Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Acta2
Description: actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta
Alias: 0610041G09Rik, Actvs, SMAalpha, SMalphaA, a-SMA, alphaSMA, actin, aortic smooth muscle, actin, alpha, vascular smooth muscle, alpha-actin-2
- Copeland J, Feng Y, Neradugomma N, Fields P, Vivian J. Notch signaling regulates remodeling and vessel diameter in the extraembryonic yolk sac. BMC Dev Biol. 2011;11:12 pubmed publisher..We propose a role for Notch signaling in elaborating the microenvironment of the nascent arteriole, suggesting novel regulatory connections between Notch signaling and other signaling pathways during endothelial differentiation. ..
- Fujiwara H, Ferreira M, Donati G, MARCIANO D, Linton J, Sato Y, et al. The basement membrane of hair follicle stem cells is a muscle cell niche. Cell. 2011;144:577-89 pubmed publisher..Thus, bulge stem cells, via nephronectin expression, create a smooth muscle cell niche and act as tendon cells for the APM. Our results reveal a functional role for basement membrane heterogeneity in tissue patterning. PAPERCLIP: ..
- Hahn N, Dietz C, Kühl S, Vossmerbaeumer U, Kroll J. KLEIP deficiency in mice causes progressive corneal neovascular dystrophy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:3260-8 pubmed publisher..The data identify KLEIP as an important molecule regulating corneal epithelial integrity. ..
- Yates L, Schnatwinkel C, Hazelwood L, Chessum L, Paudyal A, Hilton H, et al. Scribble is required for normal epithelial cell-cell contacts and lumen morphogenesis in the mammalian lung. Dev Biol. 2013;373:267-80 pubmed publisher..Thus we reveal novel and important roles for Scrib in lung development operating via the PCP pathway, and in regulating junctional complexes and cell cohesion. ..
- Gustafsson E, Almonte Becerril M, Bloch W, Costell M. Perlecan maintains microvessel integrity in vivo and modulates their formation in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53715 pubmed publisher..Altogether these findings suggest that perlecan supports the maintenance of brain and skin subendothelial BMs and promotes vasculo- and angiogenesis by modulating FGF-2 function. ..
- Zhang J, Chang J, Huang Y, Lin X, Luo Y, Schwartz R, et al. The FGF-BMP signaling axis regulates outflow tract valve primordium formation by promoting cushion neural crest cell differentiation. Circ Res. 2010;107:1209-19 pubmed publisher..The results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which the FGF-BMP signaling axis regulates formation of OFT valve primordia by controlling smooth muscle differentiation of cushion NCCs. ..
- Lopes M, Goupille O, Saint Cloment C, Lallemand Y, Cumano A, Robert B. Msx genes define a population of mural cell precursors required for head blood vessel maturation. Development. 2011;138:3055-66 pubmed publisher..Improper coverage by VSMCs secondarily leads to incomplete maturation of the endothelial layer. Our results demonstrate that both Msx1 and Msx2 are required for the recruitment of a population of neural crest-derived VSMCs. ..
- Fantin A, Vieira J, Gestri G, Denti L, Schwarz Q, Prykhozhij S, et al. Tissue macrophages act as cellular chaperones for vascular anastomosis downstream of VEGF-mediated endothelial tip cell induction. Blood. 2010;116:829-40 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that tissue macrophages are a target for antiangiogenic therapies, but that they could equally well be exploited to stimulate tissue vascularization in ischemic disease. ..
- Davis R, Curtis C, Griffin C. BRG1 promotes COUP-TFII expression and venous specification during embryonic vascular development. Development. 2013;140:1272-81 pubmed publisher..This study provides the first description of a factor promoting COUP-TFII expression in vascular endothelium and highlights a novel role for chromatin remodeling in venous specification. ..
- Albinsson S, Suarez Y, Skoura A, Offermanns S, Miano J, Sessa W. MicroRNAs are necessary for vascular smooth muscle growth, differentiation, and function. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:1118-26 pubmed publisher..Dicer-dependent miRNAs are important for VSM development and function by regulating proliferation and contractile differentiation. ..
- Sala F, del Moral P, Tiozzo C, Alam D, Warburton D, Grikscheit T, et al. FGF10 controls the patterning of the tracheal cartilage rings via Shh. Development. 2011;138:273-82 pubmed publisher..We propose that disturbed balances of Fgf10 and Shh may explain a subset of human tracheomalacia without tracheo-esophageal fistula or tracheal atresia...
- Ingram K, Curtis C, Silasi Mansat R, Lupu F, Griffin C. The NuRD chromatin-remodeling enzyme CHD4 promotes embryonic vascular integrity by transcriptionally regulating extracellular matrix proteolysis. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1004031 pubmed publisher..Our findings provide a novel mechanism by which a chromatin-remodeling enzyme regulates ECM stability to maintain vascular integrity during embryonic development. ..
- Volckaert T, Campbell A, Dill E, Li C, Minoo P, De Langhe S. Localized Fgf10 expression is not required for lung branching morphogenesis but prevents differentiation of epithelial progenitors. Development. 2013;140:3731-42 pubmed publisher..Interestingly, our data presented here show that once epithelial cells are committed to the Sox2-positive airway epithelial cell fate, Fgf10 prevents ciliated cell differentiation and promotes basal cell differentiation. ..
- Huang J, Elicker J, Bowens N, Liu X, Cheng L, Cappola T, et al. Myocardin regulates BMP10 expression and is required for heart development. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:3678-91 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these data identify a heretofore undescribed myocardin/BMP10 signaling pathway that regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation and apoptosis in the embryonic heart. ..
- Bohnenpoll T, Bettenhausen E, Weiss A, Foik A, Trowe M, Blank P, et al. Tbx18 expression demarcates multipotent precursor populations in the developing urogenital system but is exclusively required within the ureteric mesenchymal lineage to suppress a renal stromal fate. Dev Biol. 2013;380:25-36 pubmed publisher..Our study provides new insights into the molecular diversity of urogenital progenitor cells and helps to understand the specification of the ureteric mesenchymal sub-lineage...
- ..We conclude that claims of a cardiomyocyte fate of epicardial cells in the mouse are not substantiated. ..
- Bird A, Flecknoe S, Tan K, Olsson P, Antony N, Mantamadiotis T, et al. cAMP response element binding protein is required for differentiation of respiratory epithelium during murine development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17843 pubmed publisher..Together, these results demonstrate a crucial role for Creb1 activity for the development and differentiation of the conducting and distal lung epithelium. ..
- Cunningham K, Uchida Y, O Donnell E, Claudio E, Li W, Soneji K, et al. Conditional deletion of Ccm2 causes hemorrhage in the adult brain: a mouse model of human cerebral cavernous malformations. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:3198-206 pubmed publisher..These mice represent the first CCM2 animal model for CCM and should provide the means to elucidate disease mechanisms and evaluate therapeutic strategies for human CCM. ..
- Mao X, Debenedittis P, Sun Y, Chen J, Yuan K, Jiao K, et al. Vascular smooth muscle cell Smad4 gene is important for mouse vascular development. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:2171-7 pubmed publisher..These studies provide important insight into the role of Smad4 and its upstream Smads in regulating SMC function and vascular development of mice. ..
- Boyle S, Liu Z, Kopan R. Notch signaling is required for the formation of mesangial cells from a stromal mesenchyme precursor during kidney development. Development. 2014;141:346-54 pubmed publisher..Together, these data demonstrate a unique origin of mesangial cells and demonstrate a novel, redundant function for Notch receptors in mesangial cell specification, proliferation or survival during kidney development. ..
- Gaengel K, Niaudet C, Hagikura K, Laviña B, Siemsen B, Muhl L, et al. The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor S1PR1 restricts sprouting angiogenesis by regulating the interplay between VE-cadherin and VEGFR2. Dev Cell. 2012;23:587-99 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that S1PR1 signaling acts as a vascular-intrinsic stabilization mechanism, protecting developing blood vessels against aberrant angiogenic responses. ..
- Huang Z, Chen J, Regan J, Maguire C, Tang R, Dong X, et al. Loss of microRNAs in neural crest leads to cardiovascular syndromes resembling human congenital heart defects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:2575-86 pubmed publisher..Our results uncovered a central role for Dicer and miRNAs in NCC survival, migration, and patterning in craniofacial and cardiovascular development which, when mutated, lead to congenital neuro-craniofacial-cardiac defects. ..
- Udager A, Prakash A, Saenz D, Schinke M, Moriguchi T, Jay P, et al. Proper development of the outer longitudinal smooth muscle of the mouse pylorus requires Nkx2-5 and Gata3. Gastroenterology. 2014;146:157-165.e10 pubmed publisher..These data indicate that regulatory changes that alter Nkx2-5 or Gata3 expression could contribute to pathogenesis of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. ..
- Turlo K, Noel O, Vora R, Larussa M, Fassler R, Hall Glenn F, et al. An essential requirement for ?1 integrin in the assembly of extracellular matrix proteins within the vascular wall. Dev Biol. 2012;365:23-35 pubmed publisher..It further establishes a critical role of ?1 integrin in the protection against aneurysms that is particularly confined to the ascending aorta and its branches. ..
- Chan A, Drakos S, Ruiz O, Smith A, Gibson C, Ling J, et al. Mutations in 2 distinct genetic pathways result in cerebral cavernous malformations in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1871-81 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that CCM may be more effectively treated by directing therapies based on the underlying genetic mutation rather than treating the condition as a single clinical entity. ..
- Martin E, Caubit X, Airik R, Vola C, Fatmi A, Kispert A, et al. TSHZ3 and SOX9 regulate the timing of smooth muscle cell differentiation in the ureter by reducing myocardin activity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63721 pubmed publisher..We propose that the dynamic expression of Sox9 and the interaction between TSHZ3, SOX9 and MYOCD provide a mechanism that regulates the pace of progression of the myogenic program in the ureter. ..
- Bader B, Rayburn H, Crowley D, Hynes R. Extensive vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and organogenesis precede lethality in mice lacking all alpha v integrins. Cell. 1998;95:507-19 pubmed..These results necessitate reevaluation of the primacy of alphav integrins in many functions including vascular development, despite reports that blockade of these integrins with antibodies or peptides prevents angiogenesis. ..
- High F, Lu M, Pear W, Loomes K, Kaestner K, Epstein J. Endothelial expression of the Notch ligand Jagged1 is required for vascular smooth muscle development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1955-9 pubmed publisher..Together, these results imply that the primary role of endothelial Jag1 is to potentiate the development of neighboring vascular smooth muscle. ..
- Costell M, Carmona R, Gustafsson E, González Iriarte M, Fassler R, Muñoz Chápuli R. Hyperplastic conotruncal endocardial cushions and transposition of great arteries in perlecan-null mice. Circ Res. 2002;91:158-64 pubmed..Thus, perlecan is involved in the control of the outflow tract mesenchymal population size, underscoring the importance of the extracellular matrix in cardiac morphogenesis. ..
- Regan C, Li W, Boucher D, Spatz S, Su M, Kuida K. Erk5 null mice display multiple extraembryonic vascular and embryonic cardiovascular defects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:9248-53 pubmed..Moreover, the inability of Erk5-deficient mice to form a complex vasculature suggests that Erk5 may play an important role in controlling angiogenesis. ..
- McHugh K. Molecular analysis of smooth muscle development in the mouse. Dev Dyn. 1995;204:278-90 pubmed
- Lindahl P, Karlsson L, Hellstrom M, Gebre Medhin S, Willetts K, Heath J, et al. Alveogenesis failure in PDGF-A-deficient mice is coupled to lack of distal spreading of alveolar smooth muscle cell progenitors during lung development. Development. 1997;124:3943-53 pubmed..We also propose that postnatal alveogenesis failure in PDGF-A(-/-) mice is due to a prenatal block in the distal spreading of PDGF-Ralpha+ cells along the tubular lung epithelium during the canalicular stage of lung development. ..
- Oh J, Takahashi R, Kondo S, Mizoguchi A, Adachi E, Sasahara R, et al. The membrane-anchored MMP inhibitor RECK is a key regulator of extracellular matrix integrity and angiogenesis. Cell. 2001;107:789-800 pubmed..These results support a role for RECK in the regulation of MMP-2 in vivo and implicate RECK downregulation in tumor angiogenesis. ..
- Uyttendaele H, Ho J, Rossant J, Kitajewski J. Vascular patterning defects associated with expression of activated Notch4 in embryonic endothelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:5643-8 pubmed..Expression of an activated form of Notch4 in embryonic vasculature leads to abnormal vessel structure and patterning, implicating the Notch pathway in phases of vascular development associated with vessel patterning and remodeling. ..
- Foo S, Turner C, Adams S, Compagni A, Aubyn D, Kogata N, et al. Ephrin-B2 controls cell motility and adhesion during blood-vessel-wall assembly. Cell. 2006;124:161-73 pubmed..Our results indicate that the role of ephrin-B2 and EphB receptors in these processes involves Crk-p130(CAS) signaling and suggest that ephrin-B2 has some cell-cell-contact-independent functions. ..
- Chen L, Fulcoli F, Tang S, Baldini A. Tbx1 regulates proliferation and differentiation of multipotent heart progenitors. Circ Res. 2009;105:842-51 pubmed publisher..We propose that Tbx1 is a key regulator of CPC homeostasis as it modulates positively their proliferation and negatively their differentiation. ..
- Molin D, Poelmann R, DeRuiter M, Azhar M, Doetschman T, Gittenberger de Groot A. Transforming growth factor beta-SMAD2 signaling regulates aortic arch innervation and development. Circ Res. 2004;95:1109-17 pubmed..We hypothesize that disturbed maturation of the fourth pharyngeal arch artery, and especially abrogated vascular innervation, will result in fourth arch interruptions. ..
- Weaver M, Batts L, Hogan B. Tissue interactions pattern the mesenchyme of the embryonic mouse lung. Dev Biol. 2003;258:169-84 pubmed..We propose a model for how factors made by two epithelial cell populations, the inner endoderm and the outer jacket of mesothelium, coordinately regulate the proliferation and differentiation of the lung mesoderm. ..
- French W, Creemers E, Tallquist M. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors direct vascular development independent of vascular smooth muscle cell function. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5646-57 pubmed publisher..Together, these data demonstrate that PDGF receptors cooperate in the yolk sac mesothelium to direct blood vessel maturation and suggest that these effects are independent of their role in VSMC development...
- Dellinger M, Hunter R, Bernas M, Gale N, Yancopoulos G, Erickson R, et al. Defective remodeling and maturation of the lymphatic vasculature in Angiopoietin-2 deficient mice. Dev Biol. 2008;319:309-20 pubmed publisher..Taken together, this work pinpoints a specific lymphatic defect of Ang2(-/-) mice and further defines the sequential steps in lymphatic vessel remodeling. ..
- Sun Y, Liang X, Najafi N, Cass M, Lin L, Cai C, et al. Islet 1 is expressed in distinct cardiovascular lineages, including pacemaker and coronary vascular cells. Dev Biol. 2007;304:286-96 pubmed..Our studies suggest a role for Isl1 in these distinct domains of expression within the heart. ..
- Bleyl S, Saijoh Y, Bax N, Gittenberger de Groot A, Wisse L, Chapman S, et al. Dysregulation of the PDGFRA gene causes inflow tract anomalies including TAPVR: integrating evidence from human genetics and model organisms. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:1286-301 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these data from human genetics and animal models support a role for PDGF-signaling in normal PV development, and in the pathogenesis of TAPVR. ..
- Vallejo Illarramendi A, Zang K, Reichardt L. Focal adhesion kinase is required for neural crest cell morphogenesis during mouse cardiovascular development. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2218-30 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that FAK plays an essential role in cardiac outflow tract development by promoting the activation of molecules such as Crkl and Erk1/2...
- Kono M, Mi Y, Liu Y, Sasaki T, Allende M, Wu Y, et al. The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors S1P1, S1P2, and S1P3 function coordinately during embryonic angiogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:29367-73 pubmed..Our results indicate that the S1P(1), S1P(2) and S1P(3) receptors have redundant or cooperative functions for the development of a stable and mature vascular system during embryonic development. ..
- Parekh V, McEwen A, Barbour V, Takahashi Y, Rehg J, Jane S, et al. Defective extraembryonic angiogenesis in mice lacking LBP-1a, a member of the grainyhead family of transcription factors. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7113-29 pubmed..Collectively, these results demonstrate that LBP-1a plays a critical role in the regulation of extraembryonic angiogenesis. ..
- Ozerdem U, Grako K, Dahlin Huppe K, Monosov E, Stallcup W. NG2 proteoglycan is expressed exclusively by mural cells during vascular morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2001;222:218-27 pubmed..Additional insight into these and other aspects of vascular morphogenesis should be possible through use of NG2 as a mural cell marker. ..
- Allende M, Yamashita T, Proia R. G-protein-coupled receptor S1P1 acts within endothelial cells to regulate vascular maturation. Blood. 2003;102:3665-7 pubmed..The phenotype of the conditional mutant embryos mimicked the one obtained in the embryos globally deficient in S1P1. Thus, vessel coverage by VSMCs is directed by the activity of the S1P1 receptor in ECs. ..
- van Bueren K, Papangeli I, Rochais F, Pearce K, Roberts C, Calmont A, et al. Hes1 expression is reduced in Tbx1 null cells and is required for the development of structures affected in 22q11 deletion syndrome. Dev Biol. 2010;340:369-80 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that Hes1 acts downstream of Tbx1 in the morphogenesis of pharyngeal-derived structures. ..
- Lavine K, Long F, Choi K, Smith C, Ornitz D. Hedgehog signaling to distinct cell types differentially regulates coronary artery and vein development. Development. 2008;135:3161-71 pubmed publisher..Finally, we present evidence suggesting that coronary arteries and veins may be derived from distinct lineages. ..
- Norrmen C, Ivanov K, Cheng J, Zangger N, Delorenzi M, Jaquet M, et al. FOXC2 controls formation and maturation of lymphatic collecting vessels through cooperation with NFATc1. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:439-57 pubmed publisher..As damage to collecting vessels is a major cause of lymphatic dysfunction in humans, our results suggest that FOXC2 and NFATc1 are potential targets for therapeutic intervention. ..
- Cheng W, Jacobs W, Zhang J, Moro A, Park J, Kushida M, et al. DeltaNp63 plays an anti-apoptotic role in ventral bladder development. Development. 2006;133:4783-92 pubmed..We conclude that DeltaNp63 plays a crucial anti-apoptotic role in normal bladder development...
- Shu W, Guttentag S, Wang Z, Andl T, Ballard P, Lu M, et al. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling acts upstream of N-myc, BMP4, and FGF signaling to regulate proximal-distal patterning in the lung. Dev Biol. 2005;283:226-39 pubmed..Thus, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is a critical upstream regulator of proximal-distal patterning in the lung, in part, through regulation of N-myc, BMP4, and FGF signaling. ..
- Wendel D, Taylor D, Albertine K, Keating M, Li D. Impaired distal airway development in mice lacking elastin. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2000;23:320-6 pubmed..Thus, in addition to its role in the structure and function of the mature lung, elastin is essential for pulmonary development and is important for terminal airway branching. ..
- Kolterud A, Grosse A, Zacharias W, Walton K, Kretovich K, Madison B, et al. Paracrine Hedgehog signaling in stomach and intestine: new roles for hedgehog in gastrointestinal patterning. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:618-28 pubmed publisher..The results may have implications for several human anomalies and could potentially expand the spectrum of the human VACTERL association. ..
- Airik R, Bussen M, Singh M, Petry M, Kispert A. Tbx18 regulates the development of the ureteral mesenchyme. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:663-74 pubmed..Our analysis also showed that the ureteral mesenchyme derives from a distinct cell population that is separated early in kidney development from that of other mesenchymal cells of the renal system. ..
- Ma Q, Zhou B, Pu W. Reassessment of Isl1 and Nkx2-5 cardiac fate maps using a Gata4-based reporter of Cre activity. Dev Biol. 2008;323:98-104 pubmed publisher..These results have important implications for our understanding of cardiac lineage diversification in vivo, and for the interpretation of Cre-based fate maps. ..
- Zhao W, Dhoot G. Both smooth and skeletal muscle precursors are present in foetal mouse oesophagus and they follow different differentiation pathways. Dev Dyn. 2000;218:587-602 pubmed
- Mailleux A, Overholtzer M, Schmelzle T, Bouillet P, Strasser A, Brugge J. BIM regulates apoptosis during mammary ductal morphogenesis, and its absence reveals alternative cell death mechanisms. Dev Cell. 2007;12:221-34 pubmed..These data provide important mechanistic information on the processes involved in sculpting the mammary gland and demonstrate that BIM is a critical regulator of apoptosis in vivo. ..
- Urness L, Sorensen L, Li D. Arteriovenous malformations in mice lacking activin receptor-like kinase-1. Nat Genet. 2000;26:328-31 pubmed..The early loss of anatomical, molecular and functional distinctions between arteries and veins indicates that Acvrl1 is required for developing distinct arterial and venous vascular beds. ..
- Yang X, Castilla L, Xu X, Li C, Gotay J, Weinstein M, et al. Angiogenesis defects and mesenchymal apoptosis in mice lacking SMAD5. Development. 1999;126:1571-80 pubmed..These data suggest that SMAD5 may regulate endothelium-mesenchyme interactions during angiogenesis and that it is essential for mesenchymal survival. ..
- Chang S, Young B, Li S, Qi X, Richardson J, Olson E. Histone deacetylase 7 maintains vascular integrity by repressing matrix metalloproteinase 10. Cell. 2006;126:321-34 pubmed
- Gordon E, Gale N, Harvey N. Expression of the hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 is not restricted to the lymphatic vasculature; LYVE-1 is also expressed on embryonic blood vessels. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:1901-9 pubmed publisher..Our data are also the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that the mouse yolk sac is devoid of lymphatic vessels. ..
- Self M, Geng X, Oliver G. Six2 activity is required for the formation of the mammalian pyloric sphincter. Dev Biol. 2009;334:409-17 pubmed publisher..5, Sox9, and Gremlin) also appear to be required for the formation of this structure in mammals. Thus, we propose that Six2 activity regulates this gene network during the genesis of the pyloric sphincter in the mouse...
- Byrd N, Becker S, Maye P, Narasimhaiah R, St Jacques B, Zhang X, et al. Hedgehog is required for murine yolk sac angiogenesis. Development. 2002;129:361-72 pubmed..Our study supports a role for hedgehog signaling in yolk sac angiogenesis. ..
- Fu J, Gerhardt H, McDaniel J, Xia B, Liu X, Ivanciu L, et al. Endothelial cell O-glycan deficiency causes blood/lymphatic misconnections and consequent fatty liver disease in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:3725-37 pubmed publisher..Our studies therefore demonstrate that EC O-glycans control the separation of blood and lymphatic vessels during embryonic and postnatal development, in part by regulating podoplanin expression. ..
- Arsenian S, Weinhold B, Oelgeschlager M, Ruther U, Nordheim A. Serum response factor is essential for mesoderm formation during mouse embryogenesis. EMBO J. 1998;17:6289-99 pubmed..Our study identifies SRF as a new and essential regulator of mammalian mesoderm formation. We therefore suggest that in mammals Ras/MAPK signalling contributes to mesoderm induction, as is the case in amphibia. ..
- Makarenkova H, Gonzalez K, Kiosses W, Meech R. Barx2 controls myoblast fusion and promotes MyoD-mediated activation of the smooth muscle alpha-actin gene. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14866-74 pubmed publisher..Overall these data indicate that Barx2 cooperates with other muscle-expressed transcription factors to regulate the early cytoskeletal remodeling events that underlie efficient myoblast differentiation. ..