Gene Symbol: Ada
Description: adenosine deaminase
Alias: adenosine deaminase, adenosine aminohydrolase
Species: mouse
Products:     Ada

Top Publications

  1. Chunn J, Molina J, Mi T, Xia Y, Kellems R, Blackburn M. Adenosine-dependent pulmonary fibrosis in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2005;175:1937-46 pubmed
    ..To accomplish this, adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice were treated with various levels of ADA enzyme replacement therapy to regulate ..
  2. Chunn J, Young H, Banerjee S, Colasurdo G, Blackburn M. Adenosine-dependent airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in partially adenosine deaminase-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2001;167:4676-85 pubmed
    ..levels of adenosine as a result of the partial expression of the enzyme that metabolizes adenosine, adenosine deaminase (ADA)...
  3. Zhou Y, Mohsenin A, Morschl E, Young H, Molina J, Ma W, et al. Enhanced airway inflammation and remodeling in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice lacking the A2B adenosine receptor. J Immunol. 2009;182:8037-46 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice develop progressive airway inflammation and remodeling in association with adenosine ..
  4. Mohsenin A, Burdick M, Molina J, Keane M, Blackburn M. Enhanced CXCL1 production and angiogenesis in adenosine-mediated lung disease. FASEB J. 2007;21:1026-36 pubmed
    ..The current study utilized adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice to determine whether chronic elevations in adenosine in vivo result in pulmonary ..
  5. Migchielsen A, Breuer M, van Roon M, te Riele H, Zurcher C, Ossendorp F, et al. Adenosine-deaminase-deficient mice die perinatally and exhibit liver-cell degeneration, atelectasis and small intestinal cell death. Nat Genet. 1995;10:279-87 pubmed
    We report the generation and characterization of mice lacking adenosine deaminase (ADA). In humans, absence of ADA causes severe combined immunodeficiency...
  6. Young H, Molina J, Dimina D, Zhong H, Jacobson M, Chan L, et al. A3 adenosine receptor signaling contributes to airway inflammation and mucus production in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2004;173:1380-9 pubmed
    ..the role(s) of the A(3) adenosine receptor in adenosine-dependent pulmonary inflammation observed in adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice...
  7. Blackburn M, Datta S, Wakamiya M, Vartabedian B, Kellems R. Metabolic and immunologic consequences of limited adenosine deaminase expression in mice. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:15203-10 pubmed
    b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA; EC deficiency in humans is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that results in severe combined immunodeficiency disease...
  8. Blackburn M, Wakamiya M, Caskey C, Kellems R. Tissue-specific rescue suggests that placental adenosine deaminase is important for fetal development in mice. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:23891-4 pubmed
    b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA, EC is an essential enzyme of purine metabolism that is expressed at very high levels in the murine placenta where it accounts for over 95% of the ADA present at the fetal gestation site...
  9. Blackburn M, Datta S, Kellems R. Adenosine deaminase-deficient mice generated using a two-stage genetic engineering strategy exhibit a combined immunodeficiency. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:5093-100 pubmed
    b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency in humans leads to a combined immunodeficiency...

More Information


  1. Xu P, Winston J, Datta S, Kellems R. Regulation of forestomach-specific expression of the murine adenosine deaminase gene. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:10316-23 pubmed
    ..Here we report the identification of the first murine forestomach regulatory element using the murine adenosine deaminase (Ada) gene as a model...
  2. Wakamiya M, Blackburn M, Jurecic R, McArthur M, Geske R, Cartwright J, et al. Disruption of the adenosine deaminase gene causes hepatocellular impairment and perinatal lethality in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:3673-7 pubmed
    We have generated mice with a null mutation at the Ada locus, which encodes the purine catabolic enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA, EC ADA-deficient fetuses exhibited hepatocellular impairment and died perinatally...
  3. Blackburn M, Volmer J, Thrasher J, Zhong H, Crosby J, Lee J, et al. Metabolic consequences of adenosine deaminase deficiency in mice are associated with defects in alveogenesis, pulmonary inflammation, and airway obstruction. J Exp Med. 2000;192:159-70 pubmed
    b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a purine catabolic enzyme that manages levels of the biologically active purines adenosine and 2'-deoxyadenosine in tissues and cells. ADA-deficient mice die at 3 wk of age from severe respiratory distress...
  4. Pilz A, Le Tissier P, Moseley H, Peters J, Abbott C. Mapping of the structural gene for S-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase to mouse chromosome 2, and related sequences to chromosomes 8 and X. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:633-6 pubmed
    ..we report here that the homologous locus in the mouse, Ahcy, maps to distal mouse Chr 2 with gene order Pcna-Ahcy-Ada. Analysis of 123 progeny of an interspecific backcross between a laboratory stock, AN, and Mus spretus using a rat ..
  5. Fernandez P, Trzaska S, Wilder T, Chiriboga L, Blackburn M, Cronstein B, et al. Pharmacological blockade of A2A receptors prevents dermal fibrosis in a model of elevated tissue adenosine. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:1675-82 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is the principal catabolic enzyme for adenosine in vivo, and its deficiency leads to the spontaneous ..
  6. Wu X, Zou G, Quan J, Wu Y. A theoretical study on the catalytic mechanism of Mus musculus adenosine deaminase. J Comput Chem. 2010;31:2238-47 pubmed publisher
    The catalytic mechanism of Mus musculus adenosine deaminase (ADA) has been studied by quantum mechanics and two-layered ONIOM calculations...
  7. Kingsmore S, Lo C, Hwang J, Hui C, Seldin M. Genetic mapping of DNA topoisomerase I-related sequences to mouse chromosomes 2 and 14. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:247-8 pubmed
  8. Carbonaro D, Jin X, Wang X, Yu X, Rozengurt N, Kaufman M, et al. Gene therapy/bone marrow transplantation in ADA-deficient mice: roles of enzyme-replacement therapy and cytoreduction. Blood. 2012;120:3677-87 pubmed publisher
    Gene therapy (GT) for adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immune deficiency (ADA-SCID) can provide significant long-term benefit when patients are given nonmyeloablative conditioning and ADA enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) is ..
  9. Cordes S, Barsh G. The mouse segmentation gene kr encodes a novel basic domain-leucine zipper transcription factor. Cell. 1994;79:1025-34 pubmed
    ..The identity, expression, and mutant phenotype of kr indicate an early role in axial patterning and provide insights into the molecular and embryologic mechanisms that govern hindbrain and otic development. ..
  10. Wang Z, Quiocho F. Complexes of adenosine deaminase with two potent inhibitors: X-ray structures in four independent molecules at pH of maximum activity. Biochemistry. 1998;37:8314-24 pubmed
    b>Adenosine deaminase, which catalyzes the irreversible hydrolytic deamination of adenosine nucleosides to inosine nucleosides and ammonia, is a key enzyme in purine metabolism and lymphoid development...
  11. Knudsen T, Blackburn M, Chinsky J, Airhart M, Kellems R. Ontogeny of adenosine deaminase in the mouse decidua and placenta: immunolocalization and embryo transfer studies. Biol Reprod. 1991;44:171-84 pubmed
    This study has determined the cellular site of adenosine deaminase (ADA) expression in the mouse during development from Days 5 through 13 (day vaginal plug was found = Day 0) of gestation...
  12. Berman E, Nash W, Seuanez H, O Brien S. Chromosomal mapping of enzyme loci in the domestic cat: GSR to C2, ADA and ITPA to A3, and LDHA-ACP2 to D1. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1986;41:114-20 pubmed
    ..The feline homolog for glutathione reductase (GSR) was mapped to chromosome C2. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) were located on chromosome A3...
  13. Chen E, Mitchell B. Hereditary overexpression of adenosine deaminase in erythrocytes: studies in erythroid cell lines and transgenic mice. Blood. 1994;84:2346-53 pubmed
    Overexpression of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in red blood cells is characterized by a marked, tissue-specific increase in levels of structurally normal ADA mRNA and enzymatic activity in the erythrocytes of affected individuals, leading ..
  14. Yeung C, Ingolia D, Roth D, Shoemaker C, al Ubaidi M, Yen J, et al. Identification of functional murine adenosine deaminase cDNA clones by complementation in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:10299-307 pubmed
    Total poly(A+) RNA derived from a mouse cell line with amplified adenosine deaminase genes was used as template to synthesize double-stranded cDNA...
  15. Lembertas A, Perusse L, Chagnon Y, Fisler J, Warden C, Purcell Huynh D, et al. Identification of an obesity quantitative trait locus on mouse chromosome 2 and evidence of linkage to body fat and insulin on the human homologous region 20q. J Clin Invest. 1997;100:1240-7 pubmed
    ..008), and fasting insulin (P < 0.0005) and a locus extending approximately from ADA (the adenosine deaminase gene) to MC3R (the melanocortin 3 receptor gene)...
  16. Sun C, Young H, Molina J, Volmer J, Schnermann J, Blackburn M. A protective role for the A1 adenosine receptor in adenosine-dependent pulmonary injury. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:35-43 pubmed
    ..contribution of A(1) adenosine receptor (A(1)AR) signaling to the pulmonary inflammation and injury seen in adenosine deaminase-deficient (ADA-deficient) mice, which exhibit elevated adenosine levels...
  17. Sun C, Zhong H, Mohsenin A, Morschl E, Chunn J, Molina J, et al. Role of A2B adenosine receptor signaling in adenosine-dependent pulmonary inflammation and injury. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2173-2182 pubmed
    ..b>Adenosine deaminase-deficient (ADA-deficient) mice develop pulmonary inflammation and injury that are dependent on increased ..
  18. Luo C, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Edelhoff S, Disteche C, Hogan P, et al. Normal function of the transcription factor NFAT1 in wasted mice. Chromosome localization of NFAT1 gene. Gene. 1996;180:29-36 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the wasted phenotype is not due to a defect in the expression or early regulation of the NFAT1 protein. ..
  19. Zimmerman J, Bui Q, Steingrimsson E, Nagle D, Fu W, Genin A, et al. Cloning and characterization of two vertebrate homologs of the Drosophila eyes absent gene. Genome Res. 1997;7:128-41 pubmed
    ..Our findings support the notion that several families of genes (Pax-6/eyeless, Six-3/sine oculis, and Eya) play related and critical roles in the eye for both files and vertebrates. ..
  20. Shi D, Winston J, Blackburn M, Datta S, Hanten G, Kellems R. Diverse genetic regulatory motifs required for murine adenosine deaminase gene expression in the placenta. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:2334-41 pubmed
    Murine adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a ubiquitous purine catabolic enzyme whose expression is subject to developmental and tissue-specific regulation...
  21. Wen J, Jiang X, Dai Y, Zhang Y, Tang Y, Sun H, et al. Increased adenosine contributes to penile fibrosis, a dangerous feature of priapism, via A2B adenosine receptor signaling. FASEB J. 2010;24:740-9 pubmed publisher a novel causative factor contributing to penile fibrosis in two independent animal models of priapism, adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice and SCD transgenic mice...
  22. Delano D, Montesinos M, Desai A, Wilder T, Fernandez P, D EUSTACHIO P, et al. Genetically based resistance to the antiinflammatory effects of methotrexate in the air-pouch model of acute inflammation. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:2567-75 pubmed
    ..Genetic factors contribute to the antiinflammatory efficacy of MTX, and a single locus involved in MTX-induced adenosine up-regulation is likely responsible for the observed resistance to MTX in DBA/1J mice. ..
  23. Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Cho B, Strobel M, Williams S, Copeland N, et al. Mouse chromosomal location of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins C/EBP beta (Cebpb), C/EBP delta (Cebpd), and CRP1 (Cebpe). Genomics. 1995;28:333-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that Cebpb maps to mouse chromosome 2, Cebpd to chromosome 16, and Cebpe to chromosome 14. The assignment of Cebpd to chromosome 16 identifies a new region of homology between mouse chromosome 16 and human chromosome 8. ..
  24. Gao X, Blackburn M, Knudsen T. Activation of apoptosis in early mouse embryos by 2'-deoxyadenosine exposure. Teratology. 1994;49:1-12 pubmed
    b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) catalyzes the irreversible hydrolytic deamination of adenosine and deoxyadenosine to nontoxic derivatives...
  25. Schaubach B, Wen H, Kellems R. Regulation of murine Ada gene expression in the placenta by transcription factor RUNX1. Placenta. 2006;27:269-77 pubmed
    ..To understand the mechanisms of gene regulation in the trophoblast cell lineage we have used the murine adenosine deaminase gene (Ada) as a model...
  26. Muncan V, Heijmans J, Krasinski S, B├╝ller N, Wildenberg M, Meisner S, et al. Blimp1 regulates the transition of neonatal to adult intestinal epithelium. Nat Commun. 2011;2:452 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the suckling to weaning transition is regulated by a single transcriptional repressor that delays epithelial maturation. ..
  27. Migchielsen A, Breuer M, Hershfield M, Valerio D. Full genetic rescue of adenosine deaminase-deficient mice through introduction of the human gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1996;5:1523-32 pubmed
    We have shown recently that adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice die perinatally with severe liver cell degeneration...
  28. Sideraki V, Wilson D, Kurz L, Quiocho F, Rudolph F. Site-directed mutagenesis of histidine 238 in mouse adenosine deaminase: substitution of histidine 238 does not impede hydroxylate formation. Biochemistry. 1996;35:15019-28 pubmed
    ..amino acid located in hydrogen-bonding distance from C-6 of the substrate in the active site of murine adenosine deaminase (mADA) and postulated to play an important role in catalysis, was altered into an alanine, a glutamate, and ..
  29. Maa M, Chinsky J, Ramamurthy V, Martin B, Kellems R. Identification of transcription stop sites at the 5' and 3' ends of the murine adenosine deaminase gene. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:12513-9 pubmed
    ..identification and nucleotide sequence of two transcription termination regions associated with the murine adenosine deaminase gene...
  30. Van De Wiele C, Vaughn J, Blackburn M, Ledent C, Jacobson M, Jiang H, et al. Adenosine kinase inhibition promotes survival of fetal adenosine deaminase-deficient thymocytes by blocking dATP accumulation. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:395-402 pubmed
    Thymocyte development past the CD4(-)CD8(-) stage is markedly inhibited in adenosine deaminase-deficient (ADA-deficient) murine fetal thymic organ cultures (FTOCs) due to the accumulation of ADA substrates derived from thymocytes failing ..
  31. Chagnon Y, Bouchard C. Genetics of obesity: advances from rodent studies. Trends Genet. 1996;12:441-4 pubmed
  32. Shi D, Kellems R. Transcription factor AP-2gamma regulates murine adenosine deaminase gene expression during placental development. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:27331-8 pubmed
    ..and function of trophoblast cells, we sought to identify the transcription factors that regulate murine adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene expression in the placenta...
  33. Turner C, Seli M, Ment L, Stewart W, Yan H, Johansson B, et al. A1 adenosine receptors mediate hypoxia-induced ventriculomegaly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:11718-22 pubmed
    ..pathogenesis of developmental brain injury, ventriculomegaly was also observed in mice lacking the enzyme adenosine deaminase, which degrades adenosine...
  34. Brickner A, Koop B, Aronow B, Wiginton D. Genomic sequence comparison of the human and mouse adenosine deaminase gene regions. Mamm Genome. 1999;10:95-101 pubmed
    ..Previous transgenic and transfection analyses defined conserved regulatory domains in the mouse and human adenosine deaminase (ADA) genes...
  35. Apasov S, Blackburn M, Kellems R, Smith P, Sitkovsky M. Adenosine deaminase deficiency increases thymic apoptosis and causes defective T cell receptor signaling. J Clin Invest. 2001;108:131-41 pubmed
    b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency in humans results in a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This immunodeficiency is associated with severe disturbances in purine metabolism that are thought to mediate lymphotoxicity...
  36. Glaser T, Matthews K, Hudson J, Seth P, Housman D, Crerar M. Localization of the muscle, liver, and brain glycogen phosphorylase genes on linkage maps of mouse chromosomes 19, 12, and 2, respectively. Genomics. 1989;5:510-21 pubmed
    ..However, muscle phosphorylase gene structure and expression appear to be unaltered in mdf/mdf mice, indicating that this mutation is not an animal model for the human genetic disorder McArdle's disease. ..
  37. Pedroza M, Schneider D, Karmouty Quintana H, Coote J, Shaw S, Corrigan R, et al. Interleukin-6 contributes to inflammation and remodeling in a model of adenosine mediated lung injury. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22667 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested this hypothesis by neutralizing or genetically removing IL-6 in adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice that develop adenosine dependent pulmonary inflammation and remodeling...
  38. Aitman T, Hearne C, McAleer M, Todd J. Mononucleotide repeats are an abundant source of length variants in mouse genomic DNA. Mamm Genome. 1991;1:206-10 pubmed
    ..Nine of the 18 repeat sequences (50%) have three or more alleles in the strains tested. Ten of these repeat sequences have been mapped using strain distribution patterns (SDPs) in recombinant inbred (RI) strains. ..
  39. Masaki S, Watanabe T. The gene Bfsp1 for the lens fiber cell beaded-filament structural protein CP94 maps to mouse chromosome 2. Genomics. 1994;22:449-50 pubmed
    ..The results indicated that Bfsp1 maps at position 58 (+/- 6) on chromosome 2, in the vicinity of the blind-sterile (bs) locus. ..
  40. Miller M, Duhl D, Vrieling H, Cordes S, Ollmann M, Winkes B, et al. Cloning of the mouse agouti gene predicts a secreted protein ubiquitously expressed in mice carrying the lethal yellow mutation. Genes Dev. 1993;7:454-67 pubmed
    ..We speculate that dominant pleiotropic effects of Ay are caused by ectopic activation of a signaling pathway similar to that used during normal hair growth. ..
  41. Dhanju R, Min W, Ackerley C, Cimpean L, Palaniyar N, Roifman C, et al. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133:1467-71, 1471.e1-4 pubmed publisher
  42. Sun K, Zhang Y, Bogdanov M, Wu H, Song A, Li J, et al. Elevated adenosine signaling via adenosine A2B receptor induces normal and sickle erythrocyte sphingosine kinase 1 activity. Blood. 2015;125:1643-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently, we provide in vivo genetic evidence that adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency leads to excess plasma adenosine and elevated erythrocyte SphK1 activity...
  43. Jiang R, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Gridley T. Genomic organization and chromosomal localization of the mouse snail (Sna) gene. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:686-8 pubmed
  44. Riley P, Anson Cartwright L, Cross J. The Hand1 bHLH transcription factor is essential for placentation and cardiac morphogenesis. Nat Genet. 1998;18:271-5 pubmed
    ..Their heart tubes showed abnormal looping and ventricular myocardial differentiation. Therefore, Hand1 is essential for differentiation of both trophoblast and cardiomyocytes, which are embryologically distinct cell lineages. ..
  45. Pence S, Erkutlu I, Kurtul N, Alptekin M, Tan U. Effects of progesterone on total brain tissue adenosine deaminase activity in experimental epilepsy. Int J Neurosci. 2009;119:204-13 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Adenosine deaminase is the enzyme for the regulation of adenosine levels...
  46. Winston J, Hong L, Datta S, Kellems R. An intron 1 regulatory region from the murine adenosine deaminase gene can activate heterologous promoters for ubiquitous expression in transgenic mice. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1996;22:261-78 pubmed
    ..effort to understand the molecular basis for this regulatory feature, the chromatin structure of the murine adenosine deaminase gene was examined by DNase I digestion in nuclei of several tissues...
  47. Peters J, Beechey C, Ball S, Evans E. Mapping studies of the distal imprinting region of mouse chromosome 2. Genet Res. 1994;63:169-74 pubmed
    ..Ada, adenosine deaminase, lies very near the proximal boundary and Ra, ragged, maps very close to the distal boundary, and is less ..
  48. Van De Wiele C, Joachims M, Fesler A, Vaughn J, Blackburn M, McGee S, et al. Further differentiation of murine double-positive thymocytes is inhibited in adenosine deaminase-deficient murine fetal thymic organ culture. J Immunol. 2006;176:5925-33 pubmed
    Murine fetal thymic organ culture (FTOC) was used to investigate the mechanism by which a lack of adenosine deaminase (ADA) leads to a failure of T cell production in the thymus...
  49. Ingolia D, al Ubaidi M, Yeung C, Bigo H, Wright D, Kellems R. Molecular cloning of the murine adenosine deaminase gene from a genetically enriched source: identification and characterization of the promoter region. Mol Cell Biol. 1986;6:4458-66 pubmed
    ..library was prepared with DNA from a genetically enriched mouse cell line in which amplified copies of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene account for over 5% of the genome...
  50. Spring J, Goldberger O, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Bernfield M. Mapping of the syndecan genes in the mouse: linkage with members of the myc gene family. Genomics. 1994;21:597-601 pubmed
    ..The physical relationship between the members of these two gene families appears to be ancient and conserved after the two genome duplications thought to have occurred during vertebrate evolution. ..
  51. Willems L, Reichelt M, Molina J, Sun C, Chunn J, Ashton K, et al. Effects of adenosine deaminase and A1 receptor deficiency in normoxic and ischaemic mouse hearts. Cardiovasc Res. 2006;71:79-87 pubmed
    b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) may be multifunctional, regulating adenosine levels and adenosine receptor (AR) agonism, and potentially modifying AR functionality...
  52. al Ubaidi M, Ramamurthy V, Maa M, Ingolia D, Chinsky J, Martin B, et al. Structural and functional analysis of the murine adenosine deaminase gene. Genomics. 1990;7:476-85 pubmed
    We describe the structural and functional analysis of cosmid clones that span the entire murine adenosine deaminase gene...
  53. Novitskiy S, Ryzhov S, Zaynagetdinov R, Goldstein A, Huang Y, Tikhomirov O, et al. Adenosine receptors in regulation of dendritic cell differentiation and function. Blood. 2008;112:1822-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Adenosine signaling through A(2B) receptor is an important factor of aberrant DC differentiation and generation of tolerogenic, angiogenic, and proinflammatory cells. ..
  54. Hu X, Adebiyi M, Luo J, Sun K, Le T, Zhang Y, et al. Sustained Elevated Adenosine via ADORA2B Promotes Chronic Pain through Neuro-immune Interaction. Cell Rep. 2016;16:106-119 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that mice lacking adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme necessary for the breakdown of adenosine, displayed unexpected chronic mechanical and ..
  55. Abbott C, Evans E, Burtenshaw M, Ball S, Skidmore C, Jones J, et al. Adenosine deaminase, Ada, is in mouse chromosome 2H3, and is not allelic with wasted, wst. Biochem Genet. 1991;29:537-44 pubmed
    The adenosine deaminase locus (Ada) in the mouse has been localized by in situ hybridization to band 2H3. Linkage analysis of backcross data has shown that Ada is 13.8 +/- 2.7 cM from the coat texture mutant, ragged, Ra...
  56. Siracusa L, Silan C, Justice M, Mercer J, Bauskin A, Ben Neriah Y, et al. A molecular genetic linkage map of mouse chromosome 2. Genomics. 1990;6:491-504 pubmed
    ..Comparisons between the mouse and the human genomes indicate that mouse chromosome 2 contains regions homologous to at least six human chromosomes. Mouse models for human diseases are discussed. ..
  57. Siciliano M, Fournier R, Stallings R. Regional assignment of ADA and ITPA to mouse chromosome 2 (C1----ter). A demonstration of the conserved linkage of enzyme and proto-oncogene loci. J Hered. 1984;75:175-80 pubmed
    ..between the long arm of Chinese hamster chromosome 6 and mouse chromosome 2, combined with the assignments of AK1, ADA, and ITPA to hamster chromosome 6 and AK1 to mouse chromosome 2, suggested mouse chromosome 2 also might contain ..
  58. Leco K, Harvey M, Hogan A, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 maps to the distal end of chromosome 2 in the mouse. Dev Genet. 1997;21:55-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, loss of MMP-9 activity in parthenogenetic blastocysts does not appear to be due to imprinting but, rather, due to a defect of trophoblast giant cell proliferation and differentiation. ..
  59. Sideraki V, Mohamedali K, Wilson D, Chang Z, Kellems R, Quiocho F, et al. Probing the functional role of two conserved active site aspartates in mouse adenosine deaminase. Biochemistry. 1996;35:7862-72 pubmed
    Two adjacent aspartates, Asp 295 and Asp 296, playing major roles in the reaction catalyzed by mouse adenosine deaminase (mADA) were altered using site-directed mutagenesis...
  60. Ning C, Wen J, Zhang Y, Dai Y, Wang W, Zhang W, et al. Excess adenosine A2B receptor signaling contributes to priapism through HIF-1? mediated reduction of PDE5 gene expression. FASEB J. 2014;28:2725-35 pubmed publisher
    ..and PDE activity is significantly reduced in penile tissues of two independent priapic models: SCD mice and adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice...
  61. Xu P, Kellems R. Function of murine adenosine deaminase in the gastrointestinal tract. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;269:749-57 pubmed
    b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency in humans leads to a combined immunodeficiency characterized by severe T and B cell lymphopenia. ADA-deficient humans also display defective development of gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT)...
  62. Sauer A, Mrak E, Hernandez R, Zacchi E, Cavani F, Casiraghi M, et al. ADA-deficient SCID is associated with a specific microenvironment and bone phenotype characterized by RANKL/OPG imbalance and osteoblast insufficiency. Blood. 2009;114:3216-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a disorder of the purine metabolism leading to combined immunodeficiency and systemic alterations, including skeletal abnormalities...
  63. Koiwai O, Yasui Y, Sakai Y, Watanabe T, Ishii K, Yanagihara S, et al. Cloning of the mouse cDNA encoding DNA topoisomerase I and chromosomal location of the gene. Gene. 1993;125:211-6 pubmed
    ..The mouse TopI gene was mapped at position 54.5 on chromosome 2 from linkage analyses of a three-point cross test with Geg, Ada, and a as marker genes.
  64. Shu Q, Frieden C. Urea-dependent unfolding of murine adenosine deaminase: sequential destabilization as measured by 19F NMR. Biochemistry. 2004;43:1432-9 pubmed
    Murine adenosine deaminase (mADA) is a 40 kDa (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel protein consisting of eight central beta-strands and eight peripheral alpha-helices containing four tryptophan residues...
  65. Ito T, Seldin M, Taketo M, Kubo T, Natori S. Gene organization and chromosome mapping of the testis-specific S-II. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:915-7 pubmed
  66. Winston J, Hanten G, Overbeek P, Kellems R. 5' flanking sequences of the murine adenosine deaminase gene direct expression of a reporter gene to specific prenatal and postnatal tissues in transgenic mice. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:13472-9 pubmed
    b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme of purine metabolism, is highly expressed in four tissues of the mouse: the maternal decidua, the fetal placenta, the keratinizing epithelium of the upper alimentary tract (tongue, esophagus, and ..
  67. Ray I, Sharma R. Dietary regulation of adenosine deaminase activity in stomach, small intestine and spleen of mice. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2002;39:419-21 pubmed
    Activity of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and its regulation by dietary restriction were studied in the stomach, small intestine and spleen of mice...
  68. Meng J, Zhang F, Huhtaniemi I, Pakarinen P. Characterization and developmental expression of a testis-specific adenosine deaminase mRNA in the mouse. J Androl. 1997;18:88-95 pubmed
    ..It also modulates FSH action through its Gi protein coupled receptors. Adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme regulating adenosine levels, exists in the plasma membrane of the sperm, but little is ..
  69. Ghaemi Oskouie F, Shameli A, Yang A, Desrosiers M, Mucsi A, Blackburn M, et al. High levels of adenosine deaminase on dendritic cells promote autoreactive T cell activation and diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol. 2011;186:6798-806 pubmed publisher
    ..It signals through P1 adenosine receptors to suppress activation of T cells and professional APCs. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) counters this effect by catabolizing adenosine...
  70. Jinnah H, Page T, Friedmann T. Brain purines in a genetic mouse model of Lesch-Nyhan disease. J Neurochem. 1993;60:2036-45 pubmed
    ..This increase in the synthesis of purines may protect the HPRT- mice from potential depletion of brain purines despite complete impairment of HPRT-mediated purine salvage. ..
  71. Auman H, Nottoli T, Lakiza O, Winger Q, Donaldson S, Williams T. Transcription factor AP-2gamma is essential in the extra-embryonic lineages for early postimplantation development. Development. 2002;129:2733-47 pubmed
    ..By contrast, the presence of AP-2gamma in the extra-embryonic membranes is required for normal development of this compartment and also for survival of the mouse embryo. ..
  72. Williamson C, Dutton E, Beechey C, Peters J. Protective protein for beta-galactosidase, Ppgb, maps to the distal imprinting region of mouse chromosome 2 but is not imprinted. Genomics. 1994;22:240-2 pubmed
    ..From the combined data, the order of markers is T2Wa-Ada-Ppgb-D2Mit25-T28H...
  73. Aldrich M, Chen W, Blackburn M, Martinez Valdez H, Datta S, Kellems R. Impaired germinal center maturation in adenosine deaminase deficiency. J Immunol. 2003;171:5562-70 pubmed
    Mice deficient in the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) have small lymphoid organs that contain reduced numbers of peripheral lymphocytes, and they are immunodeficient...
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    b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency causes severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and is accompanied by T-cell depletion and accumulation of both intracellular and extracellular adenosine (extAdo) and deoxyadenosine...
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    ..Mouse resistance to PAN has been attributed to a defect in glomerular adenosine deaminase (ADA), which metabolizes PAN...
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    ..It maps close to agouti, some alleles of which show differential expression according to parental origin. The localisation of Nnat to band H1 confirms and refines the map location of a second imprinting region on mouse Chr 2. ..