Gene Symbol: Adra2c
Description: adrenergic receptor, alpha 2c
Alias: Adra-2c, [a]2C, alpha2-C4, alpha2C, alpha-2C adrenergic receptor, alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtype C4, alpha-2C adrenoceptor, alpha-2C adrenoreceptor, alpha-2CAR, subtype alpha2-C4
Species: mouse
Products:     Adra2c

Top Publications

  1. Link R, Stevens M, Kulatunga M, Scheinin M, Barsh G, Kobilka B. Targeted inactivation of the gene encoding the mouse alpha 2c-adrenoceptor homolog. Mol Pharmacol. 1995;48:48-55 pubmed
    ..As an alternative approach, we have used gene targeting in embryonic stem cells to disrupt the Adra2c gene, which encodes the alpha 2c-AR subtype in mice...
  2. Bjorklund M, Sirvio J, Puolivali J, Sallinen J, Jakala P, Scheinin M, et al. Alpha2C-adrenoceptor-overexpressing mice are impaired in executing nonspatial and spatial escape strategies. Mol Pharmacol. 1998;54:569-76 pubmed
    ..The alpha2C-adrenoceptor subtype is expressed in the basal ganglia, hippocampus, and neocortex, areas that are involved in ..
  3. Tanila H, Mustonen K, Sallinen J, Scheinin M, Riekkinen P. Role of alpha2C-adrenoceptor subtype in spatial working memory as revealed by mice with targeted disruption of the alpha2C-adrenoceptor gene. Eur J Neurosci. 1999;11:599-603 pubmed
    The role of the alpha2C-adrenoceptor subtype in mediating the beneficial effect of alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists on spatial working memory was studied in adult mice with targeted inactivation of the alpha2C-receptor gene (KO) and their ..
  4. Scheibner J, Trendelenburg A, Hein L, Starke K. Alpha2-adrenoceptors modulating neuronal serotonin release: a study in alpha2-adrenoceptor subtype-deficient mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2001;132:925-33 pubmed
    ..hippocampus or the occipito-parietal cortex from NMRI mice, from mice lacking the alpha2A/D-, the alpha2B-, the alpha2C- or both the alpha2A/D- and the alpha2C-adrenoceptor, and from mice sharing the genetic background of the ..
  5. Brum P, Kosek J, Patterson A, Bernstein D, Kobilka B. Abnormal cardiac function associated with sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity in mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;283:H1838-45 pubmed
    ..These mice provide a physiologically relevant animal model for investigating the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the development and progression of heart failure. ..
  6. Rolim N, Medeiros A, Rosa K, Mattos K, Irigoyen M, Krieger E, et al. Exercise training improves the net balance of cardiac Ca2+ handling protein expression in heart failure. Physiol Genomics. 2007;29:246-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, we provide evidence that Ca(2+) handling is impaired in this HF model and that overall VF improved upon ET, which was associated to changes in the net balance of cardiac Ca(2+) handling proteins. ..
  7. Medeiros A, Rolim N, Oliveira R, Rosa K, Mattos K, Casarini D, et al. Exercise training delays cardiac dysfunction and prevents calcium handling abnormalities in sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure mice. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;104:103-9 pubmed
  8. Link R, Daunt D, Barsh G, Chruscinski A, Kobilka B. Cloning of two mouse genes encoding alpha 2-adrenergic receptor subtypes and identification of a single amino acid in the mouse alpha 2-C10 homolog responsible for an interspecies variation in antagonist binding. Mol Pharmacol. 1992;42:16-27 pubmed
    ..Analysis of these receptors identified a conservative Cys201 to Ser201 change in the fifth transmembrane domain of M alpha 2-10H as being responsible for the low affinity of the mouse receptor for yohimbine. ..
  9. Bruno K, Hess E. The alpha(2C)-adrenergic receptor mediates hyperactivity of coloboma mice, a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neurobiol Dis. 2006;23:679-88 pubmed
    ..Localized in the basal ganglia, alpha(2C)-adrenergic receptors are in a prime position to impact locomotor activity and are, therefore, potential targets of pharmacotherapy for ADHD. ..

More Information


  1. Romana Souza B, Nascimento A, Brum P, Monte Alto Costa A. Deletion of the α2A/α2C-adrenoceptors accelerates cutaneous wound healing in mice. Int J Exp Pathol. 2014;95:330-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, α2A/α2C-adrenoceptor deletion accelerates cutaneous wound healing in mice. ..
  2. Carrettiero D, Ferrari M, Fior Chadi D. ?2-Adrenergic receptor distribution and density within the nucleus tractus solitarii of normotensive and hypertensive rats during development. Auton Neurosci. 2012;166:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results highlight the importance of alpha(2R) distribution within the NTS regarding the neural control of blood pressure and the development of hypertension. ..
  3. Chen W, Chang A, Wang C, Lin C, Chang N. Characterization of the regulatory regions of murine alpha 2C2 adrenoceptor subtype gene. Neurosci Lett. 1996;210:33-6 pubmed
  4. Altman J, Trendelenburg A, MacMillan L, Bernstein D, Limbird L, Starke K, et al. Abnormal regulation of the sympathetic nervous system in alpha2A-adrenergic receptor knockout mice. Mol Pharmacol. 1999;56:154-61 pubmed
    ..To date, three subtypes of alpha2-ARs have been cloned (alpha2A, alpha2B, and alpha2C). Here we describe the physiological consequences of disrupting the gene for the alpha2A-AR...
  5. Muthig V, Gilsbach R, Haubold M, Philipp M, Ivacevic T, Gessler M, et al. Upregulation of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 contributes to angiogenesis defects in the placenta of alpha 2B-adrenoceptor deficient mice. Circ Res. 2007;101:682-91 pubmed
  6. Höcker J, Gruenewald M, Meybohm P, Schaper C, Scholz J, Steinfath M, et al. Nefopam but not physostigmine affects the thermoregulatory response in mice via alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. Neuropharmacology. 2010;58:495-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate an important role of the alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor in the thermoregulatory response induced by nefopam but not by physostigmine in mice. ..
  7. Link R, Kobilka B, Barsh G. Linkage mapping of alpha-2 adrenergic receptor genes to mouse chromosomes 2 and 5. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:650-5 pubmed
    ..Finally, several candidate mouse mutations that map close to Adra-2b and Adra-2c are discussed. ..
  8. Fujita A, Horio Y, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Kurachi Y. Assignment of mouse cardiac two-pore background K+ channel gene (Kcnk4) to the proximal region of mouse chromosome 5. Genomics. 1998;54:183-4 pubmed
  9. Ferreira J, Bacurau A, Evangelista F, Coelho M, Oliveira E, Casarini D, et al. The role of local and systemic renin angiotensin system activation in a genetic model of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294:R26-32 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data provide direct evidence that cardiac RAS activation plays a major role underlying the structural and functional abnormalities associated with a genetic SH-induced HF in mice. ..
  10. Gilsbach R, Schneider J, Lother A, Schickinger S, Leemhuis J, Hein L. Sympathetic alpha(2)-adrenoceptors prevent cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in mice at baseline but not after chronic pressure overload. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;86:432-42 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these receptors are desensitized by chronic pressure overload which in turn may contribute to the pathogenesis of this condition. ..
  11. Link R, Desai K, Hein L, Stevens M, Chruscinski A, Bernstein D, et al. Cardiovascular regulation in mice lacking alpha2-adrenergic receptor subtypes b and c. Science. 1996;273:803-5 pubmed
    ..The role of specific alpha2AR subtypes (alpha2a, alpha2b, and alpha2c) was characterized with hemodynamic measurements obtained from strains of genetically engineered mice deficient ..
  12. Wang R, MacMillan L, Fremeau R, Magnuson M, Lindner J, Limbird L. Expression of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the mouse brain: evaluation of spatial and temporal information imparted by 3 kb of 5' regulatory sequence for the alpha 2A AR-receptor gene in transgenic animals. Neuroscience. 1996;74:199-218 pubmed
    The present studies characterize the expression of the alpha 2A, alpha 2B and alpha 2C adrenergic receptor subtypes via in situ hybridization analysis of messenger RNA expression in the adult mouse brain, as well as the pattern of ..
  13. Pulinilkunnil T, He H, Kong D, Asakura K, Peroni O, Lee A, et al. Adrenergic regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase in brown adipose tissue in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:8798-809 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, AMPK ? Ser(485/491) phosphorylation may be a novel mechanism to inhibit AMPK activity in vivo and alter its biological effects. ..
  14. LUHRS L, Manlapaz C, Kedzie K, Rao S, Cabrera Ghayouri S, Donello J, et al. Function of brain ?2B-adrenergic receptor characterized with subtype-selective ?2B antagonist and KO mice. Neuroscience. 2016;339:608-621 pubmed publisher
  15. Shworak N, Liu J, Petros L, Zhang L, Kobayashi M, Copeland N, et al. Multiple isoforms of heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase. Isolation, characterization, and expression of human cdnas and identification of distinct genomic loci. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:5170-84 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the extensive number of 3OST genes with diverse expression patterns of multiple transcripts suggests that the novel 3-OST enzymes, like 3-OST-1, regulate important biologic properties of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. ..
  16. Sporkova A, PEREZ RIVERA A, Galligan J. Interaction between alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenoreceptors contributes to enhanced constrictor effects of norepinephrine in mesenteric veins compared to arteries. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;643:239-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This interaction enhances venous adrenergic reactivity. Mesenteric vein-specific alpha(2)-adrenoceptor linked Ca(2+) and perhaps other signaling pathways account for enhanced venous adrenergic reactivity. ..
  17. Puoliväli J, Björklund M, Holmberg M, Ihalainen J, Scheinin M, Tanila H. Alpha 2C-adrenoceptor mediated regulation of cortical EEG arousal. Neuropharmacology. 2002;43:1305-12 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that alpha(2C)-ARs may antagonize the sedative effect of alpha(2)-AR agonists mediated by activation of alpha(2A)-ARs. ..
  18. Hsing C, Lin C, So E, Sun D, Chen T, Li C, et al. ?2-Adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine protects septic acute kidney injury through increasing BMP-7 and inhibiting HDAC2 and HDAC5. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;303:F1443-53 pubmed publisher
    ..However, DEX treatment reduced those changes. DEX reduces sepsis-induced AKI by decreasing TNF-? and MCP-1 and increasing BMP-7, which is associated with decreasing HDAC2 and HDAC5, as well as increasing acetyl histone H3. ..
  19. Lembo P, Ghahremani M, Albert P. Receptor selectivity of the cloned opossum G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in intact opossum kidney cells: role in desensitization of endogenous alpha2C-adrenergic but not serotonin 1B receptors. Mol Endocrinol. 1999;13:138-47 pubmed
    ..the specificity of endogenously expressed G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) for endogenous Gi-coupled alpha2C-adrenergic and serotonin 1B (5-HT1B) receptors in the opossum kidney (OK) cell line, we have isolated a 3...
  20. Philipp M, Brede M, Hadamek K, Gessler M, Lohse M, Hein L. Placental alpha(2)-adrenoceptors control vascular development at the interface between mother and embryo. Nat Genet. 2002;31:311-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, alpha(2)-adrenoceptors are essential at the placental interface between mother and embryo to establish the circulatory system of the placenta and thus maintain pregnancy. ..
  21. Hunter J, Fontana D, Hedley L, Jasper J, Lewis R, Link R, et al. Assessment of the role of alpha2-adrenoceptor subtypes in the antinociceptive, sedative and hypothermic action of dexmedetomidine in transgenic mice. Br J Pharmacol. 1997;122:1339-44 pubmed
    ..Dex) in mice devoid of individual alpha2AR subtypes through either a point (alpha2A) or null (alpha2B/alpha2C) mutation ('knock-out'). 2...
  22. Rockman H, Koch W, Lefkowitz R. Cardiac function in genetically engineered mice with altered adrenergic receptor signaling. Am J Physiol. 1997;272:H1553-9 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis involving signaling pathways through stimulation of adrenergic receptors...
  23. Cikos S, Rehák P, Czikková S, Veselá J, Koppel J. Expression of adrenergic receptors in mouse preimplantation embryos and ovulated oocytes. Reproduction. 2007;133:1139-47 pubmed
    ..can distinguish among all members of the alpha-adrenergic receptor family, and showed (using RT-PCR) that the alpha2C-adrenergic receptor is transcribed in ovulated oocytes, 8- to 16-cell morulae and expanded blastocysts...
  24. Riccio O, Hurni N, Murthy S, Vutskits L, Hein L, Dayer A. Alpha2-adrenergic receptor activation regulates cortical interneuron migration. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;36:2879-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the general hypothesis that adrenergic dysregulation occurring during embryonic development alters cellular processes involved in the formation of cortical circuits. ..
  25. Clay F, Ernst M, Trueman J, Flegg R, Dunn A. The mouse Plk gene: structural characterization, chromosomal localization and identification of a processed Plk pseudogene. Gene. 1997;198:329-39 pubmed
    ..Parsimony analysis suggests that the gene duplication leading to the mouse Plk pseudogene occurred after the rat-mouse split. ..
  26. de Souza G, Duarte I, de Castro Perez A. Differential involvement of central and peripheral ?2 adrenoreceptors in the antinociception induced by aerobic and resistance exercise. Anesth Analg. 2013;116:703-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, ?2-ARs expression in rat brains did not change after AA and acute resistance exercise. These results suggest a peripheral involvement of ?2-ARs in the antinociception induced by aerobic and resistance exercise. ..
  27. Vanzelli A, Medeiros A, Rolim N, Bartholomeu J, Cunha T, Bechara L, et al. Integrative effect of carvedilol and aerobic exercise training therapies on improving cardiac contractility and remodeling in heart failure mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62452 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings provide evidence that the combination of carvedilol and aerobic exercise training therapies lead to a better integrative outcome than carvedilol or exercise training used in isolation. ..
  28. Honda M, Suzuki M, Nakayama K, Ishikawa T. Role of alpha2C-adrenoceptors in the reduction of skin blood flow induced by local cooling in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;152:91-100 pubmed
    ..Local cooling-induced reduction of skin blood flow in mice primarily results from increased reactivity of alpha (2C)-adrenoceptors to circulating catecholamines, in which the Rho/Rho kinase pathway is involved. ..
  29. Bücheler M, Hadamek K, Hein L. Two alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor subtypes, alpha(2A) and alpha(2C), inhibit transmitter release in the brain of gene-targeted mice. Neuroscience. 2002;109:819-26 pubmed
    ..From these data we suggest that two functionally distinct alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor subtypes, alpha(2A) and alpha(2C), operate as presynaptic inhibitory receptors regulating neurotransmitter release in the mouse CNS. ..
  30. Klein U, Ramirez M, Kobilka B, von Zastrow M. A novel interaction between adrenergic receptors and the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2B. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:19099-102 pubmed
    ..and was shown to be specific for a subset of G protein-coupled receptors, including the alpha2A-, alpha2B-, alpha2C-, and beta2-adrenergic receptors, but not the vasopressin (V2) receptor...
  31. Chen W, Chang N, Chang Y, Chang K, Wu S, Yang T, et al. Characterization of the regulatory region of Adra2c, the gene encoding the murine alpha2C adrenoceptor subtype. J Biomed Sci. 2004;11:886-901 pubmed
    ..Significant Adra2c-NN-driven reporter expression in Tg mice established suggests that alpha2C adrenoceptor expression is permissive under Adra2c-NN in central (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, subthalamus, ..
  32. Knaus A, Zong X, Beetz N, Jahns R, Lohse M, Biel M, et al. Direct inhibition of cardiac hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated pacemaker channels by clonidine. Circulation. 2007;115:872-80 pubmed
    ..Direct inhibition of cardiac HCN pacemaker channels contributes to the bradycardic effects of clonidine gene-targeted mice in vivo, and thus, clonidine-like drugs represent novel structures for future HCN channel inhibitors. ..
  33. Sawamura S, Kingery W, Davies M, Agashe G, Clark J, Kobilka B, et al. Antinociceptive action of nitrous oxide is mediated by stimulation of noradrenergic neurons in the brainstem and activation of [alpha]2B adrenoceptors. J Neurosci. 2000;20:9242-51 pubmed
  34. Noguchi T, Ishimine H, Nakajima Y, Watanabe Susaki K, Shigeta N, Yamakawa N, et al. Novel cell surface genes expressed in the stomach primordium during gastrointestinal morphogenesis of mouse embryos. Gene Expr Patterns. 2012;12:154-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel genes will be useful in expanding our understanding of the mechanisms of gastrointestinal development. ..
  35. Moura E, Afonso J, Hein L, Vieira Coelho M. Alpha2-adrenoceptor subtypes involved in the regulation of catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla of mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2006;149:1049-58 pubmed
    ..This study was carried out to elucidate which alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes mediated the inhibition of noradrenaline and adrenaline release from the adrenal medulla of mice...
  36. Brede M, Nagy G, Philipp M, Sorensen J, Lohse M, Hein L. Differential control of adrenal and sympathetic catecholamine release by alpha 2-adrenoceptor subtypes. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:1640-6 pubmed
    ..Short-loop feedback inhibition of epinephrine release from the adrenal gland may represent a novel therapeutic target for diseases that arise from enhanced adrenergic stimulation. ..
  37. Hein L, Altman J, Kobilka B. Two functionally distinct alpha2-adrenergic receptors regulate sympathetic neurotransmission. Nature. 1999;402:181-4 pubmed
    ..the individual roles of the three highly homologous alpha2-adrenergic-receptor subtypes (alpha2A, alpha2B, alpha2C) in this process are not known...
  38. Gilsbach R, Faron Górecka A, Rogoz Z, Bruss M, Caron M, Dziedzicka Wasylewska M, et al. Norepinephrine transporter knockout-induced up-regulation of brain alpha2A/C-adrenergic receptors. J Neurochem. 2006;96:1111-20 pubmed
    ..In an 'in vivo' test, the alpha(2)AR agonist clonidine (0.1 mg/kg) caused a significantly greater reduction of locomotor activity in NET-KO mice than in wild-type mice, showing the relevance of our findings at the functional level. ..
  39. Fonseca T, Jorgetti V, Costa C, Capelo L, Covarrubias A, Moulatlet A, et al. Double disruption of ?2A- and ?2C-adrenoceptors results in sympathetic hyperactivity and high-bone-mass phenotype. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:591-603 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that ?(2)-AR is not the single adrenoceptor involved in bone turnover regulation and show that ?(2)-AR signaling also may mediate the SNS actions in the skeleton. ..
  40. Bjorklund M, Siverina I, Heikkinen T, Tanila H, Sallinen J, Scheinin M, et al. Spatial working memory improvement by an alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine is not mediated through alpha2C-adrenoceptor. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2001;25:1539-54 pubmed
    1. Aged alpha2C-adrenoceptor knockout and wild type mice were used to investigate whether alpha2C-adrenoceptors are involved in mediating the beneficial effects of alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist, dexmedetomidine, on spatial working memory...
  41. Sallinen J, Haapalinna A, Viitamaa T, Kobilka B, Scheinin M. Adrenergic alpha2C-receptors modulate the acoustic startle reflex, prepulse inhibition, and aggression in mice. J Neurosci. 1998;18:3035-42 pubmed have a modulatory role in these disorders, the specific roles of each alpha2-AR subtype (alpha2A, alpha2B, and alpha2C) are largely unknown...
  42. Couto G, Davel A, Brum P, Rossoni L. Double disruption of ?2A- and ?2C-adrenoceptors induces endothelial dysfunction in mouse small arteries: role of nitric oxide synthase uncoupling. Exp Physiol. 2014;99:1427-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, after chronic sympathetic hyperactivity, uncoupling eNOS may be a significant source of superoxide anion and reduced NO bioavailability in small vessels, increasing the contractile tone. ..
  43. Chang Y, Chang N, Chen W, Chang A. Molecular characterization of a murine homologue of alpha 2C4 adrenoceptor subtype gene. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1993;29:467-74 pubmed
    ..The 5' untranslated region (0.4kb) is characterized by high GC content and CpG island count whereas a polyadenylation signal (AATAAA) is located 481 base pairs downstream from the termination codon in the 3' untranslated region (0.6kb). ..
  44. Avraham K, Givol D, Avivi A, Yayon A, Copeland N, Jenkins N. Mapping of murine fibroblast growth factor receptors refines regions of homology between mouse and human chromosomes. Genomics. 1994;21:656-8 pubmed
    ..The Fgfr loci map to previously defined regions of homology between human and mouse chromosomes and provide additional information regarding human/mouse comparative mapping. ..
  45. Oliveira R, Ferreira J, Gomes E, Paixão N, Rolim N, Medeiros A, et al. Cardiac anti-remodelling effect of aerobic training is associated with a reduction in the calcineurin/NFAT signalling pathway in heart failure mice. J Physiol. 2009;587:3899-910 pubmed publisher
  46. Oakey R, Caron M, Lefkowitz R, Seldin M. Genomic organization of adrenergic and serotonin receptors in the mouse: linkage mapping of sequence-related genes provides a method for examining mammalian chromosome evolution. Genomics. 1991;10:338-44 pubmed
    ..We have identified a region that may have been translocated during evolution and suggest that the human genomic organization of adrenergic receptors more closely resembles that of a putative primordial ancestor. ..
  47. Moura E, Silva E, Serrão M, Afonso J, Kozmus C, Vieira Coelho M. ?2C-Adrenoceptors modulate L-DOPA uptake in opossum kidney cells and in the mouse kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;303:F928-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, in a kidney cell line, ?(2C)-adrenoceptor activation inhibits l-DOPA uptake, and in mice, deletion or blockade of ?(2C)-adrenoceptors increases l-DOPA kidney tissue levels. ..
  48. Sallinen J, Link R, Haapalinna A, Viitamaa T, Kulatunga M, Sjöholm B, et al. Genetic alteration of alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in mice: influence on locomotor, hypothermic, and neurochemical effects of dexmedetomidine, a subtype-nonselective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist. Mol Pharmacol. 1997;51:36-46 pubmed
    ..Lack of alpha 2C-AR expression was linked with reduced levels of homovanillic acid in brain, and mice with increased alpha 2C-AR expression had elevated concentrations of the dopamine metabolite compared with their controls. ..
  49. Gilsbach R, Brede M, Beetz N, Moura E, Muthig V, Gerstner C, et al. Heterozygous alpha 2C-adrenoceptor-deficient mice develop heart failure after transverse aortic constriction. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;75:728-37 pubmed
    ..This genetic model may provide an experimental basis to study the pathophysiology of alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor dysfunction in humans. ..
  50. Paris A, Mantz J, Tonner P, Hein L, Brede M, Gressens P. The effects of dexmedetomidine on perinatal excitotoxic brain injury are mediated by the alpha2A-adrenoceptor subtype. Anesth Analg. 2006;102:456-61 pubmed
    ..On postnatal Day 5, wild-type mice and mice lacking alpha2A-adrenoceptor (alpha2A-KO) or alpha2C-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha2C-KO) were randomly assigned to receive dexmedetomidine (3 microg/kg) or phosphate-..
  51. Sallinen J, Haapalinna A, Macdonald E, Viitamaa T, Lähdesmäki J, Rybnikova E, et al. Genetic alteration of the alpha2-adrenoceptor subtype c in mice affects the development of behavioral despair and stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone levels. Mol Psychiatry. 1999;4:443-52 pubmed
    ..Three alpha2-AR subtypes (alpha2A, alpha2B, and alpha2C) with distinct tissue-distribution patterns are known to exist, but the functional significance of each subtype ..
  52. Pereira M, Ferreira J, Bueno C, Mattos K, Rosa K, Irigoyen M, et al. Exercise training reduces cardiac angiotensin II levels and prevents cardiac dysfunction in a genetic model of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure in mice. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;105:843-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these data provide evidence that reduced cardiac RAS explains, at least in part, the beneficial effects of ET on cardiac function in a genetic model of HF. ..
  53. Cruz Grecco Teixeira M, Martins G, Miranda Rodrigues M, De Araújo I, Oliveira R, Brum P, et al. Lack of α2C-Adrenoceptor Results in Contrasting Phenotypes of Long Bones and Vertebra and Prevents the Thyrotoxicosis-Induced Osteopenia. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0146795 pubmed publisher
  54. Fowler K, Newson A, MacDonald A, Kalitsis P, Lyu M, Kozak C, et al. Chromosomal localization of mouse Cenpa gene. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1997;79:298-301 pubmed
    ..we have localized the gene to the proximal region of mouse Chromosome 5, between the known Il6 and Yes1 loci near [Adra2C-D5H4S43-Hdh]...
  55. Sallinen J, Haapalinna A, Viitamaa T, Kobilka B, Scheinin M. D-amphetamine and L-5-hydroxytryptophan-induced behaviours in mice with genetically-altered expression of the alpha2C-adrenergic receptor subtype. Neuroscience. 1998;86:959-65 pubmed
    Three human and mouse genes encoding alpha2-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha2A, alpha2B, and alpha2C) have been cloned...
  56. Aihara M, Lindsey J, Weinreb R. Effect on diurnal intraocular pressure variation of eliminating the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes in the mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:929-33 pubmed publisher
    ..the effect on circadian variation of intraocular pressure (IOP) of eliminating the alpha2A-, alpha2B-, or the alpha2C-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the mouse...
  57. Bueno C, Ferreira J, Pereira M, Bacurau A, Brum P. Aerobic exercise training improves skeletal muscle function and Ca2+ handling-related protein expression in sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010;109:702-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A cohort of male 5-mo-old wild-type (WT) and congenic alpha2A/alpha2C adrenoceptor knockout (ARKO) mice in a C57BL/6J genetic background were randomly assigned into untrained and ..
  58. Weissman J, Ma J, Essex A, Gao Y, Burstein E. G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated activation of rap GTPases: characterization of a novel Galphai regulated pathway. Oncogene. 2004;23:241-9 pubmed
    ..Very similar data were obtained for two other Gi-coupled receptors, the D2 dopamine receptor and the alpha2C adrenergic receptor. A constitutively active mutant of Galphai2 also mediated Ras/rap-dependent responses...
  59. Bonaventure P, Nepomuceno D, Hein L, Sutcliffe J, Lovenberg T, Hedlund P. Radioligand binding analysis of knockout mice reveals 5-hydroxytryptamine(7) receptor distribution and uncovers 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin interaction with alpha(2) adrenergic receptors. Neuroscience. 2004;124:901-11 pubmed
    ..The mapping revealed binding sites consistent with the mRNA distribution with the highest densities found in anterior thalamic nuclei. ..
  60. Wang R, Limbird L. Distribution of mRNA encoding three alpha 2-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the developing mouse embryo suggests a role for the alpha 2A subtype in apoptosis. Mol Pharmacol. 1997;52:1071-80 pubmed
  61. Goldenstein B, Nelson B, Xu K, Luger E, Pribula J, Wald J, et al. Regulator of G protein signaling protein suppression of Galphao protein-mediated alpha2A adrenergic receptor inhibition of mouse hippocampal CA3 epileptiform activity. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;75:1222-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a possible role for RGS inhibitors or selective alpha(2A)AR agonists as a novel antiepileptic drug therapy. ..
  62. Chang N, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Chang Y, Chen W, et al. Assignment of two alpha 2 adrenoceptor subtype genes to murine chromosomes. Neurosci Lett. 1994;167:105-8 pubmed
    Subtype-specific probes to the murine homologs of the human ADRA2B and ADRA2C genes were prepared by PCR amplification and used to map these two genes to mouse chromosomes 2 and 5, respectively...