Gene Symbol: Acadm
Description: acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, medium chain
Alias: AU018656, MCAD, medium-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Species: mouse
Products:     Acadm

Top Publications

  1. Kelly D, Kim J, Billadello J, Hainline B, Chu T, Strauss A. Nucleotide sequence of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNA and its expression in enzyme-deficient human tissue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:4068-72 pubmed
    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; acyl-CoA: (acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase, EC is one of three similar enzymes that catalyze the initial step of fatty acid beta-oxidation...
  2. Tolwani R, Farmer S, Wood P. Molecular cloning and characterization of the mouse medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase cDNA. Genomics. 1994;23:247-9 pubmed
    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) is one of the three straight-chain length-specific dehydrogenases involved in the first step of fatty acid oxidation...
  3. Tolwani R, Farmer S, Johnson K, Davisson M, Kurtz D, Hinsdale M, et al. Structure and chromosomal location of the mouse medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-encoding gene and its promoter. Gene. 1996;170:165-71 pubmed
    Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD; mouse gene Acadm; human gene ACADM) catalyzes the initial step of fatty acid beta-oxidation in mitochondria...
  4. Kurtz D, Rinaldo P, Rhead W, Tian L, Millington D, Vockley J, et al. Targeted disruption of mouse long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene reveals crucial roles for fatty acid oxidation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:15592-7 pubmed
    ..Approximately 10% of adult LCAD -/- males developed cardiomyopathy, and sudden death was observed in 4 of 75 LCAD -/- mice. These results demonstrate the crucial roles of mitochondrial FAO and LCAD in vivo. ..
  5. Xiong Y, Yang Y, Yang J, Chai H, Li Y, Yang J, et al. Tectoridin, an isoflavone glycoside from the flower of Pueraria lobata, prevents acute ethanol-induced liver steatosis in mice. Toxicology. 2010;276:64-72 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibited the decrease of PPARalpha expression and its target genes, including medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) and cytochrome P450 4A (CYP 4A) at mRNA and enzyme activity levels...
  6. Wood P, Farmer S, Tolwani R, Warren J, Steinkampf M, Johnson L, et al. Molecular studies of mouse medium and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase genes for site-directed mutagenesis of embryonic stem cells. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1992;375:151-60 pubmed
  7. de Jong H, Neal A, Coleman R, Lewin T. Ontogeny of mRNA expression and activity of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) isoforms in Mus musculus heart. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771:75-82 pubmed
    ..Our data support the hypothesis that each ACSL has a specific role in the channeling of FA towards distinct metabolic fates. ..
  8. Spiekerkoetter U, Wood P. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders: pathophysiological studies in mouse models. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2010;33:539-46 pubmed publisher
    ..transcriptional changes that are also observed simultaneously, as presented in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)-deficient mice. There are reports that an impaired fatty acid oxidation also plays a role in intrauterine life...
  9. Lehman J, Barger P, Kovacs A, Saffitz J, Medeiros D, Kelly D. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 promotes cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:847-56 pubmed
    ..These results identify PGC-1 as a critical regulatory molecule in the control of cardiac mitochondrial number and function in response to energy demands. ..

More Information


  1. Herrema H, Derks T, van Dijk T, Bloks V, Gerding A, Havinga R, et al. Disturbed hepatic carbohydrate management during high metabolic demand in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)-deficient mice. Hepatology. 2008;47:1894-904 pubmed publisher
    Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase (MCAD) catalyzes crucial steps in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, a process that is of key relevance for maintenance of energy homeostasis, especially during high metabolic demand...
  2. Wolfrum C, Asilmaz E, Luca E, Friedman J, Stoffel M. Foxa2 regulates lipid metabolism and ketogenesis in the liver during fasting and in diabetes. Nature. 2004;432:1027-32 pubmed
    ..Pharmacological intervention to inhibit phosphorylation of Foxa2 may be an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes. ..
  3. Kim M, Shigenaga J, Moser A, Feingold K, Grunfeld C. Suppression of estrogen-related receptor alpha and medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase in the acute-phase response. J Lipid Res. 2005;46:2282-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we investigated whether the APR affects the expression of medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD), its regulator the estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha), and a key coactivator of ERRalpha, the peroxisome ..
  4. Sae Tan S, Grove K, Kennett M, Lambert J. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate increases the expression of genes related to fat oxidation in the skeletal muscle of high fat-fed mice. Food Funct. 2011;2:111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..showed that EGCG increased mRNA levels of nuclear respiratory factor (nrf)1, medium chain acyl coA decarboxylase (mcad), uncoupling protein (ucp)3, and peroxisome proliferator responsive element (ppar)? by 1.4-1...
  5. Zhang L, Macia L, Turner N, Enriquez R, Riepler S, Nguyen A, et al. Peripheral neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors regulate lipid oxidation and fat accretion. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010;34:357-73 pubmed publisher
    ..involved in beta-oxidation; beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (betaHAD) and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), leading to increased mitochondrial capacity for fatty acid transport and oxidation...
  6. Chess D, Khairallah R, O Shea K, Xu W, Stanley W. A high-fat diet increases adiposity but maintains mitochondrial oxidative enzymes without affecting development of heart failure with pressure overload. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297:H1585-93 pubmed publisher
    ..and prevented the decline in the activity of the mitochondrial enzymes medium chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) and citrate synthase that was observed with TAC animals on a low-fat diet...
  7. Ngumbela K, Sack M, Essop M. Counter-regulatory effects of incremental hypoxia on the transcription of a cardiac fatty acid oxidation enzyme-encoding gene. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003;250:151-8 pubmed
    ..switch, the transcriptional control of a cardiac FAO enzyme-encoding gene (medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, MCAD) was characterized in response to hypobaric hypoxia...
  8. Ruiz Lozano P, Smith S, Perkins G, Kubalak S, Boss G, Sucov H, et al. Energy deprivation and a deficiency in downstream metabolic target genes during the onset of embryonic heart failure in RXRalpha-/- embryos. Development. 1998;125:533-44 pubmed
    ..We propose a model whereby defects in intermediary metabolism may be a causative factor of the RXRalpha-/- phenotype and resembles an embryonic form of dilated cardiomyopathy. ..
  9. Klinga Levan K, Andersson A, Hanson C, Ridderström M, Stenberg G, Mannervik B, et al. Mapping of glutathione transferase (GST) genes in the rat. Hereditas. 1993;119:285-96 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, each of the three groups of conserved synteny seems to span the region across the centromeres of the human chromosomes. ..
  10. Tolwani R, Hamm D, Tian L, Sharer J, Vockley J, Rinaldo P, et al. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in gene-targeted mice. PLoS Genet. 2005;1:e23 pubmed
    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation in humans...
  11. Feingold K, Moser A, Patzek S, Shigenaga J, Grunfeld C. Infection decreases fatty acid oxidation and nuclear hormone receptors in the diaphragm. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:2055-63 pubmed publisher
    ..FA transport protein 1 (FATP-1), CD36, carnitine palmitoyltransferase beta, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), and acyl-CoA synthetase, key proteins required for FA uptake and oxidation, in the diaphragm...
  12. Andresen B, Corydon T, Wilsbech M, Bross P, Schroeder L, Hindkjaer T, et al. Characterization of mouse Clpp protease cDNA, gene, and protein. Mamm Genome. 2000;11:275-80 pubmed
  13. Maitra U, Chang S, Singh N, Li L. Molecular mechanism underlying the suppression of lipid oxidation during endotoxemia. Mol Immunol. 2009;47:420-5 pubmed publisher
    ..suppresses FFA oxidation through decreasing the expression levels of key FFA oxidative genes including CPT-1 and MCAD in both liver and kidney tissues of WT but not IRAK-1(-/-) mice...
  14. Cook S, Johnson K, Davisson M. The mouse urate oxidase gene, Uox, maps to distal chromosome 3. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:623-4 pubmed
  15. Li W, Yao C, Zhang S, Wang S, Wang T, Xiong C, et al. Improvement of myocardial lipid accumulation and prevention of PGC-1? induction by fenofibrate. Mol Med Rep. 2012;5:1396-400 pubmed publisher
    ..protein 40 (Tom40), lipoic acid synthetase (Lias), cytochrome b, medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) was determined...
  16. Martin J, Balmer M, Rajendran S, Maurhofer O, Dufour J, St Pierre M. Nutritional stress exacerbates hepatic steatosis induced by deletion of the histidine nucleotide-binding (Hint2) mitochondrial protein. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310:G497-509 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of Hint2 deregulates the posttranslational modification of several mitochondrial proteins, which impedes the adaptation to episodes of nutritional stress. ..
  17. Lai L, Leone T, Zechner C, Schaeffer P, Kelly S, Flanagan D, et al. Transcriptional coactivators PGC-1alpha and PGC-lbeta control overlapping programs required for perinatal maturation of the heart. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1948-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta share roles that collectively are necessary for the postnatal metabolic and functional maturation of heart and BAT. ..
  18. Sladek R, Bader J, Giguere V. The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor alpha is a transcriptional regulator of the human medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:5400-9 pubmed
    ..An ERRE is present in the 5'-flanking region of the gene encoding medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD), a key enzyme involved in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fat...