Gene Symbol: Ache
Description: acetylcholinesterase
Alias: acetylcholinesterase
Species: mouse
Products:     Ache

Top Publications

  1. Meshorer E, Erb C, Gazit R, Pavlovsky L, Kaufer D, Friedman A, et al. Alternative splicing and neuritic mRNA translocation under long-term neuronal hypersensitivity. Science. 2002;295:508-12 pubmed
    ..long-term consequences of stress, we studied stress-induced changes in the neuritic translocation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) splice variants. Under normal conditions, we found the synaptic AChE-S mRNA and protein in neurites...
  2. Imaizumi Scherrer T, Faust D, Benichou J, Hellio R, Weiss M. Accumulation in fetal muscle and localization to the neuromuscular junction of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A regulatory and catalytic subunits RI alpha and C alpha. J Cell Biol. 1996;134:1241-54 pubmed
    ..RI alpha transcripts are distributed in muscle fibers exactly as acetylcholinesterase, showing that this RNA is localized at the neuromuscular junction...
  3. Johnson G, Swart C, Moore S. Non-enzymatic developmental functions of acetylcholinesterase--the question of redundancy. FEBS J. 2008;275:5129-38 pubmed publisher
    Despite in vitro demonstrations of non-enzymatic morphogenetic functions in acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the AChE knockout phenotype is milder than might be expected, casting doubt upon the relevance of such functions in vivo...
  4. Nijholt I, Farchi N, Kye M, Sklan E, Shoham S, Verbeure B, et al. Stress-induced alternative splicing of acetylcholinesterase results in enhanced fear memory and long-term potentiation. Mol Psychiatry. 2004;9:174-83 pubmed
    ..neurophysiological and behavioral findings attributing much of this effect to alternative splicing of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene in hippocampal neurons...
  5. Bytyqi A, Lockridge O, Duysen E, Wang Y, Wolfrum U, Layer P. Impaired formation of the inner retina in an AChE knockout mouse results in degeneration of all photoreceptors. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:2953-62 pubmed
    ..As an alternative, we show here for an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) knockout mouse that photoreceptor degeneration follows an impaired development of the inner retina...
  6. Anderson A, Ushakov D, Ferenczi M, Mori R, Martin P, Saffell J. Morphoregulation by acetylcholinesterase in fibroblasts and astrocytes. J Cell Physiol. 2008;215:82-100 pubmed
    b>Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) terminates neurotransmission at cholinergic synapses by hydrolysing acetylcholine, but also has non-enzymatic morphoregulatory effects on neurons such as stimulation of neurite outgrowth...
  7. Gautam M, Noakes P, Moscoso L, Rupp F, Scheller R, Merlie J, et al. Defective neuromuscular synaptogenesis in agrin-deficient mutant mice. Cell. 1996;85:525-35 pubmed
  8. De Jaco A, Comoletti D, Kovarik Z, Gaietta G, Radic Z, Lockridge O, et al. A mutation linked with autism reveals a common mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum retention for the alpha,beta-hydrolase fold protein family. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:9667-76 pubmed
    ..Neuroligin, butyrylcholinesterase, and acetylcholinesterase are members of the alpha,beta-hydrolase fold family of proteins sharing sequence similarity and common ..
  9. Bourne Y, Radic Z, Sulzenbacher G, Kim E, Taylor P, Marchot P. Substrate and product trafficking through the active center gorge of acetylcholinesterase analyzed by crystallography and equilibrium binding. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:29256-67 pubmed
    Hydrolysis of acetylcholine catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), one of the most efficient enzymes in nature, occurs at the base of a deep and narrow active center gorge...

More Information


  1. Shaked I, Meerson A, Wolf Y, Avni R, Greenberg D, Gilboa Geffen A, et al. MicroRNA-132 potentiates cholinergic anti-inflammatory signaling by targeting acetylcholinesterase. Immunity. 2009;31:965-73 pubmed publisher
    ..inflammation by intercepting cytokine production; therefore, we predicted that microRNAs targeting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) can attenuate inflammation...
  2. Paraoanu L, Layer P. Mouse acetylcholinesterase interacts in yeast with the extracellular matrix component laminin-1beta. FEBS Lett. 2004;576:161-4 pubmed
    b>Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is likely to have roles other than the hydrolysis of acetylcholine, e.g., related to developmental processes like neurite outgrowth, differentiation and adhesion...
  3. Espallergues J, Galvan L, Sabatier F, Rana Poussine V, Maurice T, Chatonnet A. Behavioral phenotyping of heterozygous acetylcholinesterase knockout (AChE+/-) mice showed no memory enhancement but hyposensitivity to amnesic drugs. Behav Brain Res. 2010;206:263-73 pubmed publisher
    Decrease in the expression or activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymatic activity results in increased cholinergic tonus in the brain and periphery, with concomitant regulations of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors expression...
  4. Birikh K, Sklan E, Shoham S, Soreq H. Interaction of "readthrough" acetylcholinesterase with RACK1 and PKCbeta II correlates with intensified fear-induced conflict behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:283-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that, in mice, the stress-induced splice variant of acetylcholinesterase, AChE-R, interacts intraneuronally with the scaffold protein RACK1 and through it, with its target, protein ..
  5. Perrier A, Massoulié J, Krejci E. PRiMA: the membrane anchor of acetylcholinesterase in the brain. Neuron. 2002;33:275-85 pubmed
    As a tetramer, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is anchored to the basal lamina of the neuromuscular junction and to the membrane of neuronal synapses. We have previously shown that collagen Q (ColQ) anchors AChE at the neuromuscular junction...
  6. Johnson G, Moore S. Human acetylcholinesterase binds to mouse laminin-1 and human collagen IV by an electrostatic mechanism at the peripheral anionic site. Neurosci Lett. 2003;337:37-40 pubmed
    b>Acetylcholinesterase (EC; AChE) is known to induce neurite outgrowth and differentiation, but its ligands are as yet unknown. Laminin-1 and collagen IV were investigated as potential ligands for AChE...
  7. Wilson M, Riemer C, Martindale D, Schnupf P, Boright A, Cheung T, et al. Comparative analysis of the gene-dense ACHE/TFR2 region on human chromosome 7q22 with the orthologous region on mouse chromosome 5. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:1352-65 pubmed
    ..A 296 kb segment from the physical map, spanning ACHE: to Tfr2, was compared with 267 kb of human sequence...
  8. Sternfeld M, Shoham S, Klein O, Flores Flores C, Evron T, Idelson G, et al. Excess "read-through" acetylcholinesterase attenuates but the "synaptic" variant intensifies neurodeterioration correlates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:8647-52 pubmed
    ..The "read-through" variant of acetylcholinesterase (AChE-R) accumulates in the mammalian brain under acute stress...
  9. Zhang L, Yoshimura Y, Hatta T, Otani H. Reconstructing the pathway of the tensor veli palatini motor nerve during early mouse development. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2000;201:235-44 pubmed
  10. Aoki H, Hara A, Oomori Y, Shimizu Y, Yamada Y, Kunisada T. Neonatal lethality of neural crest cell-specific Rest knockout mice is associated with gastrointestinal distension caused by aberrations of myenteric plexus. Genes Cells. 2014;19:723-42 pubmed publisher
    ..mutant mice, they do not have proper gastric retention after oral dye administration and the reduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in NCC-derived myenteric plexus in the stomach was detected...
  11. Al Fakhri N, Bogusch G. Activity of acetylcholinesterase and unspecific cholinesterase during differentiation of somites in mouse embryos. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1995;192:257-64 pubmed
    ..This was also found in cells already showed severe degeneration. In addition to BuChE, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was first visible of day 9 of embryonic development in newly formed myotubes of the myotomes...
  12. Hart A, Melet F, Grossfeld P, Chien K, Jones C, Tunnacliffe A, et al. Fli-1 is required for murine vascular and megakaryocytic development and is hemizygously deleted in patients with thrombocytopenia. Immunity. 2000;13:167-77 pubmed
    ..We map the megakaryocytic defects in 14 Jacobsen patients to a minimal region on 11q that includes the Fli-1 gene and suggest that dysmegakaryopoiesis in these patients may be caused by hemizygous loss of Fli-1. ..
  13. Uemura M, Takeichi M. Alpha N-catenin deficiency causes defects in axon migration and nuclear organization in restricted regions of the mouse brain. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2559-66 pubmed
    ..The ventricular structures were also deformed. These results indicate that alpha N-catenin has diverse roles in the organization of the central nervous system, but only in limited portions of the brain. ..
  14. Ernfors P, Van de Water T, Loring J, Jaenisch R. Complementary roles of BDNF and NT-3 in vestibular and auditory development. Neuron. 1995;14:1153-64 pubmed
    ..These results show that BDNF and NT-3 are crucial for inner ear development and, although largely coexpressed, have distinct and nonoverlapping roles in the vestibular and auditory systems. ..
  15. Duysen E, Stribley J, Fry D, Hinrichs S, Lockridge O. Rescue of the acetylcholinesterase knockout mouse by feeding a liquid diet; phenotype of the adult acetylcholinesterase deficient mouse. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2002;137:43-54 pubmed
    b>Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC3.1.1.7) functions in nerve impulse transmission, and possibly as a cell adhesion factor during neurite outgrowth. These functions predicted that a mouse with zero AChE activity would be unable to live...
  16. Siow N, Choi R, Cheng A, Jiang J, Wan D, Zhu S, et al. A cyclic AMP-dependent pathway regulates the expression of acetylcholinesterase during myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:36129-36 pubmed
    The expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is markedly increased during myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts to myotubes; the expression is mediated by intrinsic factor(s) during muscle differentiation...
  17. Trokovic R, Trokovic N, Hernesniemi S, Pirvola U, Vogt Weisenhorn D, Rossant J, et al. FGFR1 is independently required in both developing mid- and hindbrain for sustained response to isthmic signals. EMBO J. 2003;22:1811-23 pubmed
    ..In addition, FGFR1 appears to modify cell adhesion properties critical for maintaining a coherent organizing center. This may be achieved by regulating expression of specific cell-adhesion molecules at the midbrain-hindbrain border. ..
  18. Deschenes Furry J, Belanger G, Mwanjewe J, Lunde J, Parks R, Perrone Bizzozero N, et al. The RNA-binding protein HuR binds to acetylcholinesterase transcripts and regulates their expression in differentiating skeletal muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:25361-8 pubmed
    During myogenic differentiation, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) transcript levels are known to increase dramatically...
  19. Farchi N, Shoham S, Hochner B, Soreq H. Impaired hippocampal plasticity and errors in cognitive performance in mice with maladaptive AChE splice site selection. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:87-98 pubmed
    ..Under stress, alternative splicing changes priority from synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE-S) to the normally rare, soluble and monomeric AChE-R variant, which facilitates hippocampal long-..
  20. Mouisel E, Blondet B, Escourrou P, Chatonnet A, Molgo J, Ferry A. Outcome of acetylcholinesterase deficiency for neuromuscular functioning. Neurosci Res. 2006;55:389-96 pubmed
    b>Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) plays an essential role in neuromuscular transmission, therefore it is surprising that AChE knockout (KO) mice could live to the adulthood...
  21. Verhage M, Maia A, Plomp J, Brussaard A, Heeroma J, Vermeer H, et al. Synaptic assembly of the brain in the absence of neurotransmitter secretion. Science. 2000;287:864-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, synaptic connectivity does not depend on neurotransmitter secretion, but its maintenance does. Neurotransmitter secretion probably functions to validate already established synaptic connections. ..
  22. Luo Z, Pincon Raymond M, Taylor P. Acetylcholinesterase and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression diverge in muscular dysgenic mice lacking the L-type calcium channel. J Neurochem. 1996;67:111-8 pubmed
    L-type Ca2+ channels play critical roles in achieving stabilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChe) mRNA during myogenesis in C2-C12 skeletal muscle cells...
  23. Freret T, Bouet V, Quiedeville A, Nee G, Dallemagne P, Rochais C, et al. Synergistic effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibition (donepezil) and 5-HT(4) receptor activation (RS67333) on object recognition in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2012;230:304-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Among potent molecules, RS67333, a reference 5-HT(4)R agonist and donepezil (DNPZ), a reference acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, have been particularly chosen because of their close chemical structure...
  24. Matsumura Takeda K, Sogo S, Isakari Y, Harada Y, Nishioka K, Kawakami T, et al. CD41+/CD45+ cells without acetylcholinesterase activity are immature and a major megakaryocytic population in murine bone marrow. Stem Cells. 2007;25:862-70 pubmed
    Murine megakaryocytes (MKs) are defined by CD41/CD61 expression and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity; however, their stages of differentiation in bone marrow (BM) have not been fully elucidated...
  25. Machon O, Backman M, Machonova O, Kozmik Z, Vacik T, Andersen L, et al. A dynamic gradient of Wnt signaling controls initiation of neurogenesis in the mammalian cortex and cellular specification in the hippocampus. Dev Biol. 2007;311:223-37 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the dose of canonical Wnt signaling determines cellular fate in the developing cortex and hippocampus, and that recession of Wnt signaling acts as a morphogenetic gradient regulating neurogenesis in the cortex. ..
  26. Garcia C, Potian J, Hognason K, Thyagarajan B, Sultatos L, Souayah N, et al. Acetylcholinesterase deficiency contributes to neuromuscular junction dysfunction in type 1 diabetic neuropathy. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;303:E551-61 pubmed publisher expression of the embryonic acetylcholine receptor but to reduced muscle expression of acetylcholine esterase (AChE)...
  27. Lo R, Chandar N, Kesharwani M, Jain A, Ganguly B. In silico studies in probing the role of kinetic and structural effects of different drugs for the reactivation of tabun-inhibited AChE. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79591 pubmed publisher
    We have examined the reactivation mechanism of the tabun-conjugated AChE with various drugs using density functional theory (DFT) and post-Hartree-Fock methods...
  28. Lau K, Gong A, Xu M, Lam C, Zhang L, Bi C, et al. Transcriptional activity of acetylcholinesterase gene is regulated by DNA methylation during C2C12 myogenesis. Brain Res. 2016;1642:114-123 pubmed publisher
    The expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme hydrolyzes neurotransmitter acetylcholine at vertebrate neuromuscular junction, is regulated during myogenesis, indicating the significance of muscle intrinsic factors in ..
  29. Xie W, Stribley J, Chatonnet A, Wilder P, Rizzino A, McComb R, et al. Postnatal developmental delay and supersensitivity to organophosphate in gene-targeted mice lacking acetylcholinesterase. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000;293:896-902 pubmed
    b>Acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC is the primary terminator of nerve impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses and is believed to play an important role in neural development...
  30. Grisaru D, Pick M, Perry C, Sklan E, Almog R, Goldberg I, et al. Hydrolytic and nonenzymatic functions of acetylcholinesterase comodulate hemopoietic stress responses. J Immunol. 2006;176:27-35 pubmed
    ..In this study, we report that the stress-induced acetylcholinesterase variant, AChE-R, and its cleavable, cell-penetrating C-terminal peptide, ARP, facilitate granulocytosis...
  31. Camp S, De Jaco A, Zhang L, Marquez M, de la Torre B, Taylor P. Acetylcholinesterase expression in muscle is specifically controlled by a promoter-selective enhancesome in the first intron. J Neurosci. 2008;28:2459-70 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene expression is exquisitely regulated in target tissues and cells during differentiation...
  32. Farar V, Mohr F, Legrand M, Lamotte D Incamps B, Cendelin J, Leroy J, et al. Near-complete adaptation of the PRiMA knockout to the lack of central acetylcholinesterase. J Neurochem. 2012;122:1065-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) rapidly hydrolyzes acetylcholine...
  33. Brandon E, Lin W, D Amour K, Pizzo D, Dominguez B, Sugiura Y, et al. Aberrant patterning of neuromuscular synapses in choline acetyltransferase-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 2003;23:539-49 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that ChAT is uniquely essential for the patterning and formation of mammalian neuromuscular synapses. ..
  34. Xu M, Bi C, Cheng L, Mak S, Yao P, Luk W, et al. Reduced Expression of P2Y2 Receptor and Acetylcholinesterase at Neuromuscular Junction of P2Y1 Receptor Knock-out Mice. J Mol Neurosci. 2015;57:446-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In parallel, the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in muscle was markedly decreased...
  35. Lin H, Wang Y, Chan K, Ip T, Wan C. Differential regulation of lipid metabolism genes in the brain of acetylcholinesterase knockout mice. J Mol Neurosci. 2014;53:397-408 pubmed publisher
    Mice deficient in acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC3.1.1.7) exhibited significant phenotypical and biochemical changes when compared with wild-type littermates...
  36. Duysen E, Lockridge O. Phenotype comparison of three acetylcholinesterase knockout strains. J Mol Neurosci. 2006;30:91-2 pubmed
    The phenotypes of three mouse strains that carry the acetylcholinesterase knockout (AChE KO) mutation have been compared. The AChE KO mouse was developed from embryonic stem (ES) cells, originating from a 129/Sv blastocyst...
  37. Mundell N, Plank J, Legrone A, Frist A, Zhu L, Shin M, et al. Enteric nervous system specific deletion of Foxd3 disrupts glial cell differentiation and activates compensatory enteric progenitors. Dev Biol. 2012;363:373-87 pubmed publisher
  38. Gaborit N, Sakuma R, Wylie J, Kim K, Zhang S, Hui C, et al. Cooperative and antagonistic roles for Irx3 and Irx5 in cardiac morphogenesis and postnatal physiology. Development. 2012;139:4007-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results have uncovered complex genetic interactions between Irx3 and Irx5 in embryonic cardiac development and postnatal physiology. ..
  39. Li B, Duysen E, Lockridge O. Gene transfer of acetylcholinesterase protects the knockout mouse from the toxicity of DFP. J Mol Neurosci. 2006;30:79-80 pubmed
    b>Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has a clear role in nerve impulse transmission. Organophosphorus esters are highly toxic chemicals used as pesticides, fire retardants, plasticizers, and chemical warfare agents...
  40. Mor I, Sklan E, Podoly E, Pick M, Kirschner M, Yogev L, et al. Acetylcholinesterase-R increases germ cell apoptosis but enhances sperm motility. J Cell Mol Med. 2008;12:479-95 pubmed publisher
    ..A relevant example is that of the stress-induced up-regulation of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE-R) splice variant, a common response in various tissues...
  41. Kishi M, Kummer T, Eglen S, Sanes J. LL5beta: a regulator of postsynaptic differentiation identified in a screen for synaptically enriched transcripts at the neuromuscular junction. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:355-66 pubmed
    ..Thus, a strategy designed to identify novel synaptic components led to identification of a protein required for assembly of the postsynaptic apparatus. ..
  42. Jia Z, Guo Y, Tang Y, Xu Q, Li B, Wu Q. Regulation of the protocadherin Celsr3 gene and its role in globus pallidus development and connectivity. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:3895-910 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal the essential role of Celsr3 in GP development in the basal forebrain and shed light on the mechanisms of the axonal defects caused by the Celsr3 deletion. ..
  43. Noakes P, Gautam M, Mudd J, Sanes J, Merlie J. Aberrant differentiation of neuromuscular junctions in mice lacking s-laminin/laminin beta 2. Nature. 1995;374:258-62 pubmed
    ..By generating and characterizing mice with a targeted mutation of the s-laminin gene, we show here that s-laminin regulates formation of motor nerve terminals. ..
  44. Kitamura K, Itou Y, Yanazawa M, Ohsawa M, Suzuki Migishima R, Umeki Y, et al. Three human ARX mutations cause the lissencephaly-like and mental retardation with epilepsy-like pleiotropic phenotypes in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:3708-24 pubmed publisher
  45. Ye W, Gong X, Xie J, Wu J, Zhang X, Ouyang Q, et al. AChE deficiency or inhibition decreases apoptosis and p53 expression and protects renal function after ischemia/reperfusion. Apoptosis. 2010;15:474-87 pubmed publisher
    We recently reported that the expression of the synaptic form of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is induced during apoptosis in various cell types in vitro...
  46. Mutero A, Camp S, Taylor P. Promoter elements of the mouse acetylcholinesterase gene. Transcriptional regulation during muscle differentiation. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:1866-72 pubmed
    The increase in acetylcholinesterase expression during muscle differentiation from myoblasts to myotubes was shown previously to reflect primarily a greater stability of the messenger RNA (mRNA)...
  47. Burgess R, Skarnes W, Sanes J. Agrin isoforms with distinct amino termini: differential expression, localization, and function. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:41-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, basal lamina-associated LN-agrin is required for neuromuscular synaptogenesis, whereas cell-associated SN-agrin may play distinct roles in the central nervous system. ..
  48. Wolpowitz D, Mason T, Dietrich P, Mendelsohn M, Talmage D, Role L. Cysteine-rich domain isoforms of the neuregulin-1 gene are required for maintenance of peripheral synapses. Neuron. 2000;25:79-91 pubmed
  49. Cui J, Xu M, Liu E, Dong T, Lin H, Tsim K, et al. Expression of globular form acetylcholinesterase is not altered in P2Y1R knock-out mouse brain. Chem Biol Interact. 2016;259:291-294 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in muscle was markedly decreased in P2Y1R-/- (P2Y1R knock-out) mice...
  50. Stenman J, Yu R, Evans R, Campbell K. Tlx and Pax6 co-operate genetically to establish the pallio-subpallial boundary in the embryonic mouse telencephalon. Development. 2003;130:1113-22 pubmed
    ..This correlates well with the malformation of the lateral and basolateral amygdala in Tlx mutants, both of which have been suggested to derive from ventral portions of the pallium. ..
  51. Silveyra M, Evin G, Montenegro M, Vidal C, Martinez S, Culvenor J, et al. Presenilin 1 interacts with acetylcholinesterase and alters its enzymatic activity and glycosylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:2908-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the coimmunoprecipitation of PS1 and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme associated with amyloid plaques...
  52. Takahara K, Osborne L, Elliott R, Tsui L, Scherer S, Greenspan D. Fine mapping of the human and mouse genes for the type I procollagen COOH-terminal proteinase enhancer protein. Genomics. 1996;31:253-6 pubmed
    ..These data also indicate that PCOLCE is located within a 10- to 15-cM region of conserved synteny between human chromosome 7 and mouse chromosome 5. ..
  53. Cohen J, Zimmerman G, Melamed Book N, Friedman A, Dori A, Soreq H. Transgenic inactivation of acetylcholinesterase impairs homeostasis in mouse hippocampal granule cells. Hippocampus. 2008;18:182-92 pubmed
    ..influences both of these functions, we hypothesized that cholinergic signaling, affected by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, expression level, and alternative splicing, may provide a link between these processes...
  54. Sklan E, Berson A, Birikh K, Gutnick A, Shahar O, Shoham S, et al. Acetylcholinesterase modulates stress-induced motor responses through catalytic and noncatalytic properties. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60:741-51 pubmed
    ..Here we report the contribution of alternative splicing of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) pre-mRNA to modulate these responses...
  55. Wang Y, Thekdi N, Smallwood P, Macke J, Nathans J. Frizzled-3 is required for the development of major fiber tracts in the rostral CNS. J Neurosci. 2002;22:8563-73 pubmed
    ..These data provide the first link between Frizzled signaling and axonal development. ..
  56. Elshatory Y, Gan L. The LIM-homeobox gene Islet-1 is required for the development of restricted forebrain cholinergic neurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3291-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate the requirement for Isl1 in the development of restricted telencephalic cholinergic neurons and link the development of cholinergic neurons in anatomically disparate sites to Isl1 function. ..
  57. Clement C, Lalonde R, Strazielle C. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain of dystonia musculorum (Dst(dt-J)) mutant mice. Neurosci Res. 2012;72:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..A quantitative histochemical cartography of brain acetylcholinesterase activity in Dst(dt-J) mutants, in comparison with controls, revealed increases in the neostriatum, the ..
  58. Inkson C, Brabbs A, Grewal T, Skerry T, Genever P. Characterization of acetylcholinesterase expression and secretion during osteoblast differentiation. Bone. 2004;35:819-27 pubmed
    Although best known for its role in cholinergic signalling, a substantial body of evidence suggests that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has multiple biological functions...
  59. Hicks D, Makova N, Nalivaeva N, Turner A. Characterisation of acetylcholinesterase release from neuronal cells. Chem Biol Interact. 2013;203:302-8 pubmed publisher
    Although acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is primarily a hydrolytic enzyme, metabolising the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses, it also has some non-catalytic functions in the brain which are far less well characterised...
  60. Bourne Y, Taylor P, Radic Z, Marchot P. Structural insights into ligand interactions at the acetylcholinesterase peripheral anionic site. EMBO J. 2003;22:1-12 pubmed
    The peripheral anionic site on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), located at the active center gorge entry, encompasses overlapping binding sites for allosteric activators and inhibitors; yet, the molecular mechanisms coupling this site to the ..
  61. Zhang X, Lu L, Liu S, Ye W, Wu J, Zhang X. Acetylcholinesterase deficiency decreases apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons in the neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013;45:265-72 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the details of this pathway are poorly understood. Previous research has shown increased acetylcholinesterase expression during apoptosis in various cell types, which suggests that acetylcholinesterase has a potential ..
  62. Fragkouli A, Hearn C, Errington M, Cooke S, Grigoriou M, Bliss T, et al. Loss of forebrain cholinergic neurons and impairment in spatial learning and memory in LHX7-deficient mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:2923-38 pubmed
    ..Overall our experiments demonstrate that Lhx7 expression is required for the specification or differentiation of cholinergic forebrain neurons involved in the processing of spatial information. ..
  63. Kreuzberg M, Deuchars J, Weiss E, Schober A, Sonntag S, Wellershaus K, et al. Expression of connexin30.2 in interneurons of the central nervous system in the mouse. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;37:119-34 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the lack of Cx30.2 in interneurons can be largely compensated by other connexins, most likely Cx36. ..
  64. Li B, Duysen E, Volpicelli Daley L, Levey A, Lockridge O. Regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor function in acetylcholinesterase knockout mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;74:977-86 pubmed
    b>Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) hydrolyzes acetylcholine to terminate cholinergic neurotransmission. Overstimulation of cholinergic receptors by excess acetylcholine is known to be lethal...
  65. Meshorer E, Toiber D, Zurel D, Sahly I, Dori A, Cagnano E, et al. Combinatorial complexity of 5' alternative acetylcholinesterase transcripts and protein products. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:29740-51 pubmed
    ..inter-relationship to alternative splicing, we searched expression sequence tags for the 5' region of acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) genes. Three and five novel first exons were identified in human and mouse ACHE genes, respectively...
  66. Reddy T, Kablar B. Evidence for the involvement of neurotrophins in muscle transdifferentiation and acetylcholine receptor transformation in the esophagus of Myf5(-/-):MyoD(-/-) and NT-3(-/-) embryos. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:683-92 pubmed
    ..Finally, our data suggest a role for NT-3 in the esophageal muscle transdifferentiation. ..
  67. Bourne Y, Radic Z, Kolb H, Sharpless K, Taylor P, Marchot P. Structural insights into conformational flexibility at the peripheral site and within the active center gorge of AChE. Chem Biol Interact. 2005;157-158:159-65 pubmed
    The peripheral anionic site on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), located at the active site gorge entry, encompasses overlapping binding sites for allosteric activators and inhibitors...
  68. Asai N, Fukuda T, Wu Z, Enomoto A, Pachnis V, Takahashi M, et al. Targeted mutation of serine 697 in the Ret tyrosine kinase causes migration defect of enteric neural crest cells. Development. 2006;133:4507-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, these findings indicated that cAMP-dependent modification of RET function regulates the JNK signaling responsible for proper migration of the ENCCs in the developing gut. ..
  69. Liang D, Carvalho S, Bon S, Massoulié J. Unusual transfer of CutA into the secretory pathway, evidenced by fusion proteins with acetylcholinesterase. FEBS J. 2009;276:4473-82 pubmed publisher
    ..these subcellular localizations, we constructed fusion proteins in which the catalytic domain of rat acetylcholinesterase was placed downstream of the CutA variants...
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    ..form, as reflected in clustering of AChR and postsynaptic expression of the genes encoding the alpha-AChR, AChE, epsilon-AChR, and the RI subunit of the cAMP protein kinase...
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    ..It has been suggested that SJS neuromyotonia may result from endplate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) deficiency, but this hypothesis has never been investigated in vivo due to the lack of an animal ..
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    ..for TrkA, but not the neurotrophin receptor TrkB, show an early postnatal progressive reduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymatic activity in the adrenal medulla and in preganglionic sympathetic neurons within the ..
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