Gene Symbol: Adra2a
Description: adrenergic receptor, alpha 2a
Alias: AW122659, Adra-2, Adra-2a, alpha(2A)AR, alpha2-C10, alpha2A, alpha2A-AR, alpha-2A adrenergic receptor, alpha-2A adrenoceptor, alpha-2A adrenoreceptor, alpha-2AAR, alpha2A-adrenergic receptor, subtype alpha2-C10
Species: mouse
Products:     Adra2a

Top Publications

  1. Rolim N, Medeiros A, Rosa K, Mattos K, Irigoyen M, Krieger E, et al. Exercise training improves the net balance of cardiac Ca2+ handling protein expression in heart failure. Physiol Genomics. 2007;29:246-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, we provide evidence that Ca(2+) handling is impaired in this HF model and that overall VF improved upon ET, which was associated to changes in the net balance of cardiac Ca(2+) handling proteins. ..
  2. Medeiros A, Rolim N, Oliveira R, Rosa K, Mattos K, Casarini D, et al. Exercise training delays cardiac dysfunction and prevents calcium handling abnormalities in sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure mice. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;104:103-9 pubmed
  3. Brum P, Kosek J, Patterson A, Bernstein D, Kobilka B. Abnormal cardiac function associated with sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity in mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;283:H1838-45 pubmed
    ..These mice provide a physiologically relevant animal model for investigating the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the development and progression of heart failure. ..
  4. Altman J, Trendelenburg A, MacMillan L, Bernstein D, Limbird L, Starke K, et al. Abnormal regulation of the sympathetic nervous system in alpha2A-adrenergic receptor knockout mice. Mol Pharmacol. 1999;56:154-61 pubmed
    ..To date, three subtypes of alpha2-ARs have been cloned (alpha2A, alpha2B, and alpha2C). Here we describe the physiological consequences of disrupting the gene for the alpha2A-AR...
  5. Noguchi T, Ishimine H, Nakajima Y, Watanabe Susaki K, Shigeta N, Yamakawa N, et al. Novel cell surface genes expressed in the stomach primordium during gastrointestinal morphogenesis of mouse embryos. Gene Expr Patterns. 2012;12:154-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified 3 cell surface genes -Adra2a, Fzd5, and Trpv6 - that are expressed in the developing stomach region during gastrointestinal morphogenesis using ..
  6. Wang Q, Zhao J, Brady A, Feng J, Allen P, Lefkowitz R, et al. Spinophilin blocks arrestin actions in vitro and in vivo at G protein-coupled receptors. Science. 2004;304:1940-4 pubmed
    ..The reciprocal interactions of GPCRs with spinophilin and arrestin represent a regulatory mechanism for fine-tuning complex receptor-orchestrated cell signaling and responses. ..
  7. Peterhoff M, Sieg A, Brede M, Chao C, Hein L, Ullrich S. Inhibition of insulin secretion via distinct signaling pathways in alpha2-adrenoceptor knockout mice. Eur J Endocrinol. 2003;149:343-50 pubmed
    ..Adrenaline inhibits insulin release through alpha(2A)- and alpha(2C)-ARs via distinct intracellular signaling pathways. ..
  8. Rinne A, Birk A, Bünemann M. Voltage regulates adrenergic receptor function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1536-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that adrenergic receptors exhibit a unique, agonist-dependent mechanism of voltage-sensitivity that modulates downstream receptor signaling. ..
  9. Tan C, Wilson M, MacMillan L, Kobilka B, Limbird L. Heterozygous alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor mice unveil unique therapeutic benefits of partial agonists. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12471-6 pubmed

More Information


  1. Aihara M, Lindsey J, Weinreb R. Effect on diurnal intraocular pressure variation of eliminating the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes in the mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:929-33 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect on circadian variation of intraocular pressure (IOP) of eliminating the alpha2A-, alpha2B-, or the alpha2C-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the mouse...
  2. Kogel B, De Vry J, Tzschentke T, Christoph T. The antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effect of tapentadol is partially retained in OPRM1 (?-opioid receptor) knockout mice. Neurosci Lett. 2011;491:104-7 pubmed publisher
  3. Sanjani M, Teng B, Krahn T, Tilley S, Ledent C, Mustafa S. Contributions of A2A and A2B adenosine receptors in coronary flow responses in relation to the KATP channel using A2B and A2A/2B double-knockout mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301:H2322-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify AR-mediated CF responses that may lead to better therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. ..
  4. Hirono M, Matsunaga W, Chimura T, Obata K. Developmental enhancement of alpha2-adrenoceptor-mediated suppression of inhibitory synaptic transmission onto mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells. Neuroscience. 2008;156:143-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Both alpha2A- and alpha2B-, but not alpha2C-, adrenoceptors were strongly expressed in MLIs at P13, and P31...
  5. Bashiri H, Rezayof A, Sahebgharani M, Tavangar S, Zarrindast M. Modulatory effects of the basolateral amygdala α2-adrenoceptors on nicotine-induced anxiogenic-like behaviours of rats in the elevated plus maze. Neuropharmacology. 2016;105:478-486 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, it can be concluded that nicotine produces anxiogenic-like behaviours which may be mediated through the BLA α2-adrenoceptor mechanism. ..
  6. Brede M, Nagy G, Philipp M, Sorensen J, Lohse M, Hein L. Differential control of adrenal and sympathetic catecholamine release by alpha 2-adrenoceptor subtypes. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:1640-6 pubmed
    ..Short-loop feedback inhibition of epinephrine release from the adrenal gland may represent a novel therapeutic target for diseases that arise from enhanced adrenergic stimulation. ..
  7. Bueno C, Ferreira J, Pereira M, Bacurau A, Brum P. Aerobic exercise training improves skeletal muscle function and Ca2+ handling-related protein expression in sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010;109:702-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A cohort of male 5-mo-old wild-type (WT) and congenic alpha2A/alpha2C adrenoceptor knockout (ARKO) mice in a C57BL/6J genetic background were randomly assigned into untrained ..
  8. Bai A, Chen J, Liao W, Lu N, Guo Y. Catecholamine Mediates Psychological Stress-Induced Colitis Through a2-Adrenoreceptor. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2015;35:580-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The study suggests that a2-adrenoreceptors/catecholamine play pivotal role in psychological stress-induced colitis and might contribute to the development of human IBD. ..
  9. Mansikka H, Lähdesmäki J, Scheinin M, Pertovaara A. Alpha(2A) adrenoceptors contribute to feedback inhibition of capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia. Anesthesiology. 2004;101:185-90 pubmed
    ..Also, alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors are critical for not only somatic but also visceral antinociceptive effects induced by synthetic alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists. ..
  10. Johnson K, Lane P, Ward Bailey P, Davisson M. Mapping the mouse dactylaplasia mutation, Dac, and a gene that controls its expression, mdac. Genomics. 1995;29:457-64 pubmed
    ..We mapped mdac to the middle of Chr 13 by segregation analysis of both recombinant inbred strains and backcross progeny. ..
  11. Oakey R, Caron M, Lefkowitz R, Seldin M. Genomic organization of adrenergic and serotonin receptors in the mouse: linkage mapping of sequence-related genes provides a method for examining mammalian chromosome evolution. Genomics. 1991;10:338-44 pubmed
    ..We have identified a region that may have been translocated during evolution and suggest that the human genomic organization of adrenergic receptors more closely resembles that of a putative primordial ancestor. ..
  12. Gilsbach R, Faron Górecka A, Rogoz Z, Bruss M, Caron M, Dziedzicka Wasylewska M, et al. Norepinephrine transporter knockout-induced up-regulation of brain alpha2A/C-adrenergic receptors. J Neurochem. 2006;96:1111-20 pubmed
    ..In an 'in vivo' test, the alpha(2)AR agonist clonidine (0.1 mg/kg) caused a significantly greater reduction of locomotor activity in NET-KO mice than in wild-type mice, showing the relevance of our findings at the functional level. ..
  13. Tan M, Walwyn W, Evans C, Xie C. p38 MAPK and beta-arrestin 2 mediate functional interactions between endogenous micro-opioid and alpha2A-adrenergic receptors in neurons. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6270-81 pubmed publisher
    Formation of receptor complexes between micro-opioid and alpha2A-adrenergic receptors has been demonstrated in transfected cells...
  14. Cleary L, Vandeputte C, Docherty J. Investigation of neurotransmission in vas deferens from alpha(2A/D)-adrenoceptor knockout mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2002;136:857-64 pubmed
    ..The antagonist data suggest a major loss of prejunctional alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, but this is not necessarily supported by the agonist data. ..
  15. Monjo M, Pujol E, Roca P. alpha2- to beta3-Adrenoceptor switch in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipocytes: modulation by testosterone, 17beta-estradiol, and progesterone. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005;289:E145-50 pubmed
  16. Makaritsis K, Johns C, Gavras I, Altman J, Handy D, Bresnahan M, et al. Sympathoinhibitory function of the alpha(2A)-adrenergic receptor subtype. Hypertension. 1999;34:403-7 pubmed
    ..577+/-0.143 versus 0.712+/-0.110 and 0.255+/-0.032 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.05 for both. We conclude that the alpha(2A)-AR subtype exerts a sympathoinhibitory effect, and its loss leads to a hypertensive, hyperadrenergic state. ..
  17. Yang Feng T, Xue F, Zhong W, Cotecchia S, Frielle T, Caron M, et al. Chromosomal organization of adrenergic receptor genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:1516-20 pubmed
    ..The AR genes thus provide a paradigm for understanding the evolution of such structurally conserved yet functionally divergent families of receptor molecules. ..
  18. Knaus A, Zong X, Beetz N, Jahns R, Lohse M, Biel M, et al. Direct inhibition of cardiac hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated pacemaker channels by clonidine. Circulation. 2007;115:872-80 pubmed
    ..Direct inhibition of cardiac HCN pacemaker channels contributes to the bradycardic effects of clonidine gene-targeted mice in vivo, and thus, clonidine-like drugs represent novel structures for future HCN channel inhibitors. ..
  19. Paris A, Philipp M, Tonner P, Steinfath M, Lohse M, Scholz J, et al. Activation of alpha 2B-adrenoceptors mediates the cardiovascular effects of etomidate. Anesthesiology. 2003;99:889-95 pubmed
    ..of the righting reflex required similar times after intraperitoneal injection of etomidate in wild-type and in alpha2A-receptor-deficient mice, indicating that the hypnotic effect of etomidate in mice does not require the alpha2A-..
  20. Regard J, Kataoka H, Cano D, Camerer E, Yin L, Zheng Y, et al. Probing cell type-specific functions of Gi in vivo identifies GPCR regulators of insulin secretion. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:4034-43 pubmed
  21. Chen Y, Peng Y, Che P, Gannon M, Liu Y, Li L, et al. α(2A) adrenergic receptor promotes amyloidogenesis through disrupting APP-SorLA interaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:17296-301 pubmed publisher
  22. Riccio O, Hurni N, Murthy S, Vutskits L, Hein L, Dayer A. Alpha2-adrenergic receptor activation regulates cortical interneuron migration. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;36:2879-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally the distribution of cortical interneurons was altered in vivo in adra2a/2c-knockout mice...
  23. Davies M, Tsui J, Flannery J, Li X, DeLorey T, Hoffman B. Augmentation of the noradrenergic system in alpha-2 adrenergic receptor deficient mice: anatomical changes associated with enhanced fear memory. Brain Res. 2003;986:157-65 pubmed
    ..We observed a heightened freezing response in the discrete cue memory test in alpha2A AR knockout (alpha2A AR KO) mice and in D79N mice, a transgenic mouse strain with functionally impaired alpha2A ARs...
  24. Franowicz J, Kessler L, Borja C, Kobilka B, Limbird L, Arnsten A. Mutation of the alpha2A-adrenoceptor impairs working memory performance and annuls cognitive enhancement by guanfacine. J Neurosci. 2002;22:8771-7 pubmed
    ..Because there are no selective alpha2A-AR, alpha2B-AR, or alpha2C-AR agonists or antagonists, genetically altered mice were used to identify the ..
  25. Scheibner J, Trendelenburg A, Hein L, Starke K, Blandizzi C. Alpha 2-adrenoceptors in the enteric nervous system: a study in alpha 2A-adrenoceptor-deficient mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2002;135:697-704 pubmed
    ..Both hetero- and autoreceptors are exclusively alpha(2A). It is the alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor which in vivo mediates the inhibition of intestinal motility by the sympathetic nervous system. ..
  26. Klein U, Ramirez M, Kobilka B, von Zastrow M. A novel interaction between adrenergic receptors and the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2B. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:19099-102 pubmed regulation of translation, was observed to associate with the carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic domains of the alpha2A- and alpha2B-adrenergic receptors in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a cDNA library prepared from 293 cells...
  27. Anderson K, White P, Kaestner K, Sussel L. Identification of known and novel pancreas genes expressed downstream of Nkx2.2 during development. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:65 pubmed publisher
    ..2 in maintaining appropriate exocrine gene expression. Most importantly, Nkx2.2 appears to function within a complex regulatory loop with Ngn3 at a key endocrine differentiation step. ..
  28. Chang N, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Chang Y, Chen W, et al. Assignment of two alpha 2 adrenoceptor subtype genes to murine chromosomes. Neurosci Lett. 1994;167:105-8 pubmed
    ..Both genes mapped in regions of mouse chromosomes consistent with their map location in humans. These mapping results provide additional insights into the linkage relationships among members of this important gene family. ..
  29. Cottingham C, Chen Y, Jiao K, Wang Q. The antidepressant desipramine is an arrestin-biased ligand at the ?(2A)-adrenergic receptor driving receptor down-regulation in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:36063-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide novel insight into both the pharmacology of this antidepressant drug and the targeting of the ?(2A)AR in depression. ..
  30. Paris A, Mantz J, Tonner P, Hein L, Brede M, Gressens P. The effects of dexmedetomidine on perinatal excitotoxic brain injury are mediated by the alpha2A-adrenoceptor subtype. Anesth Analg. 2006;102:456-61 pubmed
    ..On postnatal Day 5, wild-type mice and mice lacking alpha2A-adrenoceptor (alpha2A-KO) or alpha2C-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha2C-KO) were randomly assigned to receive ..
  31. Jhaveri D, Nanavaty I, Prosper B, Marathe S, Husain B, Kernie S, et al. Opposing effects of ?2- and ?-adrenergic receptor stimulation on quiescent neural precursor cell activity and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e98736 pubmed publisher
  32. Alves F, Crestani C, Resstel L, Correa F. Both ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors in the insular cortex are involved in the cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e83900 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, IC ?1-adrenoceptors also play a facilitatory role on restraint-evoked tachycardiac response. ..
  33. Juan T, McNiece I, Argento J, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, et al. Identification and mapping of Casp7, a cysteine protease resembling CPP32 beta, interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme, and CED-3. Genomics. 1997;40:86-93 pubmed
    ..6-kb Casp7 mRNA was expressed in various tissues except brain. Mouse interspecific backcross mapping allowed localization of Casp7 to the distal region of mouse chromosome 19, linked to Mxi1, Adra2a, and Aop1.
  34. Crowley J, Brodkin E, Blendy J, Berrettini W, Lucki I. Pharmacogenomic evaluation of the antidepressant citalopram in the mouse tail suspension test. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:2433-42 pubmed
    ..genes residing in this locus include those for vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2, slc18a2), alpha 2A adrenergic receptor (adra2a), and beta 1 adrenergic receptor (adrb1)...
  35. Valet P, Grujic D, Wade J, Ito M, Zingaretti M, Soloveva V, et al. Expression of human alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in adipose tissue of beta 3-adrenergic receptor-deficient mice promotes diet-induced obesity. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:34797-802 pubmed
    ..This study also demonstrates one way in which two genes (alpha 2 and beta 3-AR) and diet interact to influence fat mass. ..
  36. Pozgajova M, Sachs U, Hein L, Nieswandt B. Reduced thrombus stability in mice lacking the alpha2A-adrenergic receptor. Blood. 2006;108:510-4 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that alpha(2A) plays a significant role in thrombus stabilization. ..
  37. Link R, Daunt D, Barsh G, Chruscinski A, Kobilka B. Cloning of two mouse genes encoding alpha 2-adrenergic receptor subtypes and identification of a single amino acid in the mouse alpha 2-C10 homolog responsible for an interspecies variation in antagonist binding. Mol Pharmacol. 1992;42:16-27 pubmed
    ..Analysis of these receptors identified a conservative Cys201 to Ser201 change in the fifth transmembrane domain of M alpha 2-10H as being responsible for the low affinity of the mouse receptor for yohimbine. ..
  38. Ozdogan U, Lähdesmäki J, Scheinin M. The analgesic efficacy of partial opioid agonists is increased in mice with targeted inactivation of the alpha2A-adrenoceptor gene. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;529:105-13 pubmed
    ..Other behavioural effects of the tested opioid agonists were not similarly influenced by alpha(2A)-KO. Antagonists of alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors may offer a novel mechanism to augment the antinociceptive actions of partial opioid agonists. ..
  39. Scheibner J, Trendelenburg A, Hein L, Starke K. Alpha2-adrenoceptors modulating neuronal serotonin release: a study in alpha2-adrenoceptor subtype-deficient mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2001;132:925-33 pubmed
    ..Slices of the hippocampus or the occipito-parietal cortex from NMRI mice, from mice lacking the alpha2A/D-, the alpha2B-, the alpha2C- or both the alpha2A/D- and the alpha2C-adrenoceptor, and from mice sharing the ..
  40. Muthig V, Gilsbach R, Haubold M, Philipp M, Ivacevic T, Gessler M, et al. Upregulation of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 contributes to angiogenesis defects in the placenta of alpha 2B-adrenoceptor deficient mice. Circ Res. 2007;101:682-91 pubmed
  41. Lakhlani P, MacMillan L, Guo T, McCool B, Lovinger D, Maze M, et al. Substitution of a mutant alpha2a-adrenergic receptor via "hit and run" gene targeting reveals the role of this subtype in sedative, analgesic, and anesthetic-sparing responses in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:9950-5 pubmed
    ..Lack of subtype-specific agonists has prevented elucidation of the role that each alpha2AR subtype (alpha2A, alpha2B, and alpha2C) plays in these central effects...
  42. Fagerholm V, Grönroos T, Marjamaki P, Viljanen T, Scheinin M, Haaparanta M. Altered glucose homeostasis in alpha2A-adrenoceptor knockout mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;505:243-52 pubmed
    ..tissue uptake of the glucose analogue 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([18F]FDG) in C57Bl/6J wild-type (WT) and alpha2A-adrenoceptor knockout (alpha2A-KO) mice at baseline and following alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist ((+)-4-(S)-[1-(2,3-..
  43. Berger M, Scheel D, Macias H, Miyatsuka T, Kim H, HOANG P, et al. Gαi/o-coupled receptor signaling restricts pancreatic β-cell expansion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:2888-93 pubmed publisher
    ..pancreatic β cells, and variants in genes encoding several Gi-GPCRs--including the α-2a adrenergic receptor, ADRA2A--increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  44. Nabika T, Ito T, Kitada K, Serikawa T, Mashimo T, Soubrier F, et al. Comparative mapping of novel simple sequence repeat markers in a hypertension-related region on rat chromosome 1. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:215-7 pubmed
  45. Niedermair T, Kuhn V, Doranehgard F, Stange R, Wieskötter B, Beckmann J, et al. Absence of substance P and the sympathetic nervous system impact on bone structure and chondrocyte differentiation in an adult model of endochondral ossification. Matrix Biol. 2014;38:22-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that sensory and sympathetic neurotransmitters have crucial trophic effects which are essential for proper bone formation in addition to their classical neurological actions. ..
  46. Romana Souza B, Nascimento A, Brum P, Monte Alto Costa A. Deletion of the α2A/α2C-adrenoceptors accelerates cutaneous wound healing in mice. Int J Exp Pathol. 2014;95:330-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, α2A/α2C-adrenoceptor deletion accelerates cutaneous wound healing in mice. ..
  47. Miekisiak G, Kulik T, Kusano Y, Kung D, Chen J, Winn H. Cerebral blood flow response in adenosine 2a receptor knockout mice during transient hypoxic hypoxia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008;28:1656-64 pubmed publisher
    ..05) in WT mice, but was without effect in KO mice. We conclude that adenosine via A2aR is responsible for a significant proportion of the hyperemia during hypoxia. ..
  48. Hellman B, Dansk H, Grapengiesser E. Activation of alpha adrenergic and muscarinic receptors modifies early glucose suppression of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) in pancreatic ?-cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;445:629-32 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that the period of initial decrease of [Ca(2+)]i regulates the subsequent ?-cell response to glucose. ..
  49. Xu J, Chen Y, Lu R, Cottingham C, Jiao K, Wang Q. Protein kinase A phosphorylation of spinophilin modulates its interaction with the alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor (AR) and alters temporal properties of alpha 2AAR internalization. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:14516-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, modulation of spinophilin-receptor interaction through phosphorylation of spinophilin may represent a novel mechanism whereby PKA regulates G protein-coupled receptor trafficking. ..
  50. Laarakker M, Raai J, van Lith H, Ohl F. The role of the alpha 2A-adrenoceptor in mouse stress-coping behaviour. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35:490-502 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we could show involvement of this receptor in stress-coping behaviour in mice. ..
  51. Sickert L, Muller D, Tiwari A, Shaikh S, Zai C, De Souza R, et al. Association of the alpha 2A adrenergic receptor -1291C/G polymorphism and antipsychotic-induced weight gain in European-Americans. Pharmacogenomics. 2009;10:1169-76 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the -1291 C/G promoter polymorphism (rs1800544) of the adrenergic alpha-2A receptor (ADRA2A) with clozapine-/olanzapine-induced weight gain in European-Americans and African-Americans...
  52. Ozdogan U, Lähdesmäki J, Mansikka H, Scheinin M. Loss of amitriptyline analgesia in alpha 2A-adrenoceptor deficient mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;485:193-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors appear to have a significant role in amitriptyline-induced acute analgesia in mice, and that alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors also participate in the sedative effects of amitriptyline. ..
  53. Flavin S, Matthews R, Wang Q, Muly E, Winder D. ?(2A)-adrenergic receptors filter parabrachial inputs to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. J Neurosci. 2014;34:9319-31 pubmed publisher
  54. Kingery W, Guo T, Davies M, Limbird L, Maze M. The alpha(2A) adrenoceptor and the sympathetic postganglionic neuron contribute to the development of neuropathic heat hyperalgesia in mice. Pain. 2000;85:345-58 pubmed
  55. Rochelle J, Watson M, Oakey R, Seldin M. A linkage map of mouse chromosome 19: definition of comparative mapping relationships with human chromosomes 10 and 11 including the MEN1 locus. Genomics. 1992;14:26-31 pubmed
  56. Gilsbach R, Schneider J, Lother A, Schickinger S, Leemhuis J, Hein L. Sympathetic alpha(2)-adrenoceptors prevent cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in mice at baseline but not after chronic pressure overload. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;86:432-42 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these receptors are desensitized by chronic pressure overload which in turn may contribute to the pathogenesis of this condition. ..
  57. Clee S, Yandell B, Schueler K, Rabaglia M, Richards O, Raines S, et al. Positional cloning of Sorcs1, a type 2 diabetes quantitative trait locus. Nat Genet. 2006;38:688-93 pubmed
    ..Our identification of the Sorcs1 gene provides insight into the pathway underlying the pathophysiology of obesity-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus. ..
  58. Wang R, MacMillan L, Fremeau R, Magnuson M, Lindner J, Limbird L. Expression of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the mouse brain: evaluation of spatial and temporal information imparted by 3 kb of 5' regulatory sequence for the alpha 2A AR-receptor gene in transgenic animals. Neuroscience. 1996;74:199-218 pubmed
    ..analysis of messenger RNA expression in the adult mouse brain, as well as the pattern of expression of alpha 2A adrenergic receptor messenger RNA at embryonic day E9...
  59. Cui Z, Yokoi N, Kuramoto T, Kitada K, Serikawa T. Extension of conserved regions in the rat and mouse genomes by chromosomal assignments of 29 rat genes. Exp Anim. 1998;47:83-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, four conserved regions were newly revealed. The method described in this study appears to be simple and efficient for constructing a whole genome comparative map of the rat and mouse. ..
  60. Ihalainen J, Tanila H. In vivo regulation of dopamine and noradrenaline release by alpha2A-adrenoceptors in the mouse nucleus accumbens. J Neurochem. 2004;91:49-56 pubmed
    The present study investigated the role of alpha2A-adrenoceptor (alpha2A-AR) subtype in the regulation of noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
  61. Höcker J, Gruenewald M, Meybohm P, Schaper C, Scholz J, Steinfath M, et al. Nefopam but not physostigmine affects the thermoregulatory response in mice via alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. Neuropharmacology. 2010;58:495-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate an important role of the alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor in the thermoregulatory response induced by nefopam but not by physostigmine in mice. ..
  62. Hinoi E, Gao N, Jung D, Yadav V, Yoshizawa T, Myers M, et al. The sympathetic tone mediates leptin's inhibition of insulin secretion by modulating osteocalcin bioactivity. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:1235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..By showing that leptin inhibits insulin secretion by decreasing osteocalcin bioactivity, this study illustrates the importance of the relationship existing between fat and skeleton for the regulation of glucose homeostasis. ..
  63. Ferreira J, Bacurau A, Evangelista F, Coelho M, Oliveira E, Casarini D, et al. The role of local and systemic renin angiotensin system activation in a genetic model of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294:R26-32 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data provide direct evidence that cardiac RAS activation plays a major role underlying the structural and functional abnormalities associated with a genetic SH-induced HF in mice. ..
  64. Castelli M, Spiga S, Perra A, Madeddu C, Mulas G, Ennas M, et al. α2A adrenergic receptors highly expressed in mesoprefrontal dopamine neurons. Neuroscience. 2016;332:130-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding raises the question whether α2A-ARs might function as autoreceptors in the mesoprefrontal dopaminergic neurons, replacing the lack of D2 autoreceptors. ..
  65. Kobayashi T, Otsuguro K, Yamaguchi S, Ito S. Contribution of α2A-adrenoceptor subtype to effect of dexmedetomidine and xylazine on spinal synaptic transmission of mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;761:321-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a high concentration of xylazine inhibits conduction of the action potential, which is not mediated by α2A-AR. α2-AR is not responsible for the dexmedetomidine- and xylazine-mediated inhibition of the MSR. ..
  66. Tank J, Jordan J, Diedrich A, Obst M, Plehm R, Luft F, et al. Clonidine improves spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in conscious mice through parasympathetic activation. Hypertension. 2004;43:1042-7 pubmed
    ..The effect of clonidine on baroreflex HR regulation is mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system. These murine data fit well with recent human observations regarding parasympathetic activation via alpha-2 adrenoceptors. ..
  67. Niederhoffer N, Hein L, Starke K. Modulation of the baroreceptor reflex by alpha 2A-adrenoceptors: a study in alpha 2A knockout mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;141:851-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that central alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors facilitate the reflex response to both loading and unloading of the arterial baroreceptors. ..
  68. Dorval V, Mandemakers W, Jolivette F, Coudert L, Mazroui R, De Strooper B, et al. Gene and MicroRNA transcriptome analysis of Parkinson's related LRRK2 mouse models. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e85510 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus set the stage for future investigations regarding LRRK2 function in PD development. ..
  69. Cottingham C, Lu R, Jiao K, Wang Q. Cross-talk from ?-adrenergic receptors modulates ?2A-adrenergic receptor endocytosis in sympathetic neurons via protein kinase A and spinophilin. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:29193-205 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism of cross-talk has significant implications for endogenous adrenergic physiology and for therapeutic targeting of ? and ?2AARs. ..
  70. Courtney N, Ford C. The timing of dopamine- and noradrenaline-mediated transmission reflects underlying differences in the extent of spillover and pooling. J Neurosci. 2014;34:7645-56 pubmed publisher
  71. Peng N, Chambless B, Oparil S, Wyss J. Alpha2A-adrenergic receptors mediate sympathoinhibitory responses to atrial natriuretic peptide in the mouse anterior hypothalamic nucleus. Hypertension. 2003;41:571-5 pubmed
    ..These experiments demonstrate that in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus of the mouse (and probably in the rat) alpha2A-adrenergic receptors mediate both sympathoinhibitory responses to alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists and the ..
  72. Hsing C, Lin C, So E, Sun D, Chen T, Li C, et al. ?2-Adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine protects septic acute kidney injury through increasing BMP-7 and inhibiting HDAC2 and HDAC5. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;303:F1443-53 pubmed publisher
    ..However, DEX treatment reduced those changes. DEX reduces sepsis-induced AKI by decreasing TNF-? and MCP-1 and increasing BMP-7, which is associated with decreasing HDAC2 and HDAC5, as well as increasing acetyl histone H3. ..
  73. Schramm N, McDonald M, Limbird L. The alpha(2a)-adrenergic receptor plays a protective role in mouse behavioral models of depression and anxiety. J Neurosci. 2001;21:4875-82 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the alpha(2A)-AR may play a protective role in some forms of depression and anxiety and that the antidepressant effects of imipramine may be mediated by the alpha(2A)-AR. ..
  74. LUHRS L, Manlapaz C, Kedzie K, Rao S, Cabrera Ghayouri S, Donello J, et al. Function of brain ?2B-adrenergic receptor characterized with subtype-selective ?2B antagonist and KO mice. Neuroscience. 2016;339:608-621 pubmed publisher
  75. Savontaus E, Fagerholm V, Rahkonen O, Scheinin M. Reduced blood glucose levels, increased insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance in alpha2A-adrenoceptor knockout mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;578:359-64 pubmed
  76. Knaus A, Muthig V, Schickinger S, Moura E, Beetz N, Gilsbach R, et al. Alpha2-adrenoceptor subtypes--unexpected functions for receptors and ligands derived from gene-targeted mouse models. Neurochem Int. 2007;51:277-81 pubmed
    ..Studies with gene-targeted mice carrying deletions in the genes encoding alpha2A-, alpha2B- or alpha2C-adrenoceptors have provided new insight into adrenergic receptor biology: (1) In principle, ..
  77. Pulinilkunnil T, He H, Kong D, Asakura K, Peroni O, Lee A, et al. Adrenergic regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase in brown adipose tissue in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:8798-809 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, AMPK ? Ser(485/491) phosphorylation may be a novel mechanism to inhibit AMPK activity in vivo and alter its biological effects. ..
  78. Philipp M, Brede M, Hadamek K, Gessler M, Lohse M, Hein L. Placental alpha(2)-adrenoceptors control vascular development at the interface between mother and embryo. Nat Genet. 2002;31:311-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, alpha(2)-adrenoceptors are essential at the placental interface between mother and embryo to establish the circulatory system of the placenta and thus maintain pregnancy. ..
  79. de Souza G, Duarte I, de Castro Perez A. Differential involvement of central and peripheral ?2 adrenoreceptors in the antinociception induced by aerobic and resistance exercise. Anesth Analg. 2013;116:703-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, ?2-ARs expression in rat brains did not change after AA and acute resistance exercise. These results suggest a peripheral involvement of ?2-ARs in the antinociception induced by aerobic and resistance exercise. ..
  80. Nishio M, Kuroki Y, Watanabe Y. Role of hippocampal alpha(2A)-adrenergic receptor in methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in the mouse. Neurosci Lett. 2003;341:156-60 pubmed
    ..These observations strongly suggest the involvement of hippocampal alpha(2A)-AR in the regulation of ambulatory activity induced by METH administration. ..
  81. Threadgill D, Womack J. Mapping HSA10 homologous loci in cattle. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1991;57:123-6 pubmed
    ..VIM and IL2R mapped to U11; ADRA2 and OAT mapped to U26; and RBP3, PLAU, and HK1 mapped to U28. ..
  82. Le Lay S, Boucher J, Rey A, Castan Laurell I, Krief S, Ferre P, et al. Decreased resistin expression in mice with different sensitivities to a high-fat diet. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;289:564-7 pubmed
    ..This argues for decreased expression of resistin as a hallmark of obesity. Moreover, our data show that feeding a high-fat diet is not a primary determinant of resistin regulation. ..
  83. Cockcroft V, Frang H, Pihlavisto M, Marjamaki A, Scheinin M. Ligand recognition of serine-cysteine amino acid exchanges in transmembrane domain 5 of alpha2-adrenergic receptors by UK 14,304. J Neurochem. 2000;74:1705-10 pubmed
    ..serine-cysteine exchange mutants at ligand-accessible positions in transmembrane domain 5 of the human and mouse alpha2A-ARs...
  84. Cikos S, Rehák P, Czikková S, Veselá J, Koppel J. Expression of adrenergic receptors in mouse preimplantation embryos and ovulated oocytes. Reproduction. 2007;133:1139-47 pubmed
  85. Shields A, Wang Q, Winder D. alpha2A-adrenergic receptors heterosynaptically regulate glutamatergic transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Neuroscience. 2009;163:339-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In total, these data support a prominent heterosynaptic role for alpha(2A)-ARs in modulating fast synaptic transmission in the BNST. ..
  86. Vanzelli A, Medeiros A, Rolim N, Bartholomeu J, Cunha T, Bechara L, et al. Integrative effect of carvedilol and aerobic exercise training therapies on improving cardiac contractility and remodeling in heart failure mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62452 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings provide evidence that the combination of carvedilol and aerobic exercise training therapies lead to a better integrative outcome than carvedilol or exercise training used in isolation. ..
  87. Juhila J, Honkanen A, Sallinen J, Haapalinna A, Korpi E, Scheinin M. alpha(2A)-Adrenoceptors regulate d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and behavioural sensitization in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;517:74-83 pubmed
    ..Drugs antagonizing the alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor subtype may provide a novel approach for reducing drug sensitization and motor complications caused by dopaminergic agents. ..
  88. Lähdesmäki J, Sallinen J, MacDonald E, Sirviö J, Scheinin M. Alpha2-adrenergic drug effects on brain monoamines, locomotion, and body temperature are largely abolished in mice lacking the alpha2A-adrenoceptor subtype. Neuropharmacology. 2003;44:882-92 pubmed
    ..However, secondary effects of the physiological alterations caused by drug administration, especially hypothermia, may have contributed to the observed neurochemical changes in WT mice. ..
  89. MacMillan L, Hein L, Smith M, Piascik M, Limbird L. Central hypotensive effects of the alpha2a-adrenergic receptor subtype. Science. 1996;273:801-3 pubmed
    ..The hypotensive response to alpha2AR agonists was lost in the mutant mice, demonstrating that the alpha2aAR subtype plays a principal role in this response. ..