Gene Symbol: Acr
Description: acrosin prepropeptide
Alias: acrosin, preproacrosin
Species: mouse
Products:     Acr

Top Publications

  1. Pandey R, Tokuzawa Y, Yang Z, Hayashi E, Ichisaka T, Kajita S, et al. Tudor domain containing 12 (TDRD12) is essential for secondary PIWI interacting RNA biogenesis in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:16492-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell-culture studies with the insect ortholog of TDRD12 suggest a role for the multidomain protein in mediating complex formation with other participants during secondary piRNA biogenesis. ..
  2. Howes E, Pascall J, Engel W, Jones R. Interactions between mouse ZP2 glycoprotein and proacrosin; a mechanism for secondary binding of sperm to the zona pellucida during fertilization. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:4127-36 pubmed
    ..Here, we present evidence that one of its complementary binding proteins on sperm is proacrosin/acrosin. mZP2 binds to proacrosin null sperm considerably less effectively than to wild-type sperm...
  3. Chang Yeh A, Mold D, Brilliant M, Huang R. The mouse intracisternal A particle-promoted placental gene retrotransposition is mouse-strain-specific. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:292-6 pubmed
    ..The symbol Ipp is being used for this gene in all major mouse data bases and in the comparative section of the human genome data base. ..
  4. Cheng S, Liang X, Wang Y, Jiang Z, Liu Y, Hou W, et al. The circadian Clock gene regulates acrosin activity of sperm through serine protease inhibitor A3K. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2016;241:205-15 pubmed publisher
    ..CLOCK knockdown in the testes of male mice led to a reduced fertility, which might be associated with the lower acrosin activity. In this present study, we examined the differential expression in proteins of CLOCK knockdown sperm...
  5. Yang J, Medvedev S, Reddi P, Schultz R, Hecht N. The DNA/RNA-binding protein MSY2 marks specific transcripts for cytoplasmic storage in mouse male germ cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1513-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that MSY2 marks specific mRNAs in the nucleus for cytoplasmic storage, thereby linking transcription and mRNA storage/translational delay in meiotic and postmeiotic male germ cells of the mouse. ..
  6. Nayernia K, Vauti F, Meinhardt A, Cadenas C, Schweyer S, Meyer B, et al. Inactivation of a testis-specific Lis1 transcript in mice prevents spermatid differentiation and causes male infertility. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:48377-85 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence for an essential and hitherto uncharacterized role of the Lis1 protein in spermatogenesis, particularly in the differentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa. ..
  7. Burnicka Turek O, Shirneshan K, Paprotta I, Grzmil P, Meinhardt A, Engel W, et al. Inactivation of insulin-like factor 6 disrupts the progression of spermatogenesis at late meiotic prophase. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4348-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that INSL6 is required for the progression of spermatogenesis. ..
  8. Held T, Barakat A, Mohamed B, Paprotta I, Meinhardt A, Engel W, et al. Heat-shock protein HSPA4 is required for progression of spermatogenesis. Reproduction. 2011;142:133-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence that HSPA4 is required for normal spermatogenesis. ..
  9. Nayernia K, Nieter S, Kremling H, Oberwinkler H, Engel W. Functional and molecular characterization of the transcriptional regulatory region of the proacrosin gene. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:32181-6 pubmed
    Proacrosin, the zymogen form of the serine protease acrosin, is located within the acrosomal vesicle of mammalian spermatozoa and has been suggested to be involved in the fertilization process...

More Information


  1. Kawano N, Kang W, Yamashita M, Koga Y, Yamazaki T, Hata T, et al. Mice lacking two sperm serine proteases, ACR and PRSS21, are subfertile, but the mutant sperm are infertile in vitro. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:359-69 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have produced double-knockout mice lacking two sperm serine proteases, ACR and PRSS21, to uncover the functional role of the trypsinlike activity in fertilization...
  2. Karlin A, Akabas M. Toward a structural basis for the function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and their cousins. Neuron. 1995;15:1231-44 pubmed
  3. Kanemori Y, Ryu J, Sudo M, Niida Araida Y, Kodaira K, Takenaka M, et al. Two functional forms of ACRBP/sp32 are produced by pre-mRNA alternative splicing in the mouse. Biol Reprod. 2013;88:105 pubmed publisher
    ACRBP/sp32 is a binding protein specific for the precursor (pro-ACR) and intermediate forms of sperm serine protease ACR...
  4. Honda A, Siruntawineti J, Baba T. Role of acrosomal matrix proteases in sperm-zona pellucida interactions. Hum Reprod Update. 2002;8:405-12 pubmed
    ..Of the acrosomal proteases identified, acrosin exhibits two distinct activities: (i) an enzymatic activity as a trypsin-like serine protease; and (ii) a lectin-..
  5. Kress C, Gautier Courteille C, Osborne H, Babinet C, Paillard L. Inactivation of CUG-BP1/CELF1 causes growth, viability, and spermatogenesis defects in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:1146-57 pubmed
    ..In wild-type testes, CUG-BP1 is expressed in germ cells from spermatogonia to round spermatids and also in Sertoli and Leydig cells. These findings demonstrate that CUG-BP1 is required for completion of spermatogenesis. ..
  6. Watanabe K, Baba T, Kashiwabara S, Okamoto A, Arai Y. Structure and organization of the mouse acrosin gene. J Biochem. 1991;109:828-33 pubmed
    The genomic region carrying the mouse acrosin gene, including the 5'-flanking sequence, has been isolated and characterized. The acrosin gene consists of five exons separated by four introns...
  7. Kashiwabara S, Baba T, Takada M, Watanabe K, Yano Y, Arai Y. Primary structure of mouse proacrosin deduced from the cDNA sequence and its gene expression during spermatogenesis. J Biochem. 1990;108:785-91 pubmed
    In the present study, we identified cDNA clones of mouse acrosin from a testis lambda gt11 library...
  8. Turner L, Chuong E, Hoekstra H. Comparative analysis of testis protein evolution in rodents. Genetics. 2008;179:2075-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence for positive selection among closely related species suggests that changes in these proteins may have consequences for reproductive isolation...
  9. Kodama E, Baba T, Yokosawa H, Sawada H. cDNA cloning and functional analysis of ascidian sperm proacrosin. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:24594-600 pubmed
    ..The isolated cDNA of the ascidian preproacrosin consists of 2367 nucleotides, and an open reading frame encodes 505 amino acids, which corresponds to the ..
  10. Nayernia K, Drabent B, Adham I, Möschner M, Wolf S, Meinhardt A, et al. Male mice lacking three germ cell expressed genes are fertile. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:1973-8 pubmed
    ..Proacrosin is an acrosomal protease synthesized as a proenzyme and activated into acrosin during the acrosome reaction. The linker histone subtype H1...
  11. Kremling H, Keime S, Wilhelm K, Adham I, Hameister H, Engel W. Mouse proacrosin gene: nucleotide sequence, diploid expression, and chromosomal localization. Genomics. 1991;11:828-34 pubmed
    ..from the cDNA sequences of human, boar, and mouse proacrosin, the enzyme is synthesized as a preproenzyme, preproacrosin, which contains a hydrophobic leader sequence of 15 to 18 amino acid residues...
  12. Shoji M, Tanaka T, Hosokawa M, Reuter M, Stark A, Kato Y, et al. The TDRD9-MIWI2 complex is essential for piRNA-mediated retrotransposon silencing in the mouse male germline. Dev Cell. 2009;17:775-87 pubmed publisher
  13. Baba T, Azuma S, Kashiwabara S, Toyoda Y. Sperm from mice carrying a targeted mutation of the acrosin gene can penetrate the oocyte zona pellucida and effect fertilization. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:31845-9 pubmed
    The physiological function of mammalian sperm acrosin has long been believed to be involved in the limited proteolysis of the oocyte zona pellucida, thus enabling the sperm to penetrate this extracellular matrix and to gain access to the ..
  14. Kashiwabara S, Arai Y, Kodaira K, Baba T. Acrosin biosynthesis in meiotic and postmeiotic spermatogenic cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;173:240-5 pubmed
    It has been widely accepted that mammalian sperm acrosin is first synthesized only in the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenic cells...
  15. Nayernia K, Drabent B, Meinhardt A, Adham I, Schwandt I, Muller C, et al. Triple knockouts reveal gene interactions affecting fertility of male mice. Mol Reprod Dev. 2005;70:406-16 pubmed
    ..that were expressed in meiotic and haploid spermatogenic cells in mice, transition protein 2 (Tnp2), proacrosin (Acr), histone H1.1 (H1.1), histone H1t (H1t), and sperm mitochondria-associated cysteine-rich protein (Smcp)...
  16. Hameister H, Schulz W, Meyer J, Thoma S, Adolph S, Gaa A, et al. Gene order and genetic distance of 13 loci spanning murine chromosome 15. Genomics. 1992;14:417-22 pubmed
    ..Despite the unequal distribution along chromosome 15 of G-versus R-bands, a comparison of distances determined by physical and genetic mapping does not indicate an overt difference in distance between both mapping techniques. ..
  17. Adham I, Nayernia K, Engel W. Spermatozoa lacking acrosin protein show delayed fertilization. Mol Reprod Dev. 1997;46:370-6 pubmed
    b>Acrosin (ACR), a serine proteinase located in the acrosome of the sperm, has been presumed to be involved in the recognition and binding of the sperm to the zona pellucida of the ovum and the sperm penetration through the zona pellucida...
  18. Bucan M, Gatalica B, Nolan P, Chung A, Leroux A, Grossman M, et al. Comparative mapping of 9 human chromosome 22q loci in the laboratory mouse. Hum Mol Genet. 1993;2:1245-52 pubmed
    ..conserved synteny involving mouse chromosome 15 and human chromosome 22 spans 30 cM and contains five loci (Acr, Bzrp, Dia-1, Il2rb and Pdgfb)...
  19. Walter L, Dirks B, Rothermel E, Heyens M, Szpirer C, Levan G, et al. A novel, conserved gene of the rat that is developmentally regulated in the testis. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:216-21 pubmed
    ..Analysis of rat RNA from different stages of spermatogenesis indicated that accumulation of the short transcript occurred mainly postmeiotically. The rat Tegt gene maps to Chromosome (Chr) 7, and its mouse homolog to Chr 15. ..
  20. Nayernia K, Meinhardt A, Drabent B, Adham I, Muller C, Steckel M, et al. Synergistic effects of germ cell expressed genes on male fertility in mice. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2003;103:314-20 pubmed
    ..Proacrosin is an acrosomal protease synthesized as a proenzyme and activated into acrosin during the acrosome reaction. The linker histone subtype H1...
  21. Naillat F, Prunskaite Hyyryläinen R, Pietilä I, Sormunen R, Jokela T, Shan J, et al. Wnt4/5a signalling coordinates cell adhesion and entry into meiosis during presumptive ovarian follicle development. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:1539-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate a critical role for Wnt signalling in meiosis. Thus, the Wnt signals are important somatic cell signals that coordinate presumptive female follicle development. ..
  22. Zhou C, Kang W, Baba T. Functional characterization of double-knockout mouse sperm lacking SPAM1 and ACR or SPAM1 and PRSS21 in fertilization. J Reprod Dev. 2012;58:330-7 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have produced double-knockout mice lacking SPAM1 and either one of two sperm serine proteases, ACR and PRSS21, and characterized the mutant sperm...
  23. Klemm U, Maier W, Tsaousidou S, Adham I, Willison K, Engel W. Mouse preproacrosin: cDNA sequence, primary structure and postmeiotic expression in spermatogenesis. Differentiation. 1990;42:160-6 pubmed
    The primary structure of mouse preproacrosin was deduced by nucleotide sequencing of cDNA clones isolated from a mouse testis cDNA library...