Gene Symbol: Adh4
Description: alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (class II), pi polypeptide
Alias: Adh2, alcohol dehydrogenase 4, alcohol dehydrogenase II, alcohol dehydrogenase class II, class II type ADH
Species: mouse
Products:     Adh4

Top Publications

  1. Svensson S, Hoog J, Schneider G, Sandalova T. Crystal structures of mouse class II alcohol dehydrogenase reveal determinants of substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency. J Mol Biol. 2000;302:441-53 pubmed
    The structure of mouse class II alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2) has been determined in a binary complex with the coenzyme NADH and in a ternary complex with both NADH and the inhibitor N-cyclohexylformamide to 2.2 A and 2...
  2. Svensson S, Stromberg P, Hoog J. A novel subtype of class II alcohol dehydrogenase in rodents. Unique Pro(47) and Ser(182) modulates hydride transfer in the mouse enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:29712-9 pubmed
    ..All these data indicate that the mammalian class II alcohol dehydrogenase line is divided into two structurally and functionally distinct subgroups. ..
  3. Anvret A, Ran C, Westerlund M, Gellhaar S, Lindqvist E, Pernold K, et al. Adh1 and Adh1/4 knockout mice as possible rodent models for presymptomatic Parkinson's disease. Behav Brain Res. 2012;227:252-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic variants in ADH1C and ADH4 have been found to associate with PD and lack of Adh4 gene activity in a mouse model has recently been reported to ..
  4. Hellgren M, Stromberg P, Gallego O, Martras S, Farres J, Persson B, et al. Alcohol dehydrogenase 2 is a major hepatic enzyme for human retinol metabolism. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007;64:498-505 pubmed
    ..retinaldehyde has been investigated with focus on the activities of human, mouse and rat alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2), an intriguing enzyme with apparently different functions in human and rodents...
  5. Westerlund M, Belin A, Felder M, Olson L, Galter D. High and complementary expression patterns of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases in the gastrointestinal tract: implications for Parkinson's disease. FEBS J. 2007;274:1212-23 pubmed
    ..involvement of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADH; ALDH) by identifying genetic variants in ADH1C and ADH4 that associate with PD...
  6. Szalai G, Duester G, Friedman R, Jia H, Lin S, Roe B, et al. Organization of six functional mouse alcohol dehydrogenase genes on two overlapping bacterial artificial chromosomes. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:224-32 pubmed
    ..The mouse genes are all in the same transcriptional orientation in the order Adh4-Adh1-Adh5a-Adh5b-Adh5ps-Adh2-Adh3...
  7. Collins X, Harmon S, Kaduce T, Berst K, Fang X, Moore S, et al. Omega-oxidation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in cerebral microvascular smooth muscle and endothelium by alcohol dehydrogenase 4. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:33157-64 pubmed
    ..Purified mouse and human ADH4, human ADH3, and horse liver ADH1 efficiently oxidized 20-HETE, and ADH4 and ADH3 were detected in MSMC and MEC by ..
  8. Fenstermaker A, Prasad A, Bechara A, Adolfs Y, Tissir F, Goffinet A, et al. Wnt/planar cell polarity signaling controls the anterior-posterior organization of monoaminergic axons in the brainstem. J Neurosci. 2010;30:16053-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data suggest that Wnt/planar cell polarity signaling may be a global anterior-posterior guidance mechanism that controls axonal and cellular organization beyond the spinal cord. ..
  9. Molotkov A, Deltour L, Foglio M, Cuenca A, Duester G. Distinct retinoid metabolic functions for alcohol dehydrogenase genes Adh1 and Adh4 in protection against vitamin A toxicity or deficiency revealed in double null mutant mice. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:13804-11 pubmed
    The ability of class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1) and class IV alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH4) to metabolize retinol to retinoic acid is supported by genetic studies in mice carrying Adh1 or Adh4 gene disruptions...

More Information


  1. Galter D, Carmine A, Buervenich S, Duester G, Olson L. Distribution of class I, III and IV alcohol dehydrogenase mRNAs in the adult rat, mouse and human brain. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:1316-26 pubmed
    ..Our results thus support the notion that the only ADH expressed in adult mouse, rat and human brain is class III ADH. ..
  2. Gonzalez Duarte R, Albalat R. Merging protein, gene and genomic data: the evolution of the MDR-ADH family. Heredity (Edinb). 2005;95:184-97 pubmed
    ..The data now available provide a comprehensive scenario, from which a reliable picture of the evolutionary history of this family can be made. ..
  3. Ulven S, Gundersen T, Sakhi A, Glover J, Blomhoff R. Quantitative axial profiles of retinoic acid in the embryonic mouse spinal cord: 9-cis retinoic acid only detected after all-trans-retinoic acid levels are super-elevated experimentally. Dev Dyn. 2001;222:341-53 pubmed
    ..It sets definite limits on how much 9-cis-RA potentially is present and demonstrates that at-RA predominates over 9-cis-RA by at least 30- to 180-fold in different spinal cord regions. ..
  4. Ulven S, Gundersen T, Weedon M, Landaas V, Sakhi A, Fromm S, et al. Identification of endogenous retinoids, enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors during early postimplantation development in mouse: important role of retinal dehydrogenase type 2 in synthesis of all-trans-retinoic acid. Dev Biol. 2000;220:379-91 pubmed
    ..binding proteins, and two enzymes able to convert retinol to retinal (retinol dehydrogenase 5 (RDH5) and alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (ADH4))...
  5. Belin A, Westerlund M, Anvret A, Lindqvist E, Pernold K, Ogren S, et al. Modeling Parkinson's disease genetics: altered function of the dopamine system in Adh4 knockout mice. Behav Brain Res. 2011;217:439-45 pubmed publisher
    Class IV alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH4) efficiently reduces aldehydes produced during lipid peroxidation, and may thus serve to protect from toxic effects of aldehydes e.g. on neurons...
  6. Holmes R. Genetics and ontogeny of alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes in the mouse: evidence for a cis-acting regulator gene (Adt-i) controlling C2 isozyme expression in reproductive tissues and close linkage of Adh-3 and Adt-i on chromosome 3. Biochem Genet. 1979;17:461-72 pubmed
  7. Molotkov A, Fan X, Duester G. Excessive vitamin A toxicity in mice genetically deficient in either alcohol dehydrogenase Adh1 or Adh3. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:2607-12 pubmed
    ..Here, Adh1, Adh3, and Adh4 null mutant mice have been examined following acute and chronic vitamin A excess...
  8. Strömberg P, Svensson S, Berst K, Plapp B, Höög J. Enzymatic mechanism of low-activity mouse alcohol dehydrogenase 2. Biochemistry. 2004;43:1323-8 pubmed
    b>ADH2 is a member of one of the six classes of mammalian alcohol dehydrogenases, which catalyze the reversible oxidation of alcohols using NAD(+) as a cofactor...