a

Summary

Gene Symbol: a
Description: nonagouti
Alias: ASIP, ASP, agouti-signaling protein, agouti coat color protein, agouti signal protein, agouti switch protein, non-agouti
Species: mouse
Products:     a

Top Publications

  1. Le Pape E, Passeron T, Giubellino A, Valencia J, Wolber R, Hearing V. Microarray analysis sheds light on the dedifferentiating role of agouti signal protein in murine melanocytes via the Mc1r. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:1802-7 pubmed publisher
    ..by alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alphaMSH), MC1R function can be antagonized by a secreted factor, agouti signal protein (ASP), which is responsible for the lighter phenotypes in mammals (including humans), and is also ..
  2. Poole T, Silvers W. The development of regional pigmentation patterns in black and tan (at) mice. J Exp Zool. 1976;197:115-9 pubmed
    ..produced by various dermal-epidermal recombinations of dorsal and ventral black and tan (at/at), ventral nonagouti (a/a) and ventral yellow (Ay/a) embryonic skin has been investigated...
  3. Sakai C, Ollmann M, Kobayashi T, Abdel Malek Z, Muller J, Vieira W, et al. Modulation of murine melanocyte function in vitro by agouti signal protein. EMBO J. 1997;16:3544-52 pubmed
    ..opposing action of two intercellular signaling molecules, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and agouti signal protein (ASP)...
  4. Chen Y, Duhl D, Barsh G. Opposite orientations of an inverted duplication and allelic variation at the mouse agouti locus. Genetics. 1996;144:265-77 pubmed
    The mouse agouti protein is a paracrine signaling molecule that causes yellow pigment synthesis...
  5. Venuprasad K, Elly C, Gao M, Salek Ardakani S, Harada Y, Luo J, et al. Convergence of Itch-induced ubiquitination with MEKK1-JNK signaling in Th2 tolerance and airway inflammation. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1117-26 pubmed
    ..Here we used both in vivo and in vitro protocols to demonstrate that Th2 cells either containing a mitogen and extracellular kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) mutant or lacking JNK1 or the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch cannot be ..
  6. Morgan H, Sutherland H, Martin D, Whitelaw E. Epigenetic inheritance at the agouti locus in the mouse. Nat Genet. 1999;23:314-8 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the inheritance of an epigenetic modification at the agouti locus in mice. In viable yellow ( A(vy)/a) mice, transcription originating in an intra-cisternal A particle (IAP) retrotransposon inserted upstream of ..
  7. Duhl D, Stevens M, Vrieling H, Saxon P, Miller M, Epstein C, et al. Pleiotropic effects of the mouse lethal yellow (Ay) mutation explained by deletion of a maternally expressed gene and the simultaneous production of agouti fusion RNAs. Development. 1994;120:1695-708 pubmed
    ..Here we use a combination of genomic and cDNA cloning experiments to demonstrate that the Ay mutation is caused by a 120 kb ..
  8. Miltenberger R, Wakamatsu K, Ito S, Woychik R, Russell L, Michaud E. Molecular and phenotypic analysis of 25 recessive, homozygous-viable alleles at the mouse agouti locus. Genetics. 2002;160:659-74 pubmed
    Agouti is a paracrine-acting, transient antagonist of melanocortin 1 receptors that specifies the subapical band of yellow on otherwise black hairs of the wild-type coat...
  9. Cooney C, Dave A, Wolff G. Maternal methyl supplements in mice affect epigenetic variation and DNA methylation of offspring. J Nutr. 2002;132:2393S-2400S pubmed publisher
    ..Phenotype and DNA methylation of a long terminal repeat (LTR) controlling expression of the agouti gene were assayed in the resulting offspring...

More Information

Publications75

  1. Wolff G. Influence of maternal phenotype on metabolic differentiation of agouti locus mutants in the mouse. Genetics. 1978;88:529-39 pubmed
    ..extensive breeding experiments indicate that the phenotypic differentiation of embryos carrying the viable yellow, A( vy), or mottled, a(m), mutations is influenced to a major extent by the agouti locus genotype and the strain genome ..
  2. Ollmann M, Lamoreux M, Wilson B, Barsh G. Interaction of Agouti protein with the melanocortin 1 receptor in vitro and in vivo. Genes Dev. 1998;12:316-30 pubmed
    ..We have used a sensitive bioassay based on Xenopus melanophores to characterize pharmacologic properties of recombinant Agouti ..
  3. Wolff G, Kodell R, Moore S, Cooney C. Maternal epigenetics and methyl supplements affect agouti gene expression in Avy/a mice. FASEB J. 1998;12:949-57 pubmed
    Viable yellow' (Avy/a) mice are larger, obese, hyperinsulinemic, more susceptible to cancer, and, on average, shorter lived than their non-yellow siblings...
  4. Shembade N, Harhaj N, Parvatiyar K, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Matesic L, et al. The E3 ligase Itch negatively regulates inflammatory signaling pathways by controlling the function of the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:254-62 pubmed publisher
    The ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 is a critical negative regulator of inflammation and cytokine-mediated activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB; however, little is known about the mechanisms of A20-mediated inactivation of ..
  5. Jackson I, Budd P, Keighren M, McKie L. Humanized MC1R transgenic mice reveal human specific receptor function. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:2341-8 pubmed
    The melanocortin receptor, MC1R, is a key regulator of pigmentation in mammals, and is necessary for production of dark eumelanin pigment...
  6. Fang D, Elly C, Gao B, Fang N, Altman Y, Joazeiro C, et al. Dysregulation of T lymphocyte function in itchy mice: a role for Itch in TH2 differentiation. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:281-7 pubmed
    ..Molecularly, Itch associated with and induced ubiquitination of JunB, a transcription factor that is involved in TH2 differentiation...
  7. Aberdam E, Bertolotto C, Sviderskaya E, de Thillot V, Hemesath T, Fisher D, et al. Involvement of microphthalmia in the inhibition of melanocyte lineage differentiation and of melanogenesis by agouti signal protein. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:19560-5 pubmed
    ..hormone (alphaMSH) which preferentially increases the synthesis of eumelanins, and agouti signal protein (ASP) whose expression favors the production of hair containing pheomelanins...
  8. DICKIES M. A new viable yellow mutation in the house mouse. J Hered. 1962;53:84-6 pubmed
  9. Bultman S, Michaud E, Woychik R. Molecular characterization of the mouse agouti locus. Cell. 1992;71:1195-204 pubmed
    The agouti (a) locus acts within the microenvironment of the hair follicle to regulate coat color pigmentation in the mouse...
  10. Furumura M, Sakai C, Potterf S, Vieira W, Barsh G, Hearing V. Characterization of genes modulated during pheomelanogenesis using differential display. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:7374-8 pubmed
    ..opposing effects of two intercellular signaling molecules, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) and agouti signal protein (ASP)...
  11. Miller M, Duhl D, Vrieling H, Cordes S, Ollmann M, Winkes B, et al. Cloning of the mouse agouti gene predicts a secreted protein ubiquitously expressed in mice carrying the lethal yellow mutation. Genes Dev. 1993;7:454-67 pubmed
    ..limits for the agouti gene and found that the Ay and the lethal non-agouti (ax) allele were not separated from a previously identified probe at the breakpoint of the Is1GsO chromosomal rearrangement...
  12. Ozeki H, Ito S, Wakamatsu K, Hirobe T. Chemical characterization of hair melanins in various coat-color mutants of mice. J Invest Dermatol. 1995;105:361-6 pubmed
    ..Melanogenesis is influenced by a number of genes, the levels of whose products determine the quantity and quality of the melanins produced...
  13. Michaud E, van Vugt M, Bultman S, Sweet H, Davisson M, Woychik R. Differential expression of a new dominant agouti allele (Aiapy) is correlated with methylation state and is influenced by parental lineage. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1463-72 pubmed
    The agouti gene normally confers the wild-type coat color of mice. Dominant mutations at the agouti locus result in a pleiotropic syndrome that is characterized by excessive amounts of yellow pigment in the coat, obesity, a non-insulin-..
  14. Perry W, Copeland N, Jenkins N. The molecular basis for dominant yellow agouti coat color mutations. Bioessays. 1994;16:705-7 pubmed
    ..hair growth cycle induces melanocytes to synthesize yellow instead of black pigment, generating black hairs with a yellow band...
  15. Vrieling H, Duhl D, Millar S, Miller K, Barsh G. Differences in dorsal and ventral pigmentation result from regional expression of the mouse agouti gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:5667-71 pubmed
    The agouti coat color gene encodes a paracrine signaling molecule that controls the production of yellow and black pigment by melanocytes within hair follicles...
  16. Cropley J, Suter C, Beckman K, Martin D. Germ-line epigenetic modification of the murine A vy allele by nutritional supplementation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:17308-12 pubmed
    Environmental effects on phenotype can be mediated by epigenetic modifications. The epigenetic state of the murine A vy allele is highly variable, and determines phenotypic effects that vary in a mosaic spectrum that can be shifted by in ..
  17. Argeson A, Nelson K, Siracusa L. Molecular basis of the pleiotropic phenotype of mice carrying the hypervariable yellow (Ahvy) mutation at the agouti locus. Genetics. 1996;142:557-67 pubmed
    The murine agouti locus regulates a switch in pigment synthesis between eumelanin (black/brown pigment) and phaeomelanin (yellow/red pigment) by hair bulb melanocytes...
  18. Cropley J, Suter C, Beckman K, Martin D. CpG methylation of a silent controlling element in the murine Avy allele is incomplete and unresponsive to methyl donor supplementation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9055 pubmed publisher
    The viable yellow allele of agouti (A(vy)) is remarkable for its unstable and partially heritable epigenetic state, which produces wide variation in phenotypes of isogenic mice...
  19. Pettitt S, Liang Q, Rairdan X, Moran J, Prosser H, Beier D, et al. Agouti C57BL/6N embryonic stem cells for mouse genetic resources. Nat Methods. 2009;6:493-5 pubmed publisher
    We report the characterization of a highly germline competent C57BL/6N mouse embryonic stem cell line, JM8...
  20. Lamoreux M, Wakamatsu K, Ito S. Interaction of major coat color gene functions in mice as studied by chemical analysis of eumelanin and pheomelanin. Pigment Cell Res. 2001;14:23-31 pubmed
    ..TRP1, the silver (Si) locus that encodes a melanosomal silver protein, the agouti (A) locus that encodes agouti signaling protein (ASP), the extension (E) locus that encodes melanocortin-1 receptor, and the mahogany (Mg) locus that ..
  21. He L, Gunn T, Bouley D, Lu X, Watson S, Schlossman S, et al. A biochemical function for attractin in agouti-induced pigmentation and obesity. Nat Genet. 2001;27:40-7 pubmed
    Agouti protein, a paracrine signaling molecule normally limited to skin, is ectopically expressed in lethal yellow (A(y)) mice, and causes obesity by mimicking agouti-related protein (Agrp), found primarily in the hypothalamus...
  22. Barsh G. The genetics of pigmentation: from fancy genes to complex traits. Trends Genet. 1996;12:299-305 pubmed
    ..Molecular isolation of the affected genes and the ability to study their effects in a defined genetic background have led to surprising new insights into the potential interaction between tyrosine ..
  23. Chang L, Kamata H, Solinas G, Luo J, Maeda S, Venuprasad K, et al. The E3 ubiquitin ligase itch couples JNK activation to TNFalpha-induced cell death by inducing c-FLIP(L) turnover. Cell. 2006;124:601-13 pubmed
    ..Critically, identity of a JNK substrate that promotes TNFalpha-induced apoptosis has been outstanding...
  24. Iwatsuka H, Shino A, Suzuoki Z. General survey of diabetic features of yellow KK mice. Endocrinol Jpn. 1970;17:23-35 pubmed
  25. Wolff G, Roberts D, Mountjoy K. Physiological consequences of ectopic agouti gene expression: the yellow obese mouse syndrome. Physiol Genomics. 1999;1:151-63 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the phenotypic aberrations described support the concept that identical genomes are expressed in a spectrum of physiological phenotypes that reflect the complex interdependence of gene-regulated physiological ..
  26. Millar S, Miller M, Stevens M, Barsh G. Expression and transgenic studies of the mouse agouti gene provide insight into the mechanisms by which mammalian coat color patterns are generated. Development. 1995;121:3223-32 pubmed
    ..one active at the midpoint of the hair cycle and the other specific for the ventrum, is responsible for generating a range of mammalian pigmentation patterns...
  27. Venuprasad K, Huang H, Harada Y, Elly C, Subramaniam M, Spelsberg T, et al. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch regulates expression of transcription factor Foxp3 and airway inflammation by enhancing the function of transcription factor TIEG1. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling in naive T cells induces expression of the transcription factor Foxp3, a 'master' regulator of regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells)...
  28. Heissmeyer V, Macian F, Im S, Varma R, Feske S, Venuprasad K, et al. Calcineurin imposes T cell unresponsiveness through targeted proteolysis of signaling proteins. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:255-65 pubmed
    Sustained calcium signaling induces a state of anergy or antigen unresponsiveness in T cells, mediated through calcineurin and the transcription factor NFAT...
  29. Lu D, Willard D, Patel I, Kadwell S, Overton L, Kost T, et al. Agouti protein is an antagonist of the melanocyte-stimulating-hormone receptor. Nature. 1994;371:799-802 pubmed
    ..pigments in mammals: extension encodes the receptor for melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and agouti encodes a novel 131-amino-acid protein containing a signal sequence...
  30. Manne J, Argeson A, Siracusa L. Mechanisms for the pleiotropic effects of the agouti gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:4721-4 pubmed
  31. Perry W, Hustad C, Swing D, O Sullivan T, Jenkins N, Copeland N. The itchy locus encodes a novel ubiquitin protein ligase that is disrupted in a18H mice. Nat Genet. 1998;18:143-6 pubmed
    ..What makes these mice unique is that they develop a spectrum of immunological diseases not seen in other agouti mutant mice...
  32. Duhl D, Vrieling H, Miller K, Wolff G, Barsh G. Neomorphic agouti mutations in obese yellow mice. Nat Genet. 1994;8:59-65 pubmed
    Several dominant mutations of the mouse agouti coat colour gene have pleiotropic effects that include obesity and a yellow coat. The Ay allele is caused by a large deletion that affects the expression of several contiguous genes...
  33. Bultman S, Klebig M, Michaud E, Sweet H, Davisson M, Woychik R. Molecular analysis of reverse mutations from nonagouti (a) to black-and-tan (a(t)) and white-bellied agouti (Aw) reveals alternative forms of agouti transcripts. Genes Dev. 1994;8:481-90 pubmed
    ..The original nonagouti (a) allele, which confers a predominantly black coat color, has been shown to revert to two other more dominant agouti ..
  34. Galbraith D, Wolff G. Aberrant regulation of the Agouti pigment pattern in the viable yellow mouse. J Hered. 1974;65:137-40 pubmed
  35. Blewitt M, Vickaryous N, Paldi A, Koseki H, Whitelaw E. Dynamic reprogramming of DNA methylation at an epigenetically sensitive allele in mice. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e49 pubmed
    ..Incomplete erasure at genes associated with a measurable phenotype results in unusual patterns of inheritance from one generation to the next, termed ..
  36. Dickie M. Mutations at the agouti locus in the mouse. J Hered. 1969;60:20-5 pubmed
  37. Rakyan V, Chong S, Champ M, Cuthbert P, Morgan H, Luu K, et al. Transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic states at the murine Axin(Fu) allele occurs after maternal and paternal transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:2538-43 pubmed
    ..The molecular basis of this phenomenon, however, is largely a mystery...
  38. Suto J. Identification of multiple quantitative trait loci affecting the size and shape of the mandible in mice. Mamm Genome. 2009;20:1-13 pubmed publisher
    b>A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed on the size and shape of the mandible in F(2) mice between KK-A ( y ) and C57BL/6 J strains and the effect of the A ( y ) allele on the morphology of the mandible was analyzed...
  39. Michaud E, Bultman S, Klebig M, van Vugt M, Stubbs L, Russell L, et al. A molecular model for the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the mouse lethal yellow (Ay) mutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:2562-6 pubmed
    Lethal yellow (Ay) is a mutation at the mouse agouti locus in chromosome 2 that causes a number of dominant pleiotropic effects, including a completely yellow coat color, obesity, an insulin-resistant type II diabetic condition, and an ..
  40. Heaney J, Michelson M, Youngren K, Lam M, Nadeau J. Deletion of eIF2beta suppresses testicular cancer incidence and causes recessive lethality in agouti-yellow mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1395-404 pubmed publisher
    The agouti-yellow (A(y)) deletion is the only genetic modifier known to suppress testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) susceptibility in mice or humans...
  41. Hustad C, Perry W, Siracusa L, Rasberry C, Cobb L, Cattanach B, et al. Molecular genetic characterization of six recessive viable alleles of the mouse agouti locus. Genetics. 1995;140:255-65 pubmed
    The agouti locus on mouse chromosome 2 encodes a secreted cysteine-rich protein of 131 amino acids that acts as a molecular switch to instruct the melanocyte to make either yellow pigment (phaeomelanin) or black pigment (eumelanin)...
  42. Galbraith D, Patrignani A. Sulfhydryl compounds in melanocytes of yellow (Ay/a), nonagouti (a/a), and agouti (A/A) mice. Genetics. 1976;84:587-91 pubmed
    CLEFFMANN (1953, 1963a,b) has reported that yellow but not black melanocytes of agouti (A/A) rabbits contained reducing sulfhydryl compounds...
  43. Nonogaki K, Nozue K, Oka Y. Social isolation affects the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in mice. Endocrinology. 2007;148:4658-66 pubmed
    ..Thus, social isolation can be included in the environmental factors that contribute to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. ..
  44. Sasso O, Summa M, Armirotti A, Pontis S, De Mei C, Piomelli D. The N-Acylethanolamine Acid Amidase Inhibitor ARN077 Suppresses Inflammation and Pruritus in a Mouse Model of Allergic Dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol. 2018;138:562-569 pubmed publisher
    N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA), a cysteine hydrolase highly expressed in macrophages and B lymphocytes, catalyzes the degradation of palmitoylethanolamide...
  45. Boston B, Blaydon K, Varnerin J, Cone R. Independent and additive effects of central POMC and leptin pathways on murine obesity. Science. 1997;278:1641-4 pubmed
    The lethal yellow (AY/a) mouse has a defect in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) signaling in the brain that leads to obesity, and is resistant to the anorexigenic effects of the hormone leptin...
  46. Jiang Y, Yu V, Buchholz F, O Connell S, Rhodes S, Candeloro C, et al. A novel family of Cys-Cys, His-Cys zinc finger transcription factors expressed in developing nervous system and pituitary gland. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:10723-30 pubmed
    b>A screen designed to identify proteins that specifically bind to retinoic acid response elements resulted in the identification of a rat cDNA encoding a novel protein containing six Cys-Cys, His-Cys zinc fingers...
  47. Kaplan M, Oh S. Oxygen consumption of muscles from ob/ob and Ay/a strains of obese mice. Int J Obes. 1991;15:809-12 pubmed
    ..In young Ay/a obese mice, similar measurements were made with in vitro preparations of soleus, gracilis, and diaphragm muscles...
  48. Isbel L, Prokopuk L, Wu H, Daxinger L, Oey H, Spurling A, et al. Wiz binds active promoters and CTCF-binding sites and is required for normal behaviour in the mouse. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    We previously identified Wiz in a mouse screen for epigenetic modifiers. Due to its known association with G9a/GLP, Wiz is generally considered a transcriptional repressor...
  49. Yamago G, Takata Y, Furuta I, Urase K, Momoi T, Huh N. Suppression of hair follicle development inhibits induction of sonic hedgehog, patched, and patched-2 in hair germs in mice. Arch Dermatol Res. 2001;293:435-41 pubmed
    Embryonic induction of hair follicles is a fascinating model of localized morphogenesis from a simple homogeneous epithelial cell sheet...
  50. Bouchard G, Johnson D, Carver T, Paigen B, Carey M. Cholesterol gallstone formation in overweight mice establishes that obesity per se is not linked directly to cholelithiasis risk. J Lipid Res. 2002;43:1105-13 pubmed
    ..in three polygenic (KK/H1J, NON/LtJ, NOD/LtJ) and five monogenic [carboxypeptidase E (Cpe (fat)), agouti yellow (A(y)), tubby (tub), leptin (Lep(ob)), leptin receptor (Lepr (db))] murine models of obesity during ingestion of a ..
  51. Boran T, Lesot H, Peterka M, Peterkova R. Increased apoptosis during morphogenesis of the lower cheek teeth in tabby/EDA mice. J Dent Res. 2005;84:228-33 pubmed
    ..5. This apoptosis showed a similar mesio-distal extent in all 5 morphotypes (Ia,b,c and IIa,b) of Ta dentition and eliminated the first cheek ..
  52. Mizuno T, Bergen H, Funabashi T, Kleopoulos S, Zhong Y, Bauman W, et al. Obese gene expression: reduction by fasting and stimulation by insulin and glucose in lean mice, and persistent elevation in acquired (diet-induced) and genetic (yellow agouti) obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:3434-8 pubmed
    ..In lean C57BL/6J mice, but not in mice with diet-induced obesity, ob mRNA decreased after a 48-hr fast. Similarly, in lean C57BL/6J controls, but not in obese yellow mice, i.p...
  53. Geschwind I, Huseby R, Nishioka R. The effect of melanocyte-stimulating hormone on coat color in the mouse. Recent Prog Horm Res. 1972;28:91-130 pubmed
  54. Stubbs L, Huxley C, Hogan B, Evans T, Fried M, Duboule D, et al. The HOX-5 and surfeit gene clusters are linked in the proximal portion of mouse chromosome 2. Genomics. 1990;6:645-50 pubmed
    ..Surfeit, a tight cluster of at least six highly conserved "housekeeping" genes, has not been previously mapped in ..
  55. Cota C, Liu R, Sumberac T, Jung S, Vencato D, Millet Y, et al. Genetic and phenotypic studies of the dark-like mutant mouse. Genesis. 2008;46:562-73 pubmed publisher
    The dark-like (dal) mutant mouse has a pleiotropic phenotype that includes dark dorsal hairs and reproductive degeneration...
  56. Duley J, Holmes R. Alpha-hydroxyacid oxidase genetics in the mouse: evidence for two genetic loci and a tetrameric subunit structure for the liver isozyme. Genetics. 1974;76:93-7 pubmed
    We have examined a polymorphism for liver GOX in inbred strains of the mouse Mus musculus...
  57. Kucera G, Bortner D, Rosenberg M. Overexpression of an Agouti cDNA in the skin of transgenic mice recapitulates dominant coat color phenotypes of spontaneous mutants. Dev Biol. 1996;173:162-73 pubmed
    ..The Agouti gene encodes a 131-amino-acid secreted protein product that regulates phaeomelanin synthesis by melanocytes in mice...
  58. Duchesnes C, Naggert J, Tatnell M, Beckman N, Marnane R, Rodrigues J, et al. New Zealand Ginger mouse: novel model that associates the tyrp1b pigmentation gene locus with regulation of lean body mass. Physiol Genomics. 2009;37:164-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we studied the phenotype and genotype of a novel mouse model we have called the New Zealand Ginger (NZG/Kgm) mouse...
  59. Holmes R, Duley J, Hilgers J. Sorbitol dehydrogenase genetics in the mouse: a 'null' mutant in a 'European' C57BL strain. Anim Blood Groups Biochem Genet. 1982;13:263-72 pubmed
    b>A 'null' activity variant phenotype for sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) was observed in C57BL/LiA mice and used to examine the genetics of this enzyme...
  60. D EUSTACHIO P, Kristensen T, Wetsel R, Riblet R, Taylor B, Tack B. Chromosomal location of the genes encoding complement components C5 and factor H in the mouse. J Immunol. 1986;137:3990-5 pubmed
    ..distribution of these bands in panels of somatic cell hybrids carrying various combinations of mouse chromosomes on a constant rat or Chinese hamster background allowed the localization of the C5-associated fragments to proximal ..
  61. Bai Y, Yang C, Hu K, Elly C, Liu Y. Itch E3 ligase-mediated regulation of TGF-beta signaling by modulating smad2 phosphorylation. Mol Cell. 2004;15:825-31 pubmed
    ..This study reveals a previously unrecognized positive TGF-beta signaling pathway via proteolysis-independent ubiquitination.
  62. Potter M, Pumphrey J, Bailey D. Genetics of susceptibility to plasmacytoma induction. I. BALB/cAnN (C), C57BL/6N (B6), C57BL/Ka (BK), (C times B6)F1, (C times BK)F1, and C times B recombinant-inbred strains. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1975;54:1413-7 pubmed
    ..C times BJ strains were considered susceptible to plascytoma induction by mineral oil or pristane; C times BE had a low susceptibility, and C times BH, C times Bl, and C times BK were resistant...
  63. Lyon M, Bogani D, Boyd Y, Guillot P, Favor J. Further genetic analysis of two autosomal dominant mouse eye defects, Ccw and Pax6(coop). Mol Vis. 2000;6:199-203 pubmed
    The work forms part of a major project to study the genetics of mouse cataract mutants found during the course of mutagenesis experiments. The long-term aim is to find the underlying gene mutation in each cataract mutant...
  64. Dolinoy D, Weinhouse C, Jones T, Rozek L, Jirtle R. Variable histone modifications at the A(vy) metastable epiallele. Epigenetics. 2010;5:637-44 pubmed
    ..qPCR, we observe variable histone patterns in the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) of the murine viable yellow agouti (A(vy)) metastable epiallele...
  65. Sweet S, Quevedo W. Role of melanocyte morphology in pigmentation of mouse hair. Anat Rec. 1968;162:243-54 pubmed
  66. Dinulescu D, Cone R. Agouti and agouti-related protein: analogies and contrasts. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:6695-8 pubmed