Gene Symbol: Adrb1
Description: adrenergic receptor, beta 1
Alias: Adrb-1, beta-AR, beta-1 adrenergic receptor, beta 1-AR, beta-1 adrenoceptor, beta-1 adrenoreceptor, cardiac beta adrenergic receptor
Species: mouse
Products:     Adrb1

Top Publications

  1. Panjala S, Jiang Y, Kern T, Thomas S, Steinle J. Increased tumor necrosis factor-?, cleaved caspase 3 levels and insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation in the ??-adrenergic receptor knockout mouse. Mol Vis. 2011;17:1822-8 pubmed
    ..Since many of these same changes are observed in the diabetic retina, these data support that novel ?-adrenergic receptor agents may provide additional avenues for therapeutics. ..
  2. Xiang Y, Devic E, Kobilka B. The PDZ binding motif of the beta 1 adrenergic receptor modulates receptor trafficking and signaling in cardiac myocytes. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:33783-90 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that association of the beta(1)AR with PSD-95 or a related protein dictates signaling specificity by retaining the receptor at the cell surface and preventing interaction with G(i). ..
  3. Kiriazis H, Wang K, Xu Q, Gao X, Ming Z, Su Y, et al. Knockout of beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptors attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153:684-92 pubmed publisher
  4. Zhu W, Wang S, Chakir K, Yang D, Zhang T, Brown J, et al. Linkage of beta1-adrenergic stimulation to apoptotic heart cell death through protein kinase A-independent activation of Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:617-25 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that CaMKII constitutes a novel PKA-independent linkage of beta(1)AR stimulation to cardiomyocyte apoptosis that has been implicated in the overall process of chronic heart failure. ..
  5. Jimenez M, Leger B, Canola K, Lehr L, Arboit P, Seydoux J, et al. Beta(1)/beta(2)/beta(3)-adrenoceptor knockout mice are obese and cold-sensitive but have normal lipolytic responses to fasting. FEBS Lett. 2002;530:37-40 pubmed
    ..Hence, beta-adrenergic signalling is essential for the resistance to obesity and cold, but not for the lipolytic response to fasting. ..
  6. Lee S, Grafweg S, Schneider T, Jimenez M, Giacobino J, Ghanem A, et al. Total beta-adrenoceptor deficiency results in cardiac hypotrophy and negative inotropy. Physiol Res. 2010;59:679-89 pubmed
    ..The decreased SERCA 2a activity following beta-adrenoceptor deficiency may be partly compensated by an increased myofibrillar calcium-sensitivity. ..
  7. Ecker P, Lin C, Powers J, Kobilka B, Dubin A, Bernstein D. Effect of targeted deletions of beta1- and beta2-adrenergic-receptor subtypes on heart rate variability. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;290:H192-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the differential role of beta-AR subtypes in regulating autonomic signaling. ..
  8. Bernstein D, Fajardo G, Zhao M, Urashima T, Powers J, Berry G, et al. Differential cardioprotective/cardiotoxic effects mediated by beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H2441-9 pubmed
  9. Engelhardt S, Hein L, Wiesmann F, Lohse M. Progressive hypertrophy and heart failure in beta1-adrenergic receptor transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:7059-64 pubmed
    ..We conclude that overexpression of beta1-adrenergic receptors in the heart may lead to a short-lived improvement of cardiac function, but that increased beta1-adrenergic receptor signalling is ultimately detrimental. ..

More Information


  1. Rohrer D, Desai K, Jasper J, Stevens M, Regula D, Barsh G, et al. Targeted disruption of the mouse beta1-adrenergic receptor gene: developmental and cardiovascular effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:7375-80 pubmed
    ..These findings occur despite persistent cardiac beta 2-AR expression, demonstrating the importance of beta 1-ARs for proper mouse development and cardiac function, while highlighting functional differences between beta-AR subtypes. ..
  2. Chruscinski A, Brede M, Meinel L, Lohse M, Kobilka B, Hein L. Differential distribution of beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes in blood vessels of knockout mice lacking beta(1)- or beta(2)-adrenergic receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;60:955-62 pubmed
  3. Devic E, Xiang Y, Gould D, Kobilka B. Beta-adrenergic receptor subtype-specific signaling in cardiac myocytes from beta(1) and beta(2) adrenoceptor knockout mice. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;60:577-83 pubmed
    The sympathetic nervous system modulates cardiac contractility and rate by activating beta-adrenergic receptors (beta AR) expressed on cardiac myocytes and specialized cells in the sinoatrial node and the conduction system...
  4. Rohrer D, Chruscinski A, Schauble E, Bernstein D, Kobilka B. Cardiovascular and metabolic alterations in mice lacking both beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:16701-8 pubmed
  5. Jiang Y, Zhang Q, Liu L, Tang J, Kern T, Steinle J. ?2-adrenergic receptor knockout mice exhibit A diabetic retinopathy phenotype. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70555 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the effects occurred in vivo under normal glucose conditions, we postulate that aspects of the diabetic retinopathy phenotype might be triggered by loss of ?2-adrenergic receptor signaling. ..
  6. Zhu W, Chakir K, Zhang S, Yang D, Lavoie C, Bouvier M, et al. Heterodimerization of beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptor subtypes optimizes beta-adrenergic modulation of cardiac contractility. Circ Res. 2005;97:244-51 pubmed
  7. McGraw D, Almoosa K, Paul R, Kobilka B, Liggett S. Antithetic regulation by beta-adrenergic receptors of Gq receptor signaling via phospholipase C underlies the airway beta-agonist paradox. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:619-26 pubmed
    ..These results establish a mechanism of the beta-agonist paradox and identify a potential asthma modifier gene (phospholipase C-beta1), which may also be a therapeutic target in asthma when chronic beta-agonists are required. ..
  8. Mani B, Osborne Lawrence S, Vijayaraghavan P, Hepler C, Zigman J. ?1-Adrenergic receptor deficiency in ghrelin-expressing cells causes hypoglycemia in susceptible individuals. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:3467-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, these results indicate a potential role for ghrelin in mediating beta blocker-associated hypoglycemia in susceptible individuals, such as young children. ..
  9. Isidori A, Cornacchione M, Barbagallo F, Di Grazia A, Barrios F, Fassina L, et al. Inhibition of type 5 phosphodiesterase counteracts β2-adrenergic signalling in beating cardiomyocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;106:408-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify a new effect of PDE5 inhibitors on the modulation of cardiomyocyte response to adrenergic stimulation via PDE5-PDE2-mediated cross-talk. ..
  10. Tsunematsu T, Okumura S, Mototani Y, Ohnuki Y, Jin H, Cai W, et al. Coupling of β1-adrenergic receptor to type 5 adenylyl cyclase and its physiological relevance in cardiac myocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;458:531-535 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe these results are helpful for understanding the mechanisms underlying the different roles of AR subtypes in healthy and diseased hearts. ..
  11. Lee Y, Petkova A, Konkar A, Granneman J. Cellular origins of cold-induced brown adipocytes in adult mice. FASEB J. 2015;29:286-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations identify a novel tissue niche for brown adipogenesis in iBAT and further define depot-specific mechanisms of BA recruitment. ..
  12. Swoap S, Li C, Wess J, Parsons A, Williams T, Overton J. Vagal tone dominates autonomic control of mouse heart rate at thermoneutrality. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H1581-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments conclusively demonstrate that in the absence of cold stress, regulation of vagal tone and modulation of intrinsic rate are important determinants of HR control in the mouse. ..
  13. Fu Q, Xu B, Liu Y, Parikh D, Li J, Li Y, et al. Insulin inhibits cardiac contractility by inducing a Gi-biased ?2-adrenergic signaling in hearts. Diabetes. 2014;63:2676-89 pubmed publisher
  14. Schimanski L, Ali D, Baker G, Nguyen P. Impaired hippocampal LTP in inbred mouse strains can be rescued by beta-adrenergic receptor activation. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:1589-98 pubmed
  15. Rohlfs E, Daniel K, Premont R, Kozak L, Collins S. Regulation of the uncoupling protein gene (Ucp) by beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3-adrenergic receptor subtypes in immortalized brown adipose cell lines. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:10723-32 pubmed
    ..The ability of individual beta AR subtypes to regulate Ucp expression was examined with combinations of selective beta-adrenergic agonists and ..
  16. Neubauer B, Machura K, Schnermann J, Wagner C. Renin expression in large renal vessels during fetal development depends on functional beta1/beta2-adrenergic receptors. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;301:F71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, ?-adrenergic receptor input is critical for the expression of renin in large renal vessels during early fetal development. ..
  17. Hosoda C, Koshimizu T, Tanoue A, Nasa Y, Oikawa R, Tomabechi T, et al. Two alpha1-adrenergic receptor subtypes regulating the vasopressor response have differential roles in blood pressure regulation. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;67:912-22 pubmed
    ..The study shows differential contributions of alpha1B- and alpha1D-ARs in BP regulation. ..
  18. Drosatos K, Bharadwaj K, Lymperopoulos A, Ikeda S, Khan R, Hu Y, et al. Cardiomyocyte lipids impair ?-adrenergic receptor function via PKC activation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;300:E489-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, several lipids that are increased in the setting of lipotoxicity can produce abnormalities in ?-AR responsiveness. This can be attributed to PKC activation and reduced ?-AR levels. ..
  19. Crowley J, Brodkin E, Blendy J, Berrettini W, Lucki I. Pharmacogenomic evaluation of the antidepressant citalopram in the mouse tail suspension test. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:2433-42 pubmed
    ..those for vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2, slc18a2), alpha 2A adrenergic receptor (adra2a), and beta 1 adrenergic receptor (adrb1)...
  20. Walker Brown J, Roberts M. Differential contribution of beta-adrenergic receptors expressed on radiosensitive versus radioresistant cells to protection against inflammation and mortality in murine endotoxemia. Shock. 2009;32:541-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we determined that beta3-AR subtype does not play a significant role in regulating LPS-mediated mortality and inflammation by evaluating mice lacking the beta1- and beta2-AR subtypes only. ..
  21. Jain F, Zhao L, Selig M, Kradin R. Epinephrine promotes pulmonary angiitis: evidence for a beta1-adrenoreceptor-mediated mechanism. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003;285:L232-9 pubmed
    ..05) yielded by Epi, whereas all alpha/beta-AR blockers inhibited airway inflammation. We conclude that Epi-EP selectively promotes vascular inflammation in vivo via a beta1-receptor-mediated mechanism. ..
  22. Li X, Nooh M, Bahouth S. Role of AKAP79/150 protein in ?1-adrenergic receptor trafficking and signaling in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:33797-812 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate a significant role for the AKAP5 scaffold in signaling and trafficking of the ?1-AR in cardiac myocytes and mammalian cells. ..
  23. Halm S, Zhang J, Halm D. beta-Adrenergic activation of electrogenic K+ and Cl- secretion in guinea pig distal colonic epithelium proceeds via separate cAMP signaling pathways. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G81-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus beta-adrenergic activation of electrogenic Cl(-) and K(+) secretion, respectively, required tmAC- and sAC-dependent signaling pathways...
  24. Jiang H, Ding X, Cao Y, Wang H, Zeng W. Dense Intra-adipose Sympathetic Arborizations Are Essential for Cold-Induced Beiging of Mouse White Adipose Tissue. Cell Metab. 2017;26:686-692.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings uncover an essential link connecting efferent neural signals with metabolism of individual adipocytes. ..
  25. Ghosh P, Shu Z, Zhu B, Lu Z, Ikeno Y, Barnes J, et al. Role of ?-adrenergic receptors in regulation of hepatic fat accumulation during aging. J Endocrinol. 2012;213:251-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that augmented hepatic ?-AR signaling during aging may increase lipid accumulation in liver and advocate a possible role for ?-adrenergic blockers in preventing or retarding the development of hepatic steatosis. ..
  26. Han S, Herbison A. Norepinephrine suppresses gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron excitability in the adult mouse. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1129-35 pubmed
    ..These data force a reanalysis of existing models explaining the effects of NE on gonadotropin secretion. ..
  27. Porter G, Rivkees S. Ontogeny of humoral heart rate regulation in the embryonic mouse. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281:R401-7 pubmed
    ..0. These results identify the adenosinergic system as the earliest and most potent regulator of embryonic cardiac function and show that prenatal responsiveness to catecholamines and acetylcholine develops at later embryonic stages...
  28. Rocha N, Garcia S, Giménez L, Hernández C, Senra J, Lima R, et al. Characterization of cardiopulmonary function and cardiac muscarinic and adrenergic receptor density adaptation in C57BL/6 mice with chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Parasitology. 2006;133:729-37 pubmed
  29. Pierroz D, Bonnet N, Bianchi E, Bouxsein M, Baldock P, Rizzoli R, et al. Deletion of ?-adrenergic receptor 1, 2, or both leads to different bone phenotypes and response to mechanical stimulation. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27:1252-62 pubmed publisher histomorphometric bone forming indices, were increased in both Adrb2(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice, but not in Adrb1(-/-) nor in Adrb1b2(-/-) mice...
  30. Kim I, Wang Y, Park K, Tang Y, Teoh J, Vinson J, et al. ?-arrestin1-biased ?1-adrenergic receptor signaling regulates microRNA processing. Circ Res. 2014;114:833-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate a novel function for ?1AR-mediated ?-arrestin1 signaling activated by carvedilol in miR biogenesis, which may be linked, in part, to its mechanism for cell survival. ..
  31. Cohen J, Baggott L, Romano C, Arai M, Southerling T, Young L, et al. Characterization of a mouse beta 1-adrenergic receptor genomic clone. DNA Cell Biol. 1993;12:537-47 pubmed
    ..Binding studies of transient COS-7 transfectants and stable L-cell transfectants confirmed that Clone 5 encodes a beta AR of the beta 1 subtype...
  32. Feridooni T, Hotchkiss A, Baguma Nibasheka M, Zhang F, Allen B, Chinni S, et al. Effects of β-adrenergic receptor drugs on embryonic ventricular cell proliferation and differentiation and their impact on donor cell transplantation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;312:H919-H931 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight potential interactions between adrenergic drugs and cell transplantation. ..
  33. Nabika T, Ito T, Kitada K, Serikawa T, Mashimo T, Soubrier F, et al. Comparative mapping of novel simple sequence repeat markers in a hypertension-related region on rat chromosome 1. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:215-7 pubmed
  34. Feldman A, Gordon J, Wang J, Song J, Zhang X, Myers V, et al. BAG3 regulates contractility and Ca(2+) homeostasis in adult mouse ventricular myocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2016;92:10-20 pubmed publisher
  35. Sampson K, Terrenoire C, Cervantes D, Kaba R, Peters N, Kass R. Adrenergic regulation of a key cardiac potassium channel can contribute to atrial fibrillation: evidence from an I Ks transgenic mouse. J Physiol. 2008;586:627-37 pubmed
  36. Pulinilkunnil T, He H, Kong D, Asakura K, Peroni O, Lee A, et al. Adrenergic regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase in brown adipose tissue in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:8798-809 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, AMPK ? Ser(485/491) phosphorylation may be a novel mechanism to inhibit AMPK activity in vivo and alter its biological effects. ..
  37. O Brien E, Novak E, Keller S, Poirier C, Guenet J, Swank R. Molecular map of chromosome 19 including three genes affecting bleeding time: ep, ru, and bm. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:356-60 pubmed
    ..Several markers were found to be closely linked to the three genes and should be useful as entry points in their eventual molecular identification. ..
  38. Rog Zielinska E, Thomson A, Kenyon C, Brownstein D, Moran C, Szumska D, et al. Glucocorticoid receptor is required for foetal heart maturation. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:3269-82 pubmed publisher
  39. Davel A, Brum P, Rossoni L. Isoproterenol induces vascular oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction via a Gi?-coupled ?2-adrenoceptor signaling pathway. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e91877 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, long-term ?2-AR activation might results in endothelial dysfunction. ..
  40. Keller S, Jones J, Boyle A, Barrow L, Killen P, Green D, et al. Kidney and retinal defects (Krd), a transgene-induced mutation with a deletion of mouse chromosome 19 that includes the Pax2 locus. Genomics. 1994;23:309-20 pubmed
    ..This deletion, Del(19)TgN8052Mm, will be useful for genetic and functional studies of this region of mouse Chromosome 19. ..
  41. Vasudevan N, Mohan M, Gupta M, Martelli E, Hussain A, Qin Y, et al. G??-independent recruitment of G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 drives tumor necrosis factor ?-induced cardiac ?-adrenergic receptor dysfunction. Circulation. 2013;128:377-87 pubmed publisher
    ..TNF?-induced ?AR desensitization is mediated by GRK2 and is independent of G??, uncovering a hitherto unknown cross-talk between TNF? and ?AR function, providing the underpinnings of inflammation-mediated cardiac dysfunction. ..
  42. Ueta C, Fernandes G, Capelo L, Fonseca T, Maculan F, Gouveia C, et al. ?(1) Adrenergic receptor is key to cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis in mice. J Endocrinol. 2012;214:359-65 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the ?(1) signaling pathway mediates most of the SNS stimulation of adaptive thermogenesis. ..
  43. Murchison C, Zhang X, Zhang W, Ouyang M, Lee A, Thomas S. A distinct role for norepinephrine in memory retrieval. Cell. 2004;117:131-43 pubmed
    ..These findings may be relevant to symptoms in several neuropsychiatric disorders as well as the treatment of cardiac failure with beta blockers. ..
  44. Schutsky K, Ouyang M, Castelino C, Zhang L, Thomas S. Stress and glucocorticoids impair memory retrieval via ?2-adrenergic, Gi/o-coupled suppression of cAMP signaling. J Neurosci. 2011;31:14172-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the ?(2) receptor can be a critical effector of acute stress, and that ?(1) and ?(2) receptors can have quite distinct roles in CNS signaling and cognition. ..
  45. Hammer K, Ljubojević S, Ripplinger C, Pieske B, Bers D. Cardiac myocyte alternans in intact heart: Influence of cell-cell coupling and β-adrenergic stimulation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015;84:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Electrical coupling between myocytes may thus limit the alternans initiation, but also allow alternans to be more stable once established. ..
  46. Masand R, Paulo E, Wu D, Wang Y, Swaney D, Jimenez Morales D, et al. Proteome Imbalance of Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain in Brown Adipocytes Leads to Metabolic Benefits. Cell Metab. 2018;27:616-629.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data demonstrate that ETC proteome imbalance in BAT regulates systemic metabolism independently of thermogenesis. ..
  47. Cho M, Rao M, Koch W, Thomas S, Palmiter R, Rockman H. Enhanced contractility and decreased beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-1 in mice lacking endogenous norepinephrine and epinephrine. Circulation. 1999;99:2702-7 pubmed
    ..This animal model will be valuable in testing whether NE is required for the pathogenesis of heart failure through mating strategies that cross the dbh-/- mouse into genetically engineered models of heart failure. ..
  48. Nogueiras R, Perez Tilve D, Veyrat Durebex C, Morgan D, Varela L, Haynes W, et al. Direct control of peripheral lipid deposition by CNS GLP-1 receptor signaling is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system and blunted in diet-induced obesity. J Neurosci. 2009;29:5916-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, the CNS GLP-1 system loses the capacity to modulate adipocyte metabolism in obese states, suggesting an obesity-induced adipocyte resistance to CNS GLP-1. ..
  49. Ieda M, Kanazawa H, Kimura K, Hattori F, Ieda Y, Taniguchi M, et al. Sema3a maintains normal heart rhythm through sympathetic innervation patterning. Nat Med. 2007;13:604-12 pubmed
    ..We conclude that appropriate cardiac Sema3a expression is needed for sympathetic innervation patterning and is critical for heart rate control. ..
  50. Hadri K, Courtalon A, Gauthereau X, Chambaut Guérin A, Pairault J, Feve B. Differential regulation by tumor necrosis factor-alpha of beta1-, beta2-, and beta3-adrenoreceptor gene expression in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:24514-21 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate a differential modulation by TNF-alpha of the three beta-adrenoreceptor subtypes in adipocytes, which may contribute to metabolic disorders induced by the cytokine in the adipocyte. ..
  51. Wang H, Dong J, Li Q, Hu Q, Ning S, Zheng W, et al. A stress response pathway in mice upregulates somatostatin level and transcription in pancreatic delta cells through Gs and ?-arrestin 1. Diabetologia. 2014;57:1899-910 pubmed publisher
    ..The somatostatin content in ?1AR(-/-) /?2AR(-/-) (Adrb1/Adrb2 knockout) mice was 50% lower than in ?1AR(+/+)/?2AR (+/+) mice...
  52. van der Hagen E, Tudpor K, Verkaart S, Lavrijsen M, van der Kemp A, van Zeeland F, et al. ?1-Adrenergic receptor signaling activates the epithelial calcium channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 5 (TRPV5), via the protein kinase A pathway. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:18489-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These data explicate a calciotropic role in addition to the inotropic property of ?1-AR. ..
  53. Huang Z, Gao E, Fonseca F, Hayashi H, Shang X, Hoffman N, et al. Convergence of G protein-coupled receptor and S-nitrosylation signaling determines the outcome to cardiac ischemic injury. Sci Signal. 2013;6:ra95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest new insights into the mechanism of action of classic drugs used to treat heart failure and new therapeutic approaches to ischemic heart disease. ..
  54. Shaut C, Keene D, Sorensen L, Li D, Stadler H. HOXA13 Is essential for placental vascular patterning and labyrinth endothelial specification. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000073 pubmed publisher
  55. Ding Y, Remmers E, Du Y, Longman R, Goldmuntz E, Zha H, et al. Genetic maps of polymorphic DNA loci on rat chromosome 1. Genomics. 1996;36:320-7 pubmed
    ..for five genes, gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor beta3 (Gabrb3), syntaxin 2 (Stx2), adrenergic receptor beta1 (Adrb1), carcinoembryonic antigen gene family member 1 (Cgm1), and lipogenic protein S14 (Lpgp), and 20 anonymous loci ..
  56. Bouxsein M, Devlin M, Glatt V, Dhillon H, Pierroz D, Ferrari S. Mice lacking beta-adrenergic receptors have increased bone mass but are not protected from deleterious skeletal effects of ovariectomy. Endocrinology. 2009;150:144-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings also suggest direct positive effects of weight and/or leptin on bone turnover and cortical bone structure, independent of adrenergic signaling. ..
  57. Miura S, Kawanaka K, Kai Y, Tamura M, Goto M, Shiuchi T, et al. An increase in murine skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) mRNA in response to exercise is mediated by beta-adrenergic receptor activation. Endocrinology. 2007;148:3441-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that up-regulation of PGC-1alpha expression in skeletal muscle by exercise is mediated, at least in part, by beta-ARs activation. Among ARs, beta2-AR may mediate an increase in PGC-1alpha by exercise...
  58. Koch W, Rockman H, Samama P, Hamilton R, Bond R, Milano C, et al. Cardiac function in mice overexpressing the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase or a beta ARK inhibitor. Science. 1995;268:1350-3 pubmed
    ..Because increased amounts of beta ARK1 and diminished cardiac beta-adrenergic responsiveness characterize heart failure, these animals may provide experimental models to study the role of beta ARK in heart disease. ..
  59. Emeny R, Gao D, Lawrence D. Beta1-adrenergic receptors on immune cells impair innate defenses against Listeria. J Immunol. 2007;178:4876-84 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, beta1AR signaling has immunomodulatory effects on early cell-mediated immune responses; a lack of beta1AR signaling improves antilisterial defenses and cell-mediated immunity, in general. ..
  60. Rockman H, Koch W, Lefkowitz R. Cardiac function in genetically engineered mice with altered adrenergic receptor signaling. Am J Physiol. 1997;272:H1553-9 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis involving signaling pathways through stimulation of adrenergic receptors...
  61. Keller K, Maass M, Dizayee S, Leiss V, Annala S, Köth J, et al. Lack of Gαi2 leads to dilative cardiomyopathy and increased mortality in β1-adrenoceptor overexpressing mice. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;108:348-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Gαi3 up-regulation was not sufficient to compensate for Gαi2 deficiency, suggesting an isoform-specific or a concentration-dependent mechanism. ..
  62. Sassi Y, Ahles A, Truong D, Baqi Y, Lee S, Husse B, et al. Cardiac myocyte-secreted cAMP exerts paracrine action via adenosine receptor activation. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:5385-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data reveal a paracrine role for secreted cAMP in intercellular signaling in the myocardium, and we postulate that secreted cAMP may also constitute an important signal in other tissues. ..
  63. Kim D, Pauer S, Yong H, An S, Liggett S. ?2-Adrenergic Receptors Chaperone Trapped Bitter Taste Receptor 14 to the Cell Surface as a Heterodimer and Exert Unidirectional Desensitization of Taste Receptor Function. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:17616-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the ?2AR acts as a double-edged sword: increasing TAS2R14 cell surface expression, but when activated by ?-agonist, partially offsetting the expression phenotype by direct receptor:receptor desensitization of TAS2R14 function. ..
  64. Charalambous M, Ferron S, da Rocha S, Murray A, Rowland T, Ito M, et al. Imprinted gene dosage is critical for the transition to independent life. Cell Metab. 2012;15:209-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This shows that appropriate dosage control at imprinted loci can act as a critical determinant in postnatal survival during phases of physiological adaptation. ..
  65. Tang L, Okamoto S, Shiuchi T, Toda C, Takagi K, Sato T, et al. Sympathetic Nerve Activity Maintains an Anti-Inflammatory State in Adipose Tissue in Male Mice by Inhibiting TNF-α Gene Expression in Macrophages. Endocrinology. 2015;156:3680-94 pubmed publisher
  66. Liu S, Zhang J, Xiang Y. FRET-based direct detection of dynamic protein kinase A activity on the sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiomyocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;404:581-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this new PKA activity biosensor provides a useful tool to directly visualize the dynamic regulation of PKA activity on the SR in cardiomyocytes under various physiological and clinical conditions...
  67. Volk N, Paul E, Haramati S, Eitan C, Fields B, Zwang R, et al. MicroRNA-19b associates with Ago2 in the amygdala following chronic stress and regulates the adrenergic receptor beta 1. J Neurosci. 2014;34:15070-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Bioinformatics analysis revealed the adrenergic receptor β-1 (Adrb1) as a potential target for this microRNA with multiple conserved seed sites...
  68. Grinshpon M, Bondarenko V. Simulation of the effects of moderate stimulation/inhibition of the ?1-adrenergic signaling system and its components in mouse ventricular myocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2016;310:C844-56 pubmed publisher
  69. Khor K, Moore T, Shiels I, Greer R, Arumugam T, Mills P. A Potential Link between the C5a Receptor 1 and the β1-Adrenoreceptor in the Mouse Heart. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0146022 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockout of the C5aR1 attenuated the effect of β1-AR in the heart, suggesting an association between the β1-AR and C5aR1, although further investigation is required to determine if this is a direct or causal association. ..
  70. Oakey R, Caron M, Lefkowitz R, Seldin M. Genomic organization of adrenergic and serotonin receptors in the mouse: linkage mapping of sequence-related genes provides a method for examining mammalian chromosome evolution. Genomics. 1991;10:338-44 pubmed
    ..We have identified a region that may have been translocated during evolution and suggest that the human genomic organization of adrenergic receptors more closely resembles that of a putative primordial ancestor. ..
  71. Nickerson J, Dugan S, Drouin G, Moon T. A putative beta2-adrenoceptor from the rainbow trout (Oncorhynuchus mykiss). Molecular characterization and pharmacology. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:6465-72 pubmed
  72. Church J, Trieu J, Sheorey R, Chee A, Naim T, Baum D, et al. Functional ?-adrenoceptors are important for early muscle regeneration in mice through effects on myoblast proliferation and differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e101379 pubmed publisher
  73. Bachman E, Dhillon H, Zhang C, Cinti S, Bianco A, Kobilka B, et al. betaAR signaling required for diet-induced thermogenesis and obesity resistance. Science. 2002;297:843-5 pubmed
    ..These findings establish that betaARs are necessary for diet-induced thermogenesis and that this efferent pathway plays a critical role in the body's defense against diet-induced obesity. ..
  74. Raake P, Vinge L, Gao E, Boucher M, Rengo G, Chen X, et al. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 ablation in cardiac myocytes before or after myocardial infarction prevents heart failure. Circ Res. 2008;103:413-22 pubmed publisher
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