRNA analysis of serotonin 5-HT? and adrenergic ?? receptors in the mouse embryonic telencephalon. Dev Neurosci. 2010;32:278-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that 5-HT?-R splice variants and ??-ARs are differentially regulated in the embryonic telencephalon and that their relative amounts may carry developmentally important information. ..
  33. Rohlfs E, Daniel K, Premont R, Kozak L, Collins S. Regulation of the uncoupling protein gene (Ucp) by beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3-adrenergic receptor subtypes in immortalized brown adipose cell lines. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:10723-32 pubmed
  34. Isidori A, Cornacchione M, Barbagallo F, Di Grazia A, Barrios F, Fassina L, et al. Inhibition of type 5 phosphodiesterase counteracts β2-adrenergic signalling in beating cardiomyocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;106:408-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify a new effect of PDE5 inhibitors on the modulation of cardiomyocyte response to adrenergic stimulation via PDE5-PDE2-mediated cross-talk. ..
  35. Walker Brown J, Roberts M. Differential contribution of beta-adrenergic receptors expressed on radiosensitive versus radioresistant cells to protection against inflammation and mortality in murine endotoxemia. Shock. 2009;32:541-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we determined that beta3-AR subtype does not play a significant role in regulating LPS-mediated mortality and inflammation by evaluating mice lacking the beta1- and beta2-AR subtypes only. ..
  36. Fajardo G, Zhao M, Urashima T, Farahani S, Hu D, Reddy S, et al. Deletion of the ?2-adrenergic receptor prevents the development of cardiomyopathy in mice. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2013;63:155-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar effects were seen after TAC. Unlike previous models where ?2-ARs were found to be cardioprotective, in these two models, ?2-AR signaling appears to be deleterious, potentially through negative regulation of Ca(2+) dynamics. ..
  37. Davel A, Brum P, Rossoni L. Isoproterenol induces vascular oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction via a Gi?-coupled ?2-adrenoceptor signaling pathway. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e91877 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, long-term ?2-AR activation might results in endothelial dysfunction. ..
  38. Voltarelli V, Bechara L, Bacurau A, Mattos K, Dourado P, Bueno C, et al. Lack of ?2 -adrenoceptors aggravates heart failure-induced skeletal muscle myopathy in mice. J Cell Mol Med. 2014;18:1087-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that lack of ?2 -adrenoceptors worsen and/or anticipate the skeletal myopathy observed in HF. ..
  39. Porter G, Rivkees S. Ontogeny of humoral heart rate regulation in the embryonic mouse. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281:R401-7 pubmed
    ..0. These results identify the adenosinergic system as the earliest and most potent regulator of embryonic cardiac function and show that prenatal responsiveness to catecholamines and acetylcholine develops at later embryonic stages...
  40. Liang D, Liao G, Wang J, Usuka J, Guo Y, Peltz G, et al. A genetic analysis of opioid-induced hyperalgesia in mice. Anesthesiology. 2006;104:1054-62 pubmed
    ..This syndrome may reduce the clinical utility of opioids in treating acute and chronic pain...
  41. Semack A, Sandhu M, Malik R, Vaidehi N, Sivaramakrishnan S. Structural Elements in the G?s and G?q C Termini That Mediate Selective G Protein-coupled Receptor (GPCR) Signaling. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:17929-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our study highlights the synergy in molecular dynamics and FRET-based approaches to dissect the structural basis of selective G protein interactions. ..
  42. Nagao M, Feinstein T, Ezura Y, Hayata T, Notomi T, Saita Y, et al. Sympathetic control of bone mass regulated by osteopontin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:17767-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that OPN plays a critical role in sympathetic tone regulation of bone mass and that this OPN regulation is taking place through modulation of the ?2-adrenergic receptor/cAMP signaling system. ..
  43. Hanyu R, Wehbi V, Hayata T, Moriya S, Feinstein T, Ezura Y, et al. Anabolic action of parathyroid hormone regulated by the ?2-adrenergic receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7433-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data implicate an unexpected functional interaction between PTHR and ?(2)AR, two G protein-coupled receptors from distinct families, which control bone formation and PTH anabolism. ..
  44. Liu R, Wang D, Shi Q, Fu Q, Hizon S, Xiang Y. Palmitoylation regulates intracellular trafficking of ?2 adrenergic receptor/arrestin/phosphodiesterase 4D complexes in cardiomyocytes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42658 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal a novel function of palmitoylation in shaping subcellular cAMP-PKA signaling in cardiomyocytes via modulating the recruitment of ? arrestin 2-PDE4D complexes to the agonist-stimulated ?(2)AR. ..
  45. Feridooni T, Hotchkiss A, Baguma Nibasheka M, Zhang F, Allen B, Chinni S, et al. Effects of β-adrenergic receptor drugs on embryonic ventricular cell proliferation and differentiation and their impact on donor cell transplantation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;312:H919-H931 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight potential interactions between adrenergic drugs and cell transplantation. ..
  46. Cervantes D, Crosby C, Xiang Y. Arrestin orchestrates crosstalk between G protein-coupled receptors to modulate the spatiotemporal activation of ERK MAPK. Circ Res. 2010;106:79-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies not only provide a novel mechanism explaining the integration of mitogenic signaling elicited by different GPCRs, but also underscore the critical role of signaling crosstalk among GPCRs in vivo. ..
  47. Gao X, Dilley R, Samuel C, Percy E, Fullerton M, Dart A, et al. Lower risk of postinfarct rupture in mouse heart overexpressing beta 2-adrenergic receptors: importance of collagen content. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2002;40:632-40 pubmed
  48. Niedermair T, Kuhn V, Doranehgard F, Stange R, Wieskötter B, Beckmann J, et al. Absence of substance P and the sympathetic nervous system impact on bone structure and chondrocyte differentiation in an adult model of endochondral ossification. Matrix Biol. 2014;38:22-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that sensory and sympathetic neurotransmitters have crucial trophic effects which are essential for proper bone formation in addition to their classical neurological actions. ..
  49. Hara M, Sachs B, Caron M, Lefkowitz R. Pharmacological blockade of a ?(2)AR-?-arrestin-1 signaling cascade prevents the accumulation of DNA damage in a behavioral stress model. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:219-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the ?(2)AR-?-arrestin-1 signaling pathway may represent an attractive therapeutic target to prevent some of the negative consequences of stress in the treatment of stress-related disorders. ..
  50. Arora H, Boulberdaa M, Qureshi R, Bitirim V, Gasser A, Messaddeq N, et al. Prokineticin receptor-1 signaling promotes Epicardial to Mesenchymal Transition during heart development. Sci Rep. 2016;6:25541 pubmed publisher
    ..Our mice provide genetic models for congenital dysfunction of the heart and should facilitate studies of both pathogenesis and therapy of cardiac disorders in humans. ..
  51. Wang H, Dong J, Li Q, Hu Q, Ning S, Zheng W, et al. A stress response pathway in mice upregulates somatostatin level and transcription in pancreatic delta cells through Gs and ?-arrestin 1. Diabetologia. 2014;57:1899-910 pubmed publisher
    ..The somatostatin content in ?1AR(-/-) /?2AR(-/-) (Adrb1/Adrb2 knockout) mice was 50% lower than in ?1AR(+/+)/?2AR (+/+) mice...
  52. Miura S, Kawanaka K, Kai Y, Tamura M, Goto M, Shiuchi T, et al. An increase in murine skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) mRNA in response to exercise is mediated by beta-adrenergic receptor activation. Endocrinology. 2007;148:3441-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that up-regulation of PGC-1alpha expression in skeletal muscle by exercise is mediated, at least in part, by beta-ARs activation. Among ARs, beta2-AR may mediate an increase in PGC-1alpha by exercise...
  53. Liu S, Zhang J, Xiang Y. FRET-based direct detection of dynamic protein kinase A activity on the sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiomyocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;404:581-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this new PKA activity biosensor provides a useful tool to directly visualize the dynamic regulation of PKA activity on the SR in cardiomyocytes under various physiological and clinical conditions...
  54. Milano C, Allen L, Rockman H, Dolber P, McMinn T, Chien K, et al. Enhanced myocardial function in transgenic mice overexpressing the beta 2-adrenergic receptor. Science. 1994;264:582-6 pubmed
    ..Because chronic heart failure in humans is accompanied by a reduction in the number of myocardial beta-adrenergic receptors and in inotropic responsiveness, these results suggest a potential gene therapy approach to this disease state. ..
  55. Sassi Y, Ahles A, Truong D, Baqi Y, Lee S, Husse B, et al. Cardiac myocyte-secreted cAMP exerts paracrine action via adenosine receptor activation. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:5385-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data reveal a paracrine role for secreted cAMP in intercellular signaling in the myocardium, and we postulate that secreted cAMP may also constitute an important signal in other tissues. ..
  56. Rockman H, Koch W, Lefkowitz R. Cardiac function in genetically engineered mice with altered adrenergic receptor signaling. Am J Physiol. 1997;272:H1553-9 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis involving signaling pathways through stimulation of adrenergic receptors...
  57. Bachman E, Dhillon H, Zhang C, Cinti S, Bianco A, Kobilka B, et al. betaAR signaling required for diet-induced thermogenesis and obesity resistance. Science. 2002;297:843-5 pubmed
    ..These findings establish that betaARs are necessary for diet-induced thermogenesis and that this efferent pathway plays a critical role in the body's defense against diet-induced obesity. ..
  58. Kim D, Pauer S, Yong H, An S, Liggett S. ?2-Adrenergic Receptors Chaperone Trapped Bitter Taste Receptor 14 to the Cell Surface as a Heterodimer and Exert Unidirectional Desensitization of Taste Receptor Function. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:17616-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the ?2AR acts as a double-edged sword: increasing TAS2R14 cell surface expression, but when activated by ?-agonist, partially offsetting the expression phenotype by direct receptor:receptor desensitization of TAS2R14 function. ..
  59. Davis I, Xu A, Gao Z, Hickman Davis J, Factor P, Sullender W, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus induces insensitivity to beta-adrenergic agonists in mouse lung epithelium in vivo. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;293:L281-9 pubmed
  60. McGraw D, Jacobi S, Hiller F, Cornett L. Structural and functional analysis of the 5'-flanking region of the rat beta 2-adrenergic receptor gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996;1305:135-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that both positive and negative cis-acting regulatory sequences are present in the 5'-flanking region of the rat beta 2-adrenergic receptor gene. ..
  61. Hegde A, Strachan R, Walker J. Quantification of beta adrenergic receptor subtypes in beta-arrestin knockout mouse airways. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0116458 pubmed publisher
  62. Zhang P, He X, Tan J, Zhou X, Zou L. ?-arrestin2 mediates ?-2 adrenergic receptor signaling inducing prostate cancer cell progression. Oncol Rep. 2011;26:1471-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that ?Arr2 is involved in prostate carcinogenesis induced by stress and provides potential therapeutic targets for cancer. ..
  63. Wang W, Pauer S, Smith D, Dixon M, Disimile D, Panebra A, et al. Targeted transgenesis identifies Gαs as the bottleneck in β2-adrenergic receptor cell signaling and physiological function in airway smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;307:L775-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene therapy or pharmacological means of increasing Gαs (or its coupling efficiency to β2AR) thus represent an interface for development of novel therapeutic agents for improvement of β-agonist therapy. ..
  64. Shan T, Ma J, Ma Q, Guo K, Guo J, Li X, et al. ?2-AR-HIF-1?: a novel regulatory axis for stress-induced pancreatic tumor growth and angiogenesis. Curr Mol Med. 2013;13:1023-34 pubmed
    ..This study may have a therapeutic or preventive potential for the patients with pancreatic cancer who are especially prone to psychosocial stress challenges. ..
  65. Motyl K, DeMambro V, Barlow D, Olshan D, Nagano K, Baron R, et al. Propranolol Attenuates Risperidone-Induced Trabecular Bone Loss in Female Mice. Endocrinology. 2015;156:2374-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, β2-adrenergic receptor null (Adrb2(-/-)) mice were also protected from RIS-induced bone loss...
  66. Angers M, Uldry M, Kong D, Gimble J, Jetten A. Mfsd2a encodes a novel major facilitator superfamily domain-containing protein highly induced in brown adipose tissue during fasting and adaptive thermogenesis. Biochem J. 2008;416:347-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed induction of Mfsd2a expression in cultured BAT cells by dibutyryl-cAMP is in agreement with this conclusion. The present study suggests that Mfsd2a plays a role in adaptive thermogenesis. ..
  67. Nickerson J, Dugan S, Drouin G, Moon T. A putative beta2-adrenoceptor from the rainbow trout (Oncorhynuchus mykiss). Molecular characterization and pharmacology. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:6465-72 pubmed
  68. Church J, Trieu J, Sheorey R, Chee A, Naim T, Baum D, et al. Functional ?-adrenoceptors are important for early muscle regeneration in mice through effects on myoblast proliferation and differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e101379 pubmed publisher
  69. Johnson K, Davisson M. A multipoint genetic linkage map of mouse chromosome 18. Genomics. 1992;13:1143-9 pubmed
    ..An additional previously unmapped gene, Drd-1, predicted to be on mouse Chr 18 based on its human chromosomal location, was mapped to the middle region of mouse Chr 13. ..
  70. Allen J, Baetge E, Abrass I, Palmiter R. Isoproterenol response following transfection of the mouse beta 2-adrenergic receptor gene into Y1 cells. EMBO J. 1988;7:133-8 pubmed
    ..This response was fully blocked by the beta 2AR antagonist, propranolol. Prolonged incubation of the cells with isoproterenol resulted in agonist insensitivity and an 80% reduction in membrane receptor number. ..
  71. Vasudevan N, Mohan M, Gupta M, Hussain A, Naga Prasad S. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A activity by PI3K? regulates ?-adrenergic receptor function. Mol Cell. 2011;41:636-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides the underpinnings of a PI3K?-mediated regulation of PP2A activity that has significant consequences on receptor function with broad implications in cellular signaling. ..
  72. Salazar N, Vallejos X, Siryk A, Rengo G, Cannavo A, Liccardo D, et al. GRK2 blockade with ?ARKct is essential for cardiac ?2-adrenergic receptor signaling towards increased contractility. Cell Commun Signal. 2013;11:64 pubmed publisher
    ..GRK2 inhibition in vivo with ?ARKct is absolutely essential for cardiac ?2AR pro-contractile signaling and function. In addition, ?2AR anti-apoptotic signaling in post-MI HF is augmented by ?ARKct, although this effect is short-lived. ..
  73. Li H, Fong C, Chen Y, Cai G, Yang M. Beta-adrenergic signals regulate adipogenesis of mouse mesenchymal stem cells via cAMP/PKA pathway. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;323:201-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that MSC is also a target for beta-adrenergic regulation, and beta-adrenergic signaling (major beta3-signaling) plays a role in MSC adipogenesis. ..
  74. Takeda S. Osteoporosis: a neuroskeletal disease?. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:455-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Namely, like all other homeostatic functions, bone remodelling is under the control of the hypothalamus, and osteoporosis is considered to be a neuroskeletal disease. ..
  75. Wang D, Govindaiah G, Liu R, De Arcangelis V, Cox C, Xiang Y. Binding of amyloid beta peptide to beta2 adrenergic receptor induces PKA-dependent AMPA receptor hyperactivity. FASEB J. 2010;24:3511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study reveals that non-neurotransmitter Abeta has a binding capacity to beta(2)AR and induces PKA-dependent hyperactivity in AMPA receptors. ..
  76. Gregg C, Steppan J, Gonzalez D, Champion H, Phan A, Nyhan D, et al. ?2-adrenergic receptor-coupled phosphoinositide 3-kinase constrains cAMP-dependent increases in cardiac inotropy through phosphodiesterase 4 activation. Anesth Analg. 2010;111:870-7 pubmed publisher
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    ..These results provide the first evidence that CD86 and/or beta(2)AR stimulation on a CD40 ligand/IL-4-activated B cell increases the level of IgG1 protein produced per cell by increasing the rate of mature IgG1 transcription. ..