Gene Symbol: Acvr2b
Description: activin receptor IIB
Alias: 4930516B21Rik, ActRIIB, activin receptor type-2B, activin receptor type IIB
Species: mouse
Products:     Acvr2b

Top Publications

  1. Lee S, McPherron A. Regulation of myostatin activity and muscle growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:9306-11 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the propeptide, follistatin, or other molecules that block signaling through this pathway may be useful agents for enhancing muscle growth for both human therapeutic and agricultural applications. ..
  2. Attisano L, Wrana J, Cheifetz S, Massague J. Novel activin receptors: distinct genes and alternative mRNA splicing generate a repertoire of serine/threonine kinase receptors. Cell. 1992;68:97-108 pubmed
    ..This receptor heterogeneity might underlie the sharply different responses that activin can elicit in a dose- or cell-specific manner. ..
  3. Oh S, Yeo C, Lee Y, Schrewe H, Whitman M, Li E. Activin type IIA and IIB receptors mediate Gdf11 signaling in axial vertebral patterning. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2749-54 pubmed
    ..beta (TGF-beta) family protein, Gdf11 (growth and differentiation factor 11), and the activin type II receptor, ActRIIB, are involved in controlling the spatiotemporal expression of multiple Hox genes along the AP axis, and that the ..
  4. Lee S, Reed L, Davies M, Girgenrath S, Goad M, Tomkinson K, et al. Regulation of muscle growth by multiple ligands signaling through activin type II receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18117-22 pubmed
    ..Here we describe a potent myostatin inhibitor, a soluble form of the activin type IIB receptor (ACVR2B), which can cause dramatic increases in muscle mass (up to 60% in 2 weeks) when injected into wild-type mice...
  5. Oh S, Li E. Gene-dosage-sensitive genetic interactions between inversus viscerum (iv), nodal, and activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) genes in asymmetrical patterning of the visceral organs along the left-right axis. Dev Dyn. 2002;224:279-90 pubmed
    We have shown previously that mice deficient in the activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) exhibit right isomerism, which is characterized by mirror-image symmetrical right lungs, complex cardiac malformations, and hypoplasia of the spleen...
  6. Piek E, Van Dinther M, Parks W, Sallee J, Bottinger E, Roberts A, et al. RLP, a novel Ras-like protein, is an immediate-early transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) target gene that negatively regulates transcriptional activity induced by TGF-beta. Biochem J. 2004;383:187-99 pubmed
  7. Lee Y, Hong K, Yun J, Oh S. Generation of activin receptor type IIB isoform-specific hypomorphic alleles. Genesis. 2006;44:487-94 pubmed
    b>Activin receptor type IIB (Acvr2b) mediates multiple signals for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, including Activin, Nodal, Bmp7, Gdf1, Gdf3, Myostatin (Gdf8), and Gdf11...
  8. Feijen A, Goumans M, van den Eijnden van Raaij A. Expression of activin subunits, activin receptors and follistatin in postimplantation mouse embryos suggests specific developmental functions for different activins. Development. 1994;120:3621-37 pubmed
    ..c.) activin beta A and beta B subunit expression was restricted to the decidua, while activin receptor type IIB messages were exclusively detected in the embryo...
  9. Nakamura M, Matzuk M, Gerstmayer B, Bosio A, Lauster R, Miyachi Y, et al. Control of pelage hair follicle development and cycling by complex interactions between follistatin and activin. FASEB J. 2003;17:497-9 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that follistatin and activin interaction plays an important role in both HF development and cycling, possibly in part by regulating expression of BMP-2 and its antagonist. ..

More Information


  1. Kokabu S, Gamer L, Cox K, Lowery J, Tsuji K, Raz R, et al. BMP3 suppresses osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells via interaction with Acvr2b. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:87-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of BMP3 to affect OBL differentiation is due to its interaction with activin receptor type 2b (Acvr2b) because knockdown of endogenous Acvr2b in bone marrow stromal cells reduces the suppressive ..
  2. Lee S, Huynh T, Lee Y, Sebald S, Wilcox Adelman S, Iwamori N, et al. Role of satellite cells versus myofibers in muscle hypertrophy induced by inhibition of the myostatin/activin signaling pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E2353-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that genetic ablation of Acvr2b, which encodes a high-affinity receptor for myostatin and activin A specifically in myofibers is sufficient to ..
  3. Zhang Y, Cleary M, Si Y, Liu G, Eto Y, Kritzik M, et al. Inhibition of activin signaling induces pancreatic epithelial cell expansion and diminishes terminal differentiation of pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes. 2004;53:2024-33 pubmed
    ..Follistatin participates in this process by promoting expansion of precursor cells during pancreas growth. ..
  4. Song J, Oh S, Schrewe H, Nomura M, Lei H, Okano M, et al. The type II activin receptors are essential for egg cylinder growth, gastrulation, and rostral head development in mice. Dev Biol. 1999;213:157-69 pubmed
    The type II activin receptors, ActRIIA and ActRIIB, have been shown to play critical roles in axial patterning and organ development in mice...
  5. Ritvos O, Tuuri T, Erämaa M, Sainio K, Hilden K, Saxen L, et al. Activin disrupts epithelial branching morphogenesis in developing glandular organs of the mouse. Mech Dev. 1995;50:229-45 pubmed
    ..Our results are suggestive of a potential role for the activin-follistatin system as an intrinsic regulator of epithelial branching morphogenesis during mammalian organogenesis. ..
  6. Ferguson C, Tucker A, Heikinheimo K, Nomura M, Oh P, Li E, et al. The role of effectors of the activin signalling pathway, activin receptors IIA and IIB, and Smad2, in patterning of tooth development. Development. 2001;128:4605-13 pubmed
    ..Activin, thus, has an essential role in early development of incisor and mandibular molar teeth but this pathway is not required for development of maxillary molars. ..
  7. Lee Y, McPherron A, Choe S, Sakai Y, Chandraratna R, Lee S, et al. Growth differentiation factor 11 signaling controls retinoic acid activity for axial vertebral development. Dev Biol. 2010;347:195-203 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Gdf11 and Acvr2b mutants are sensitive to exogenous RA treatment on vertebral specification and caudal vertebral development...
  8. Liu H, Zhang R, Chen D, Oyajobi B, Zhao M. Functional redundancy of type II BMP receptor and type IIB activin receptor in BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:952-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed functional redundancy of type II BMP receptors in osteoblasts is novel information about the BMP signaling pathway essential for initiating osteoblast differentiation. ..
  9. Dutta D, Zameer A, Mariani J, Zhang J, Asp L, Huynh J, et al. Combinatorial actions of Tgf? and Activin ligands promote oligodendrocyte development and CNS myelination. Development. 2014;141:2414-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that, in mammalian spinal cord, Tgf? ligands and ActB together support oligodendrocyte development and myelin formation. ..
  10. Manova K, De Leon V, Angeles M, Kalantry S, Giarre M, Attisano L, et al. mRNAs for activin receptors II and IIB are expressed in mouse oocytes and in the epiblast of pregastrula and gastrula stage mouse embryos. Mech Dev. 1995;49:3-11 pubmed
    ..5 and E7.5 decidua contain mRNAs for both activin receptors type II and IIB. The expression of activin receptor type IIB is particularly strong in embryonic ectoderm apparent at E5.5 and continuing through E8.5...
  11. Niessen K, Zhang G, Ridgway J, Chen H, Yan M. ALK1 signaling regulates early postnatal lymphatic vessel development. Blood. 2010;115:1654-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study reveals a novel aspect of ALK1 signaling in regulating lymphatic development and suggests that targeting ALK1 pathway might provide additional control of lymphangiogenesis in human diseases. ..
  12. Spiller C, Feng C, Jackson A, Gillis A, Rolland A, Looijenga L, et al. Endogenous Nodal signaling regulates germ cell potency during mammalian testis development. Development. 2012;139:4123-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Nodal signaling provides a molecular control mechanism that regulates male germ cell potency in normal development and testicular cancer. ..
  13. Vesper A, Raetzman L, Camper S. Role of prophet of Pit1 (PROP1) in gonadotrope differentiation and puberty. Endocrinology. 2006;147:1654-63 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that variation in PROP1 expression could affect the growth spurt and the onset of puberty in humans...
  14. Goto Y, Nomura M, Tanaka K, Kondo A, Morinaga H, Okabe T, et al. Genetic interactions between activin type IIB receptor and Smad2 genes in asymmetrical patterning of the thoracic organs and the development of pancreas islets. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2865-74 pubmed
    Signaling through activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) has been shown to regulate the axial formation and the development of foregut-derived organs such as the pancreas in mice...
  15. Lawlor M, Read B, Edelstein R, Yang N, Pierson C, Stein M, et al. Inhibition of activin receptor type IIB increases strength and lifespan in myotubularin-deficient mice. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:784-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have elucidated an important role for the activin-receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) in regulation of muscle growth and have demonstrated that ActRIIB inhibition results in significant muscle ..
  16. Moore C, Mjaatvedt C, Gearhart J. Expression and function of activin beta A during mouse cardiac cushion tissue formation. Dev Dyn. 1998;212:548-62 pubmed
  17. Matzuk M, Bradley A. Structure of the mouse activin receptor type II gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;185:404-13 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the 5' region of the gene reveals several putative transcription factor binding sites which may be important for the complex transcriptional regulation of this gene. ..
  18. Gamer L, Cox K, Carlo J, Rosen V. Overexpression of BMP3 in the developing skeleton alters endochondral bone formation resulting in spontaneous rib fractures. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2374-81 pubmed publisher
    ..As BMP3 modulates BMP and activin signaling through ActRIIB, we examined the ribs of ActRIIB receptor knockout mice and found they had defects in late chondrogenesis and ..
  19. Allen D, Cleary A, Speaker K, Lindsay S, Uyenishi J, Reed J, et al. Myostatin, activin receptor IIb, and follistatin-like-3 gene expression are altered in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of obese mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:E918-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to determine whether expression of MSTN, its receptor activin RIIb (ActRIIb), or its binding protein follistatin-like-3 (FSTL3) are altered in subcutaneous or visceral adipose or in ..
  20. Liu J, Saito K, Maruya Y, Nakamura T, Yamada A, Fukumoto E, et al. Mutant GDF5 enhances ameloblast differentiation via accelerated BMP2-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. Sci Rep. 2016;6:23670 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that mutant GDF5 enhances ameloblast differentiation via accelerated BMP2-signalling. ..
  21. Natale D, Hemberger M, Hughes M, Cross J. Activin promotes differentiation of cultured mouse trophoblast stem cells towards a labyrinth cell fate. Dev Biol. 2009;335:120-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Activin rather than TGF-beta (or Nodal) acts directly on TS cells influencing both TS cell maintenance and cell fate, depending on whether the cells are also exposed to FGF4. ..
  22. Singh R, Braga M, Reddy S, Lee S, Parveen M, Grijalva V, et al. Follistatin Targets Distinct Pathways To Promote Brown Adipocyte Characteristics in Brown and White Adipose Tissues. Endocrinology. 2017;158:1217-1230 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results indicate that Fst promotes brown adipocyte characteristics in both WAT and BAT depots in vivo through distinct mechanisms. ..
  23. Morita S, Hara A, Kojima I, Horii T, Kimura M, Kitamura T, et al. Dicer is required for maintaining adult pancreas. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4212 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggested that Dicer1 is important for maintaining the adult pancreas. ..
  24. Hulmi J, Hentilä J, DeRuisseau K, Oliveira B, Papaioannou K, Autio R, et al. Effects of muscular dystrophy, exercise and blocking activin receptor IIB ligands on the unfolded protein response and oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016;99:308-322 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these processes are not distinctly improved by voluntary exercise or blocking activin receptor IIB ligands and thus do not appear to be optimal therapeutic choices for improving proteostasis in DMD. ..
  25. Jiang F, Harrison L. Convergence of bone morphogenetic protein and laminin-1 signaling pathways promotes proliferation and colony formation by fetal mouse pancreatic cells. Exp Cell Res. 2005;308:114-22 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a convergence of BMP and Ln-1 signaling through P13K and MAP kinase pathways to induce proliferation and colony formation in E15.5 fetal mouse pancreatic cells. ..
  26. Andersson O, Bertolino P, Ibanez C. Distinct and cooperative roles of mammalian Vg1 homologs GDF1 and GDF3 during early embryonic development. Dev Biol. 2007;311:500-11 pubmed GDF1, we find that GDF3 signaling can be mediated by the type I receptor ALK4, type II receptors ActRIIA and ActRIIB, and the co-receptor Cripto to activate Smad-dependent reporter genes...
  27. Tischfield M, Robson C, Gilette N, Chim S, Sofela F, DeLisle M, et al. Cerebral Vein Malformations Result from Loss of Twist1 Expression and BMP Signaling from Skull Progenitor Cells and Dura. Dev Cell. 2017;42:445-461.e5 pubmed publisher
  28. Gong S, Gong T, Shum L. Identification of markers of the midface. J Dent Res. 2005;84:69-72 pubmed
    ..With the identification of these genes, and possibly others, functional analyses can be conducted to improve our understanding of the mechanisms and pathways by which the midface forms. ..
  29. Park S, Lee Y, Lee H, Seki T, Hong K, Park J, et al. B-cell translocation gene 2 (Btg2) regulates vertebral patterning by modulating bone morphogenetic protein/smad signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:10256-62 pubmed
    ..In view of the genetic evidence that reduced BMP signaling causes posteriorization of the vertebral pattern, we propose that the observed vertebral phenotype in Btg2-null mice is due to attenuated BMP signaling. ..
  30. Fournier B, Murray B, Gutzwiller S, Marcaletti S, Marcellin D, Bergling S, et al. Blockade of the activin receptor IIb activates functional brown adipogenesis and thermogenesis by inducing mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:2871-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that the myostatin/activin receptor IIB (ActRIIB) pathway, which serves as an important negative regulator of muscle growth, is also a negative regulator of brown ..
  31. Oh S, Li E. The signaling pathway mediated by the type IIB activin receptor controls axial patterning and lateral asymmetry in the mouse. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1812-26 pubmed
    ..In this study we show that disruption of the type IIB activin receptor (ActRIIB) by gene targeting results in altered expression of multiple Hox genes and abnormal patterning of the vertebrae, ..
  32. Beppu H, Kawabata M, Hamamoto T, Chytil A, Minowa O, Noda T, et al. BMP type II receptor is required for gastrulation and early development of mouse embryos. Dev Biol. 2000;221:249-58 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the function of BMPR-II is essential for epiblast differentiation and mesoderm induction during early mouse development. ..
  33. Lu R, Matsuyama S, Nishihara M, Takahashi M. Developmental expression of activin/inhibin beta A, beta B, and alpha subunits, and activin receptor-IIB genes in preimplantation mouse embryos. Biol Reprod. 1993;49:1163-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that activin is physiologically involved in the process of early development of mouse embryos. ..
  34. Verschueren K, Dewulf N, Goumans M, Lonnoy O, Feijen A, Grimsby S, et al. Expression of type I and type IB receptors for activin in midgestation mouse embryos suggests distinct functions in organogenesis. Mech Dev. 1995;52:109-23 pubmed
  35. Liang G, Zhang X, Wang J, Sun Y, Sun X, Cheng S, et al. Activin A accelerates the progression of fetal oocytes throughout meiosis and early oogenesis in the mouse. Stem Cells Dev. 2015;24:2455-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we reported that activin receptors (including ActRIA, ActRIB, ActRIIA, and ActRIIB) are expressed throughout the development of the mouse ovaries from 12...
  36. Li Z, Kollias H, Wagner K. Myostatin directly regulates skeletal muscle fibrosis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:19371-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results expand our understanding of the function of myostatin in muscle tissue and provide a potential target for anti-fibrotic therapies. ..
  37. Oki S, Hashimoto R, Okui Y, Shen M, Mekada E, Otani H, et al. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans are necessary for Nodal signal transmission from the node to the left lateral plate in the mouse embryo. Development. 2007;134:3893-904 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of sulfated GAG biosynthesis prevents Nodal expression in the LPM. These data suggest that Nodal produced at the node might travel directly to the LPM via interaction with sulfated GAGs. ..
  38. Simmons D, Cross J. Determinants of trophoblast lineage and cell subtype specification in the mouse placenta. Dev Biol. 2005;284:12-24 pubmed
    ..Here, we review recent insights into the molecular pathways regulating trophoblast lineage segregation, stem cell maintenance, and subtype differentiation. ..
  39. Chen J, Chang C, Chen J, Shen S, Wu J. Production of biologically active recombinant tilapia insulin-like growth factor-II polypeptides in Escherichia coli cells and characterization of the genomic structure of the coding region. DNA Cell Biol. 1997;16:883-92 pubmed
    ..The assay concentration was set up from 0 to 120 nM to stimulate tilapia ovary cell line (TO-2) significantly to uptake thymidine. The results suggest that the recombinant IGF-II protein was dose dependent. ..
  40. Licona P, Chimal Monroy J, Soldevila G. Inhibins are the major activin ligands expressed during early thymocyte development. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1124-32 pubmed
    ..Our data showed that Alk4, ActRIIA, ActRIIB, and Smads 2, 3, and 4, are expressed in fetal thymus (E14 > E15 > E16) and in thymocytes from adult mice (..
  41. Andersson O, Reissmann E, Ibanez C. Growth differentiation factor 11 signals through the transforming growth factor-beta receptor ALK5 to regionalize the anterior-posterior axis. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:831-7 pubmed
    ..but not in Alk4 or Alk7, potentiated Gdf11(-/-)-like phenotypes in vertebral, kidney and palate development in an Acvr2b(-/-) background, indicating a genetic interaction between the two receptor genes...
  42. Matsuzaki T, Hanai S, Kishi H, Liu Z, Bao Y, Kikuchi A, et al. Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein through Ral/Ral-binding protein 1-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:19008-18 pubmed
  43. Gamer L, Tsuji K, Cox K, Capelo L, Lowery J, Beppu H, et al. BMPR-II is dispensable for formation of the limb skeleton. Genesis. 2011;49:719-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Three Type II BMP receptors have been identified; Acvr2a and Acvr2b serve as receptors for BMPs and for activin-like ligands whereas BMPR-II functions only as a BMP receptor...
  44. Dudas M, Kim J, Li W, Nagy A, Larsson J, Karlsson S, et al. Epithelial and ectomesenchymal role of the type I TGF-beta receptor ALK5 during facial morphogenesis and palatal fusion. Dev Biol. 2006;296:298-314 pubmed
  45. Miles D, Wakeling S, Stringer J, Van Den Bergen J, Wilhelm D, Sinclair A, et al. Signaling through the TGF beta-activin receptors ALK4/5/7 regulates testis formation and male germ cell development. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54606 pubmed publisher
  46. Kim S, Hebrok M, Li E, Oh S, Schrewe H, Harmon E, et al. Activin receptor patterning of foregut organogenesis. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1866-71 pubmed
    ..Here, mutations of activin receptors ActRIIA and ActRIIB are shown to disrupt the development of posterior foregut-derived organs, including the stomach, pancreas, and ..
  47. Greenwald J, Vega M, Allendorph G, Fischer W, Vale W, Choe S. A flexible activin explains the membrane-dependent cooperative assembly of TGF-beta family receptors. Mol Cell. 2004;15:485-9 pubmed
    A new crystal structure of activin in complex with the extracellular domain of its type II receptor (ActRIIb-ECD) shows that the ligand exhibits an unexpected flexibility...
  48. Goh B, Singhal V, Herrera A, Tomlinson R, Kim S, Faugere M, et al. Activin receptor type 2A (ACVR2A) functions directly in osteoblasts as a negative regulator of bone mass. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:13809-13822 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we generated mice with conditional deletion of activin receptor (ACVR) type 2A, ACVR2B, or both, in osteoblasts, to determine the contribution of activin receptor signaling in regulating bone mass...
  49. Goncalves M, Pistilli E, Balduzzi A, Birnbaum M, Lachey J, Khurana T, et al. Akt deficiency attenuates muscle size and function but not the response to ActRIIB inhibition. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12707 pubmed publisher
    Akt is a critical mediator of developmental skeletal muscle growth. Treatment with a soluble ActRIIB fusion protein (ActRIIB-mFc) increases skeletal muscle mass and strength by inhibiting myostatin and related peptides...
  50. Lee Y, Lee S. Regulation of GDF-11 and myostatin activity by GASP-1 and GASP-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E3713-22 pubmed publisher
    ..All of these findings suggest that both GASP-1 and GASP-2 are important modulators of GDF-11 and MSTN activity in vivo. ..
  51. Wu T, Jih M, Wang L, Wan Y. Expression of activin receptor II and IIB mRNA isoforms in mouse reproductive organs and oocytes. Mol Reprod Dev. 1994;38:9-15 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  52. Lawlor M, Viola M, Meng H, Edelstein R, Liu F, Yan K, et al. Differential muscle hypertrophy is associated with satellite cell numbers and Akt pathway activation following activin type IIB receptor inhibition in Mtm1 p.R69C mice. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:1831-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently reported that an activin receptor type IIB inhibitor produced hypertrophy of type 2b myofibers and modest increases of strength and life span in ..
  53. Hilden K, Tuuri T, Erämaa M, Ritvos O. Expression of type II activin receptor genes during differentiation of human K562 cells and cDNA cloning of the human type IIB activin receptor. Blood. 1994;83:2163-70 pubmed
    ..The cDNA of the human activin receptor type IIB (hActR-IIB) was cloned and sequenced from two RNA sources, the K562 cells and the human fetal brain, ..
  54. Nakamura T, Sugino K, Kurosawa N, Sawai M, Takio K, Eto Y, et al. Isolation and characterization of activin receptor from mouse embryonal carcinoma cells. Identification of its serine/threonine/tyrosine protein kinase activity. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:18924-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that signal transduction of activin employs a novel pathway via a new class of cellular receptor in EC P19 cells. ..
  55. Cheng S, Olale F, Brivanlou A, Schier A. Lefty blocks a subset of TGFbeta signals by antagonizing EGF-CFC coreceptors. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E30 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that coreceptors are targets for both TGFbeta agonists and antagonists and suggest that subtle sequence variations in TGFbeta signals result in greater ligand diversity. ..
  56. Sengle G, Ono R, Lyons K, Bachinger H, Sakai L. A new model for growth factor activation: type II receptors compete with the prodomain for BMP-7. J Mol Biol. 2008;381:1025-39 pubmed publisher
  57. Wu H, Ivkovic S, Murray R, Jaramillo S, Lyons K, Johnson J, et al. Autoregulation of neurogenesis by GDF11. Neuron. 2003;37:197-207 pubmed
  58. Ding H, Zhang G, Sin K, Liu Z, Lin R, Li M, et al. Activin A induces skeletal muscle catabolism via p38? mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017;8:202-212 pubmed publisher
    Activation of type IIB activin receptor (ActRIIB) in skeletal muscle leads to muscle atrophy because of increased muscle protein degradation...
  59. Esquela A, Lee S. Regulation of metanephric kidney development by growth/differentiation factor 11. Dev Biol. 2003;257:356-70 pubmed
    ..Our studies suggest that Gdf11 may be important in directing the initial outgrowth of the ureteric bud from the Wolffian duct by controlling the expression of Gdnf in the metanephric mesenchyme. ..