Gene Symbol: Actc1
Description: actin, alpha, cardiac muscle 1
Alias: Actc-1, actin, alpha cardiac muscle 1, actin alpha cardiac, alpha-cardiac actin, alphac-actin
Species: mouse
Products:     Actc1

Top Publications

  1. Moens C, Stanton B, Parada L, Rossant J. Defects in heart and lung development in compound heterozygotes for two different targeted mutations at the N-myc locus. Development. 1993;119:485-99 pubmed
    ..This study illustrates the importance of generating different mutations at a given locus to elucidate fully the function of a particular gene during development. ..
  2. Chen F, Kook H, Milewski R, Gitler A, Lu M, Li J, et al. Hop is an unusual homeobox gene that modulates cardiac development. Cell. 2002;110:713-23 pubmed
    ..Hop encodes an unusual homeodomain protein that modulates SRF-dependent cardiac-specific gene expression and cardiac development. ..
  3. Kumar A, Crawford K, Close L, Madison M, Lorenz J, Doetschman T, et al. Rescue of cardiac alpha-actin-deficient mice by enteric smooth muscle gamma-actin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:4406-11 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that alterations in actin composition in the fetal and adult heart are associated with severe structural and functional perturbations. ..
  4. Shin C, Liu Z, Passier R, Zhang C, Wang D, Harris T, et al. Modulation of cardiac growth and development by HOP, an unusual homeodomain protein. Cell. 2002;110:725-35 pubmed
    ..We propose that HOP modulates SRF activity during heart development; its absence results in an imbalance between cardiomyocyte proliferation and differentiation with consequent abnormalities in cardiac morphogenesis. ..
  5. Meilhac S, Kelly R, Rocancourt D, Eloy Trinquet S, Nicolas J, Buckingham M. A retrospective clonal analysis of the myocardium reveals two phases of clonal growth in the developing mouse heart. Development. 2003;130:3877-89 pubmed
    ..We discuss how the characteristics of myocardial cell growth, which we describe, underlie the formation of the heart tube and its subsequent regionalised expansion. ..
  6. Nakamura T, Jenkins N, Copeland N. Identification of a new family of Pbx-related homeobox genes. Oncogene. 1996;13:2235-42 pubmed
    ..The identification of two additional Meis genes identifies a new family of potential Hox cofactors as well as two new potential disease genes. ..
  7. Karamboulas C, Dakubo G, Liu J, De Repentigny Y, Yutzey K, Wallace V, et al. Disruption of MEF2 activity in cardiomyoblasts inhibits cardiomyogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4315-21 pubmed
    ..Our results show that MEF2C, or genes containing MEF2 DNA-binding sites, is required for the efficient differentiation of cardiomyoblasts into cardiomyocytes, suggesting conservation in the role of MEF2 from Drosophila to mammals. ..
  8. Briggs L, Phelps A, Brown E, Kakarla J, Anderson R, van den Hoff M, et al. Expression of the BMP receptor Alk3 in the second heart field is essential for development of the dorsal mesenchymal protrusion and atrioventricular septation. Circ Res. 2013;112:1420-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Perturbation of Alk3-mediated BMP signaling from the SHF results in impaired development of the DMP and ostium primum defects. ..
  9. Niswander L, Martin G. Fgf-4 expression during gastrulation, myogenesis, limb and tooth development in the mouse. Development. 1992;114:755-68 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the data suggest that individual members of the gene family are expressed sequentially in developmental pathways such as mesoderm formation and myogenesis, and play a role in specific epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. ..

More Information


  1. Dupuis L, McCulloch D, McGarity J, Bahan A, Wessels A, Weber D, et al. Altered versican cleavage in ADAMTS5 deficient mice; a novel etiology of myxomatous valve disease. Dev Biol. 2011;357:152-64 pubmed publisher
  2. Gustafson Wagner E, Sinn H, Chen Y, Wang D, Reiter R, Lin J, et al. Loss of mXinalpha, an intercalated disk protein, results in cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy with conduction defects. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H2680-92 pubmed
    ..The mXinalpha-knockout mouse line provides a novel model of cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy with conduction defects. ..
  3. Rashbass P, Wilson V, Rosen B, Beddington R. Alterations in gene expression during mesoderm formation and axial patterning in Brachyury (T) embryos. Int J Dev Biol. 1994;38:35-44 pubmed
    ..This extension into ventromedial somite domains is more pronounced caudally, supporting a function for the notochord in ventralizing somites. ..
  4. Lavine K, Long F, Choi K, Smith C, Ornitz D. Hedgehog signaling to distinct cell types differentially regulates coronary artery and vein development. Development. 2008;135:3161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we present evidence suggesting that coronary arteries and veins may be derived from distinct lineages. ..
  5. Garner I, Minty A, Alonso S, Barton P, Buckingham M. A 5' duplication of the alpha-cardiac actin gene in BALB/c mice is associated with abnormal levels of alpha-cardiac and alpha-skeletal actin mRNAs in adult cardiac tissue. EMBO J. 1986;5:2559-67 pubmed
    ..Transcripts from the alpha-skeletal actin gene accumulate to abnormally high levels in the hearts of such mutant mice. This result suggests tight regulatory coupling for this actin gene pair. ..
  6. Li P, Cavallero S, Gu Y, Chen T, Hughes J, Hassan A, et al. IGF signaling directs ventricular cardiomyocyte proliferation during embryonic heart development. Development. 2011;138:1795-805 pubmed publisher
    ..5, concurrent with the establishment of coronary circulation. Our results define IGF2 as a previously unexplored epicardial mitogen that is required for normal ventricular chamber development. ..
  7. Hattori K, Nakamura K, Hisatomi Y, Matsumoto S, Suzuki M, Harvey R, et al. Arrhythmia induced by spatiotemporal overexpression of calreticulin in the heart. Mol Genet Metab. 2007;91:285-93 pubmed
    ..Our findings support calreticulin being critical for normal heart function and structure. These mice are a useful model for the study of endoplasmic reticulum proteins, such as calreticulin, in various tissues. ..
  8. Wang X, Merritt A, Seyfried J, Guo C, Papadakis E, Finegan K, et al. Targeted deletion of mek5 causes early embryonic death and defects in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5/myocyte enhancer factor 2 cell survival pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:336-45 pubmed
    ..Overall, this is the first study to rigorously establish the role of MEK5 in vivo as an activator of ERK5 and as an essential regulator of cell survival that is required for normal embryonic development. ..
  9. Grifone R, Jarry T, Dandonneau M, Grenier J, Duprez D, Kelly R. Properties of branchiomeric and somite-derived muscle development in Tbx1 mutant embryos. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3071-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The critical requirement for Tbx1 during muscle development is thus in the robust onset of myogenic specification in pharyngeal mesoderm. ..
  10. Kiefer S, Robbins L, Barina A, Zhang Z, Rauchman M. SALL1 truncated protein expression in Townes-Brocks syndrome leads to ectopic expression of downstream genes. Hum Mutat. 2008;29:1133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model for the pathogenesis of TBS in which truncated Sall1 protein causes derepression of Sall-responsive target genes. ..
  11. Miwa T, Koyama T, Shirai M. Muscle specific expression of Cre recombinase under two actin promoters in transgenic mice. Genesis. 2000;26:136-8 pubmed
  12. Cox R, Buckingham M. Actin and myosin genes are transcriptionally regulated during mouse skeletal muscle development. Dev Biol. 1992;149:228-34 pubmed
    ..Notably, transcription from the MLC3F promoter is activated after that of the MLC1F promoter, which is part of the same gene. These results are discussed in the context of published RNA data. ..
  13. Nowak K, Ravenscroft G, Jackaman C, Filipovska A, Davies S, Lim E, et al. Rescue of skeletal muscle alpha-actin-null mice by cardiac (fetal) alpha-actin. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:903-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This raises the prospect that ACTC reactivation might provide a therapy for ACTA1 diseases. In addition, the mouse model will allow analysis of the precise functional differences between ACTA1 and ACTC. ..
  14. Haub O, Goldfarb M. Expression of the fibroblast growth factor-5 gene in the mouse embryo. Development. 1991;112:397-406 pubmed
    ..At several of these sites, expression is spatially restricted within the tissues. We offer several hypotheses regarding the roles of FGF-5 in murine development. ..
  15. Ito M, Swanson B, Sussman M, Kedes L, Lyons G. Cloning of tropomodulin cDNA and localization of gene transcripts during mouse embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 1995;167:317-28 pubmed
  16. Lyons G, Buckingham M, Mannherz H. alpha-Actin proteins and gene transcripts are colocalized in embryonic mouse muscle. Development. 1991;111:451-4 pubmed
    ..In cardiac muscle, alpha-actin transcripts and proteins are abundantly expressed as soon as a cardiac tube forms. ..
  17. Koshiba Takeuchi K, Takeuchi J, Arruda E, Kathiriya I, Mo R, Hui C, et al. Cooperative and antagonistic interactions between Sall4 and Tbx5 pattern the mouse limb and heart. Nat Genet. 2006;38:175-83 pubmed
    ..Thus, a positive and negative feed-forward circuit between Tbx5 and Sall4 ensures precise patterning of embryonic limb and heart and provides a unifying mechanism for heart/hand syndromes. ..
  18. Kuwahara K, Saito Y, Takano M, Arai Y, Yasuno S, Nakagawa Y, et al. NRSF regulates the fetal cardiac gene program and maintains normal cardiac structure and function. EMBO J. 2003;22:6310-21 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate NRSF to be a key transcriptional regulator of the fetal cardiac gene program and suggest an important role for NRSF in maintaining normal cardiac structure and function. ..
  19. Robert B, Sassoon D, Jacq B, Gehring W, Buckingham M. Hox-7, a mouse homeobox gene with a novel pattern of expression during embryogenesis. EMBO J. 1989;8:91-100 pubmed
    ..The pronounced accumulation and regional localization of Hox-7 transcripts in mandibular and limb processes point to a specific morphogenetic role for this mouse homeobox gene. ..
  20. Mitiku N, Baker J. Genomic analysis of gastrulation and organogenesis in the mouse. Dev Cell. 2007;13:897-907 pubmed
    ..Drosophila homologs of these genes are also coordinately downregulated following gastrulation, suggesting that the combined function of these genes has been conserved during metazoan evolution. ..
  21. Ontell M, Sopper M, Lyons G, Buckingham M, Ontell M. Modulation of contractile protein gene expression in fetal murine crural muscles: emergence of muscle diversity. Dev Dyn. 1993;198:203-13 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 400 words) ..
  22. Kochilas L, Li J, Jin F, Buck C, Epstein J. p57Kip2 expression is enhanced during mid-cardiac murine development and is restricted to trabecular myocardium. Pediatr Res. 1999;45:635-42 pubmed
    ..This result and further structural analysis suggests that the myocardial defect of Splotch embryos is associated with precocious cardiomyocyte differentiation. ..
  23. Lescroart F, Hamou W, Francou A, Théveniau Ruissy M, Kelly R, Buckingham M. Clonal analysis reveals a common origin between nonsomite-derived neck muscles and heart myocardium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:1446-51 pubmed publisher
    ..By linking neck muscle and heart development, our findings highlight the importance of cardiopharyngeal mesoderm in the evolution of the vertebrate heart and neck and in the pathophysiology of human congenital disease. ..
  24. Zhang Q, Topol L, Athanasiou M, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, et al. Cloning of the murine Drm gene (Cktsf1b1) and characterization of its oncogene suppressible promoter. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2000;89:242-51 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the expression of Cktsf1b1, a gene associated with early development and cell transformation, is sensitive to MKK levels and may be regulated via multiple transcription factor complexes. ..
  25. Bezold K, Shaffer J, Khosa J, Hoye E, Harris S. A gain-of-function mutation in the M-domain of cardiac myosin-binding protein-C increases binding to actin. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:21496-505 pubmed publisher
  26. Abdelwahid E, Pelliniemi L, Szucsik J, Lessard J, Jokinen E. Cellular disorganization and extensive apoptosis in the developing heart of mice that lack cardiac muscle alpha-actin: apparent cause of perinatal death. Pediatr Res. 2004;55:197-204 pubmed
    ..Other actin isoforms cannot compensate for the lack of cardiac alpha-actin, and this seems to induce apoptosis in defective cardiac myocytes, which are not able to cope with the increased workload in the perinatal phase. ..
  27. Chiannilkulchai N, Pasturaud P, Richard I, Auffray C, Beckmann J. A primary expression map of the chromosome 15q15 region containing the recessive form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2A) gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1995;4:717-25 pubmed
    ..They were characterized for their sequences, physical positions within the YAC contig, and expression patterns. Among those specifically transcribed in muscle, the calpain gene is a good positional and functional candidate for LGMD2A. ..
  28. Li J, Stouffs M, Serrander L, Banfi B, Bettiol E, Charnay Y, et al. The NADPH oxidase NOX4 drives cardiac differentiation: Role in regulating cardiac transcription factors and MAP kinase activation. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:3978-88 pubmed
    ..Our results provide first molecular evidence that the NOX family of NADPH oxidases regulate vertebrate developmental processes. ..
  29. Yeh W, Itie A, Elia A, Ng M, Shu H, Wakeham A, et al. Requirement for Casper (c-FLIP) in regulation of death receptor-induced apoptosis and embryonic development. Immunity. 2000;12:633-42 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Casper has two distinct roles: to cooperate with FADD and caspase-8 during embryonic development and to mediate cytoprotection against death factor-induced apoptosis. ..
  30. Lemonnier M, Buckingham M. Characterization of a cardiac-specific enhancer, which directs {alpha}-cardiac actin gene transcription in the mouse adult heart. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:55651-8 pubmed
    ..This site binds myocyte enhancer factor (MEF)2 factors, principally MEF2D and MEF2A in cardiocyte nuclear extracts. These results are discussed in the context of MEF2 activity and of the regulation of the alpha-cardiac actin locus. ..
  31. Martin A, Phillips R, Kumar A, Crawford K, Abbas Z, Lessard J, et al. Ca(2+) activation and tension cost in myofilaments from mouse hearts ectopically expressing enteric gamma-actin. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;283:H642-9 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that an exchange of cardiac alpha-actin with an actin isoform differing in only five amino acids has a significant impact on both Ca(2+) regulation of cardiac myofilaments and the cross-bridge cycling rate. ..
  32. Nakajima K, Inagawa M, Uchida C, Okada K, Tane S, Kojima M, et al. Coordinated regulation of differentiation and proliferation of embryonic cardiomyocytes by a jumonji (Jarid2)-cyclin D1 pathway. Development. 2011;138:1771-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a Jmj-cyclin D1 pathway coordinately regulates proliferation and differentiation of cardiomyocytes. ..
  33. Tanaka M, Chen Z, Bartunkova S, Yamasaki N, Izumo S. The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. Development. 1999;126:1269-80 pubmed
    ..5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos. ..
  34. Miner J, Miller J, Wold B. Skeletal muscle phenotypes initiated by ectopic MyoD in transgenic mouse heart. Development. 1992;114:853-60 pubmed
  35. Li P, Pashmforoush M, Sucov H. Retinoic acid regulates differentiation of the secondary heart field and TGFbeta-mediated outflow tract septation. Dev Cell. 2010;18:480-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This may be a common pathogenic pathway when second heart field and septation defects are coupled. ..
  36. Liao W, Juo L, Shih Y, Chen Y, Yan Y. HSPB7 prevents cardiac conduction system defect through maintaining intercalated disc integrity. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006984 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings characterize HSPB7 as an intercalated disc protein and suggest it has an essential role in maintaining intercalated disc integrity and conduction function in the adult heart. ..
  37. Dower N, Seldin M, Pugh S, Stone J. Organization and chromosomal locations of Rap1a/Krev sequences in the mouse. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:162-7 pubmed
    ..Rap1a-rs2 is more distantly related to the gene sequence and is located on Chr 2 near Actc-1. ..
  38. Chang N, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Chang Y, Chen W, et al. Assignment of two alpha 2 adrenoceptor subtype genes to murine chromosomes. Neurosci Lett. 1994;167:105-8 pubmed
    ..Both genes mapped in regions of mouse chromosomes consistent with their map location in humans. These mapping results provide additional insights into the linkage relationships among members of this important gene family. ..
  39. Kelly R, Zammit P, Mouly V, Butler Browne G, Buckingham M. Dynamic left/right regionalisation of endogenous myosin light chain 3F transcripts in the developing mouse heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1998;30:1067-81 pubmed
    ..MLC3F transgenes, however, maintain an embryonic-like distribution throughout development suggesting that myocardial gene expression is controlled by distinct temporal, as well as spatial, regulatory modules. ..
  40. Kern C, Wessels A, McGarity J, Dixon L, Alston E, Argraves W, et al. Reduced versican cleavage due to Adamts9 haploinsufficiency is associated with cardiac and aortic anomalies. Matrix Biol. 2010;29:304-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, these studies identify ADAMTS9 as a potential candidate gene for congenital cardiac anomalies. Mouse models of ADAMTS9 deficiency may be useful to study myxomatous valve degeneration. ..
  41. Diman N, Brooks G, Kruithof B, Elemento O, Seidman J, Seidman C, et al. Tbx5 is required for avian and Mammalian epicardial formation and coronary vasculogenesis. Circ Res. 2014;115:834-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support a conserved Tbx5 dose-dependent requirement for both proepicardial and epicardial progenitor cell development in chick and in mouse coronary vascular formation. ..
  42. Minty A, Alonso S, Caravatti M, Buckingham M. A fetal skeletal muscle actin mRNA in the mouse and its identity with cardiac actin mRNA. Cell. 1982;30:185-92 pubmed
    ..Whereas mRNA transcribed from this gene is the major actin mRNA species in adult heart, it is present in low amounts, if at all, in adult skeletal muscle. ..
  43. Bhuiyan M, Gulick J, Osinska H, Gupta M, Robbins J. Determination of the critical residues responsible for cardiac myosin binding protein C's interactions. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;53:838-47 pubmed publisher
  44. Liao J, Aggarwal V, Nowotschin S, Bondarev A, Lipner S, Morrow B. Identification of downstream genetic pathways of Tbx1 in the second heart field. Dev Biol. 2008;316:524-37 pubmed publisher
    ..When taken together, our studies show that Tbx1 acts upstream in a genetic network that positively regulates SHF cell proliferation and negatively regulates differentiation, cell-autonomously in the caudal pharyngeal region. ..
  45. Azhar M, Brown K, Gard C, Chen H, Rajan S, Elliott D, et al. Transforming growth factor Beta2 is required for valve remodeling during heart development. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2127-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the data indicate that TGF?2 promotes valve remodeling and differentiation by inducing matrix organization and suppressing cushion mesenchyme differentiation into cartilage cell lineage during heart development. ..
  46. Zhang J, Liu J, Huang Y, Chang J, Liu L, McKeehan W, et al. FRS2?-mediated FGF signals suppress premature differentiation of cardiac stem cells through regulating autophagy activity. Circ Res. 2012;110:e29-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings provide the first evidence that autophagy plays a role in heart progenitor differentiation. ..
  47. McPherson J, Tamblyn L, Elia A, Migon E, Shehabeldin A, Matysiak Zablocki E, et al. Lats2/Kpm is required for embryonic development, proliferation control and genomic integrity. EMBO J. 2004;23:3677-88 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate an essential role of Lats2 in the integrity of processes that govern centrosome duplication, maintenance of mitotic fidelity and genomic stability. ..
  48. Lai D, Liu X, Forrai A, Wolstein O, Michalicek J, Ahmed I, et al. Neuregulin 1 sustains the gene regulatory network in both trabecular and nontrabecular myocardium. Circ Res. 2010;107:715-27 pubmed publisher
  49. Arsenian S, Weinhold B, Oelgeschlager M, Ruther U, Nordheim A. Serum response factor is essential for mesoderm formation during mouse embryogenesis. EMBO J. 1998;17:6289-99 pubmed
    ..Our study identifies SRF as a new and essential regulator of mammalian mesoderm formation. We therefore suggest that in mammals Ras/MAPK signalling contributes to mesoderm induction, as is the case in amphibia. ..
  50. Crosby J, Phillips S, Nadeau J. The cardiac actin locus (Actc-1) is not on mouse chromosome 17 but is linked to beta 2-microglobulin on chromosome 2. Genomics. 1989;5:19-23 pubmed
    ..Close linkage of Actc-1 and B2m in both man and mouse provides another example of a chromosomal segment that has been conserved since the divergence of the lineages leading to these two species. ..
  51. Fraidenraich D, Stillwell E, Romero E, Wilkes D, Manova K, Basson C, et al. Rescue of cardiac defects in id knockout embryos by injection of embryonic stem cells. Science. 2004;306:247-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, ES cells have the potential to reverse congenital defects through Id-dependent local and long-range effects in a mammalian embryo. ..
  52. Wei L, Imanaka Yoshida K, Wang L, Zhan S, Schneider M, DeMayo F, et al. Inhibition of Rho family GTPases by Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor disrupts cardiac morphogenesis and inhibits cardiomyocyte proliferation. Development. 2002;129:1705-14 pubmed
    ..These results reveal new biological functions for Rho family proteins as essential determinants of cell proliferation signals at looping and chamber maturation stages in mammalian cardiac development. ..
  53. Ochala J, Iwamoto H, Ravenscroft G, Laing N, Nowak K. Skeletal and cardiac ?-actin isoforms differently modulate myosin cross-bridge formation and myofibre force production. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:4398-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the present findings provide novel primordial information about actin isoforms, their functional differences and have to be considered when designing gene therapies for ACTA1-based congenital myopathies. ..
  54. Bajanca F, Luz M, Duxson M, Thorsteinsdóttir S. Integrins in the mouse myotome: developmental changes and differences between the epaxial and hypaxial lineage. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:402-15 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, alpha4beta1 is expressed in the hypaxial dermomyotome and is maintained by early hypaxial myogenic progenitor cells colonizing the myotome. ..
  55. Mitchell P, Timmons P, Hebert J, Rigby P, Tjian R. Transcription factor AP-2 is expressed in neural crest cell lineages during mouse embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 1991;5:105-19 pubmed
    ..This embryonic expression pattern is spatially and temporally consistent with a role for AP-2 in regulating transcription of genes involved in the morphogenesis of the peripheral nervous system, face, limbs, skin, and nephric tissues. ..
  56. Brunskill E, Witte D, Yutzey K, Potter S. Novel cell lines promote the discovery of genes involved in early heart development. Dev Biol. 2001;235:507-20 pubmed
    ..The results show that the 1H and ECL-2 cell lines can be used to discover novel genes expressed in the early cardiomyocyte. ..
  57. Czosnek H, Nudel U, Mayer Y, Barker P, Pravtcheva D, Ruddle F, et al. The genes coding for the cardiac muscle actin, the skeletal muscle actin and the cytoplasmic beta-actin are located on three different mouse chromosomes. EMBO J. 1983;2:1977-9 pubmed
    ..1% amino acid replacements), is located on mouse chromosome 17. The gene coding for the cytoplasmic beta-actin is located on mouse chromosome 5. Thus, these three actin genes are located on three different chromosomes. ..
  58. Moore R, Walsh F. The cell adhesion molecule M-cadherin is specifically expressed in developing and regenerating, but not denervated skeletal muscle. Development. 1993;117:1409-20 pubmed
    ..The highly specific tissue distribution and unique developmental profile distinguishes M-cadherin from other cadherins and suggests a role in cell surface events during early myogenesis. ..
  59. Ontell M, Ontell M, Buckingham M. Muscle-specific gene expression during myogenesis in the mouse. Microsc Res Tech. 1995;30:354-65 pubmed
    ..The differences in gene expression in these two types of muscle suggest that no single coordinated pattern of gene activation is required during the initial formation of the muscles of the mouse. ..
  60. Harmelink C, Peng Y, Debenedittis P, Chen H, Shou W, Jiao K. Myocardial Mycn is essential for mouse ventricular wall morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2013;373:53-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, Mycn acts downstream of BMP and NRG1 cardiogenic signaling pathways to promote normal myocardial wall morphogenesis. ..
  61. Dickson M, Slager H, Duffie E, Mummery C, Akhurst R. RNA and protein localisations of TGF beta 2 in the early mouse embryo suggest an involvement in cardiac development. Development. 1993;117:625-39 pubmed
    ..5 days post coitum. The results are discussed in terms of a potential role of TGF beta 2 in controlling cardiomyogenesis and in inductive interactions leading to cardiac cushion tissue formation. ..
  62. Parlakian A, Tuil D, Hamard G, Tavernier G, Hentzen D, Concordet J, et al. Targeted inactivation of serum response factor in the developing heart results in myocardial defects and embryonic lethality. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5281-9 pubmed
    ..5, GATA4, myocardin, and the SRF target gene c-fos prior to overt maldevelopment. We conclude that SRF is crucial for cardiac differentiation and maturation, acting as a global regulator of multiple developmental genes. ..
  63. Yang J, Boerm M, McCarty M, Bucana C, Fidler I, Zhuang Y, et al. Mekk3 is essential for early embryonic cardiovascular development. Nat Genet. 2000;24:309-13 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Mekk3 is necessary for blood vessel development and may be a possible target for drugs that control angiogenesis. ..
  64. Zakariyah A, Rajgara R, Veinot J, Skerjanc I, Burgon P. Congenital heart defect causing mutation in Nkx2.5 displays in vivo functional deficit. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2017;105:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..5 with delayed heart morphogenesis and downregulation of Nkx2.5 target genes, Anf, Mlc2v, Actc1 and Cx40. Histological examination of Nkx2...
  65. Nakamura T, Yabe D, Kanazawa N, Tashiro K, Sasayama S, Honjo T. Molecular cloning, characterization, and chromosomal localization of FKBP23, a novel FK506-binding protein with Ca2+-binding ability. Genomics. 1998;54:89-98 pubmed
    ..FKBP23 mRNA is expressed most strongly in heart, lung, and testis, beginning at day 8.5 of embryonic development. The FKBP23 gene was mapped to mouse chromosome 2. ..
  66. Koga H, Kaji Y, Nishii K, Shirai M, Tomotsune D, Osugi T, et al. Overexpression of Polycomb-group gene rae28 in cardiomyocytes does not complement abnormal cardiac morphogenesis in mice lacking rae28 but causes dilated cardiomyopathy. Lab Invest. 2002;82:375-85 pubmed
    ..rae28-induced dilated cardiomyopathy may thus provide a clue for clarifying the direct role of PcG in the maintenance of cardiomyocytes. ..
  67. Leader D, Gall I, Campbell P. The structure of a cDNA clone corresponding to mouse cardiac muscle actin mRNA. Biosci Rep. 1986;6:741-7 pubmed
    ..However a comparison with the corresponding region in skeletal muscle actin mRNAs indicated that the pattern of conservation is quite different in the two striated muscle actin isoforms. ..
  68. Wilkinson D, Peters G, Dickson C, McMahon A. Expression of the FGF-related proto-oncogene int-2 during gastrulation and neurulation in the mouse. EMBO J. 1988;7:691-5 pubmed
    ..The data suggest multiple roles for int-2 in development which may include migration of early mesoderm cells and induction of the otocyst. ..
  69. Smart N, Hill A, Cross J, Riley P. A differential screen for putative targets of the bHLH transcription factor Hand1 in cardiac morphogenesis. Mech Dev. 2002;119 Suppl 1:S65-71 pubmed
    ..0-E10.5) and Hand1 homozygous-mutant embryos (E8.0) confirmed co-expression of the putative targets with Hand1 in the heart and their aberrant expression in a Hand1-null background. ..
  70. Garner I, Sassoon D, Vandekerckhove J, Alonso S, Buckingham M. A developmental study of the abnormal expression of alpha-cardiac and alpha-skeletal actins in the striated muscle of a mutant mouse. Dev Biol. 1989;134:236-45 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in the context of the interaction between this actin gene pair in developing and adult striated muscle. ..
  71. Vincent S, Mayeuf Louchart A, Watanabe Y, Brzezinski J, Miyagawa Tomita S, Kelly R, et al. Prdm1 functions in the mesoderm of the second heart field, where it interacts genetically with Tbx1, during outflow tract morphogenesis in the mouse embryo. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:5087-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify PRDM1 as a potential modifier of phenotypic severity in TBX1 haploinsufficient DiGeorge syndrome patients. ..
  72. Norris D, Brennan J, Bikoff E, Robertson E. The Foxh1-dependent autoregulatory enhancer controls the level of Nodal signals in the mouse embryo. Development. 2002;129:3455-68 pubmed
    ..The feedback loop is thus essential for maintenance of Nodal signals that selectively regulate target gene expression in a temporally and spatially controlled fashion in the mouse embryo. ..
  73. Gurniak C, Chevessier F, Jokwitz M, Jönsson F, Perlas E, Richter H, et al. Severe protein aggregate myopathy in a knockout mouse model points to an essential role of cofilin2 in sarcomeric actin exchange and muscle maintenance. Eur J Cell Biol. 2014;93:252-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of smooth muscle ?-actin were increased and remained high in developing muscles, suggesting that cofilin2 plays a crucial role during the exchange of ?-actin isoforms during the early postnatal remodeling of the sarcomere. ..
  74. de la Pompa J, Timmerman L, Takimoto H, Yoshida H, Elia A, Samper E, et al. Role of the NF-ATc transcription factor in morphogenesis of cardiac valves and septum. Nature. 1998;392:182-6 pubmed
  75. Robert B, Barton P, Minty A, Daubas P, Weydert A, Bonhomme F, et al. Investigation of genetic linkage between myosin and actin genes using an interspecific mouse back-cross. Nature. 1985;314:181-3 pubmed
    ..No linkage between these genes was observed. ..
  76. Wang J, Greene S, Bonilla Claudio M, Tao Y, Zhang J, Bai Y, et al. Bmp signaling regulates myocardial differentiation from cardiac progenitors through a MicroRNA-mediated mechanism. Dev Cell. 2010;19:903-12 pubmed publisher
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