NS1

Summary

Gene Symbol: NS1
Description: nonstructural protein 1
Species: Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1))

Top Publications

  1. Mibayashi M, Martinez Sobrido L, Loo Y, Cardenas W, Gale M, Garcia Sastre A. Inhibition of retinoic acid-inducible gene I-mediated induction of beta interferon by the NS1 protein of influenza A virus. J Virol. 2007;81:514-24 pubmed
    ..In the case of influenza A virus, the viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) prevents the induction of the IFN-beta promoter by inhibiting the activation of transcription factors, including ..
  2. Shin Y, Li Y, Liu Q, Anderson D, Babiuk L, Zhou Y. SH3 binding motif 1 in influenza A virus NS1 protein is essential for PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation. J Virol. 2007;81:12730-9 pubmed
    ..A virus infection activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway by binding of influenza NS1 protein to the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K...
  3. Hale B, Batty I, Downes C, Randall R. Binding of influenza A virus NS1 protein to the inter-SH2 domain of p85 suggests a novel mechanism for phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:1372-80 pubmed
    Influenza A virus NS1 protein stimulates host-cell phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling by binding to the p85beta regulatory subunit of PI3K...
  4. Guo Z, Chen L, Zeng H, Gomez J, Plowden J, Fujita T, et al. NS1 protein of influenza A virus inhibits the function of intracytoplasmic pathogen sensor, RIG-I. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007;36:263-9 pubmed
    ..Previous evidence suggests that nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) encoded by influenza A virus (IAV) suppresses IFN-I secretion in virus-infected cells by an unknown mechanism...
  5. Gack M, Albrecht R, Urano T, Inn K, Huang I, Carnero E, et al. Influenza A virus NS1 targets the ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 to evade recognition by the host viral RNA sensor RIG-I. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:439-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the influenza A virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) specifically inhibits TRIM25-mediated RIG-I CARD ubiquitination, thereby suppressing RIG-I signal transduction...
  6. Guerra S, Abaitua F, Mart nez Sobrido L, Esteban M, Garc a Sastre A, Rodr guez D. Host-range restriction of vaccinia virus E3L deletion mutant can be overcome in vitro, but not in vivo, by expression of the influenza virus NS1 protein. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28677 pubmed publisher
    ..The VACV E3 and influenza virus NS1 proteins are distinct double-stranded RNA-binding proteins that play an important role in pathogenesis by ..
  7. Pereira C, Read E, Wise H, Amorim M, Digard P. Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein Promotes Efficient Nuclear Export of Unspliced Viral M1 mRNA. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..7 mRNA localization, we found that cytoplasmic accumulation of unspliced M1 mRNA was inefficient in the absence of NS1, both in the context of segment 7 RNPs reconstituted by plasmid transfection and in mutant virus-infected cells...
  8. Ayllon J, Russell R, Garc a Sastre A, Hale B. Contribution of NS1 effector domain dimerization to influenza A virus replication and virulence. J Virol. 2012;86:13095-8 pubmed publisher
    Conserved tryptophan-187 facilitates homodimerization of the influenza A virus NS1 protein effector domain. We generated a mutant influenza virus strain expressing NS1-W187R to destabilize this self-interaction...
  9. Gooskens J, Zevenhoven Dobbe J, Claas E, Kroes A, Posthuma C. Mass spectrometry-based comparative sequence analysis for the genetic monitoring of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e92970 pubmed publisher
    ..70 patients with pH1N1 infection were evaluated for mutations associated with increased virulence (PB1-F2, PB2 and NS1 genes) or antiviral resistance (neuraminidase gene, NA) using MSCSA and Sanger sequencing...

More Information

Publications52

  1. Air G, Hackett J. Gene 8 of influenza virus: sequences of cDNA transcribed from the 3' ends of viral RNA of influenza A and B strains. Virology. 1980;103:291-8 pubmed
  2. Kochs G, Mart nez Sobrido L, Lienenklaus S, Weiss S, Garc a Sastre A, Staeheli P. Strong interferon-inducing capacity of a highly virulent variant of influenza A virus strain PR8 with deletions in the NS1 gene. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:2990-4 pubmed publisher
    Influenza viruses lacking the interferon (IFN)-antagonistic non-structural NS1 protein are strongly attenuated...
  3. Maamary J, Pica N, Belicha Villanueva A, Chou Y, Krammer F, Gao Q, et al. Attenuated influenza virus construct with enhanced hemagglutinin protein expression. J Virol. 2012;86:5782-90 pubmed publisher
    Influenza A viruses encoding an altered viral NS1 protein have emerged as promising live attenuated vaccine platforms...
  4. Nogales A, Rodriguez L, DeDiego M, Topham D, Martínez Sobrido L. Interplay of PA-X and NS1 Proteins in Replication and Pathogenesis of a Temperature-Sensitive 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..to escape the host innate immune responses and modulate virus pathogenicity involves the ability of the PA-X and NS1 proteins to inhibit the host protein synthesis in infected cells...
  5. Cooper D, Banerjee S, Chakrabarti A, García Sastre A, Hesselberth J, Silverman R, et al. RNase L targets distinct sites in influenza A virus RNAs. J Virol. 2015;89:2764-76 pubmed publisher
    ..When IAV NS1 protein is disabled, RNase L restricts virus replication; however, the RNAs targeted for cleavage by RNase L under ..
  6. Li T, Li X, Zhu W, Wang H, Mei L, Wu S, et al. NF90 is a novel influenza A virus NS1-interacting protein that antagonizes the inhibitory role of NS1 on PKR phosphorylation. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:2797-810 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified NF90 as a novel interacting protein of IAV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1). The interaction was dependent on the RNA-binding properties of NS1...
  7. Meunier I, von Messling V. NS1-mediated delay of type I interferon induction contributes to influenza A virulence in ferrets. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1635-44 pubmed publisher
    Interference of the influenza A virus non-structural protein NS1 with type I interferon (IFN) signalling has been characterized extensively in vitro...
  8. Tu J, Guo J, Zhang A, Zhang W, Zhao Z, Zhou H, et al. Effects of the C-terminal truncation in NS1 protein of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus on host gene expression. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26175 pubmed publisher
    The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus encodes an NS1 protein with 11 amino acids (aa) truncation at the C-terminus...
  9. Nacken W, Wixler V, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S. Influenza A virus NS1 protein-induced JNK activation and apoptosis are not functionally linked. Cell Microbiol. 2017;19: pubmed publisher
    Expression of the influenza A virus (IAV) nonstructural protein (NS1) results in the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Both NS1 and JNK are involved in apoptosis induction...
  10. Baez M, Taussig R, Zazra J, Young J, Palese P, Reisfeld A, et al. Complete nucleotide sequence of the influenza A/PR/8/34 virus NS gene and comparison with the NS genes of the A/Udorn/72 and A/FPV/Rostock/34 strains. Nucleic Acids Res. 1980;8:5845-58 pubmed
    ..In addition, an open reading frame potentially coding for a polypeptide 167 amino acids in length was found in the negative strand RNA of the A/PR/8/34 virus NS gene...
  11. Kainov D, M ller K, Theisen L, Anastasina M, Kaloinen M, Muller C. Differential effects of NS1 proteins of human pandemic H1N1/2009, avian highly pathogenic H5N1, and low pathogenic H5N2 influenza A viruses on cellular pre-mRNA polyadenylation and mRNA translation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:7239-47 pubmed publisher
    The nonstructural protein NS1 of influenza A virus blocks the development of host antiviral responses by inhibiting polyadenylation of cellular pre-mRNA. NS1 also promotes the synthesis of viral proteins by stimulating mRNA translation...
  12. Kaewborisuth C, Zanin M, Hacker H, Webby R, Lekcharoensuk P. G45R mutation in the nonstructural protein 1 of A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) enhances viral replication independent of dsRNA-binding activity and type I interferon biology. Virol J. 2016;13:127 pubmed publisher
    The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A viruses can act as a viral replication enhancer by antagonizing type I interferon (IFN) induction and response in infected cells...
  13. Plant E, Ilyushina N, Sheikh F, Donnelly R, Ye Z. Influenza virus NS1 protein mutations at position 171 impact innate interferon responses by respiratory epithelial cells. Virus Res. 2017;240:81-86 pubmed publisher
    The influenza virus NS1 protein interacts with a wide range of proteins to suppress the host cell immune response and facilitate virus replication...
  14. Tawaratsumida K, Phan V, Hrincius E, High A, Webby R, Redecke V, et al. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the influenza A virus nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS2 during natural cell infection identifies PACT as an NS1 target protein and antiviral host factor. J Virol. 2014;88:9038-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is essential in this process by targeting diverse cellular functions, including mRNA splicing and translation, ..
  15. Heaton N, Sachs D, Chen C, Hai R, Palese P. Genome-wide mutagenesis of influenza virus reveals unique plasticity of the hemagglutinin and NS1 proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:20248-53 pubmed publisher
  16. Wang Y, Zhou J, Du Y. hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza A viral protein NS1 and inhibits virus replication potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nuclear export. Virology. 2014;449:53-61 pubmed publisher
    The NS1 protein of influenza viruses is a major virulence factor and exerts its function through interacting with viral/cellular RNAs and proteins...
  17. Thulasi Raman S, Liu G, Pyo H, Cui Y, Xu F, Ayalew L, et al. DDX3 Interacts with Influenza A Virus NS1 and NP Proteins and Exerts Antiviral Function through Regulation of Stress Granule Formation. J Virol. 2016;90:3661-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoprecipitation studies revealed NS1 and NP as direct interaction partners of DDX3...
  18. Santos A, Pal S, Chacón J, Meraz K, Gonzalez J, Prieto K, et al. SUMOylation affects the interferon blocking activity of the influenza A nonstructural protein NS1 without affecting its stability or cellular localization. J Virol. 2013;87:5602-20 pubmed publisher
    ..between the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) and influenza A virus identified the nonstructural protein NS1 as the first known SUMO target of influenza virus and one of the most abundantly SUMOylated influenza virus ..
  19. Someya T, Hosono K, Morimura K, Takaku H, Kawai G. Recognition of a bulged RNA by peptides derived from the influenza NS1 protein. J Biochem. 2008;143:339-47 pubmed publisher
    A competition assay for RNA binding by the influenza virus NS1 protein using model RNAs, U6-45, corresponding to U6 snRNA revealed that deletion of each of the three bulged-out parts reduced the NS1 protein binding and, in contrast, by ..
  20. Ai H, Zhang L, Chang A, Wei H, Che Y, Liu H. Virtual screening of potential inhibitors from TCM for the CPSF30 binding site on the NS1A protein of influenza A virus. J Mol Model. 2014;20:2142 pubmed publisher
    ..These two compounds could be modified to achieve higher binding affinity, so that they may be used as potential leads in the development of new anti-influenza drugs. ..
  21. Ludwig S, Wolff T. Influenza A virus TRIMs the type I interferon response. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:420-1 pubmed publisher
    ..For influenza viruses, a unique strategy has now been unraveled, as the viral nonstructural protein 1 was shown to inhibit activation of the pathogen recognition receptor RIG-I by binding the ubiquitin ligase TRIM25...
  22. Kim J, Hwang M, Lee I, Park S, Lee S, Bae J, et al. The PDZ-binding motif of the avian NS1 protein affects transmission of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;449:19-25 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the rK09/VN:NS-PBM virus, harboring the PBM in the C-terminus of the NS1 protein, recovered the attenuated virulence of the rK09/VN:NS virus...
  23. Winter G, Fields S, Gait M, Brownlee G. The use of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide primers in cloning and sequencing segment of 8 influenza virus (A/PR/8/34). Nucleic Acids Res. 1981;9:237-45 pubmed
    ..The gene encoding the non-structural proteins NS1 and NS2, prepared with these primers, has been cloned into the bacteriophage M13mp7 and sequenced...
  24. Zhu C, Peng G, Yi W, Song H, Liu F, Liu X. The Influenza A Virus Non-structural Protein NS1 Upregulates The Expression of Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing 1 Protein. Scand J Immunol. 2016;84:365-369 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, A549 cells were cotransfected with a eukaryotic non-structural NS1 protein gene expression plasmid and the CTHRC1 gene promoter reporter plasmid (pCTHRC1-Luc), and, the luciferase ..
  25. Trapp S, Soubieux D, Marty H, Esnault E, Hoffmann T, Chandenier M, et al. Shortening the unstructured, interdomain region of the non-structural protein NS1 of an avian H1N1 influenza virus increases its replication and pathogenicity in chickens. J Gen Virol. 2014;95:1233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..viruses since 2000, harbour a deletion of aa 80-84 in the unstructured region of the non-structural (NS) protein NS1 linking its RNA-binding domain to its effector domain...
  26. Li Y, Lu X, Li J, B rub N, Giest K, Liu Q, et al. Genetically engineered, biarsenically labeled influenza virus allows visualization of viral NS1 protein in living cells. J Virol. 2010;84:7204-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated infectious influenza A viruses bearing a small TC tag (CCPGCC) in the loop/linker regions of the NS1 proteins...
  27. Anastasina M, Schepens B, Söderholm S, Nyman T, Matikainen S, Saksela K, et al. The C terminus of NS1 protein of influenza A/WSN/1933(H1N1) virus modulates antiviral responses in infected human macrophages and mice. J Gen Virol. 2015;96:2086-91 pubmed publisher
    Non-structural protein NS1 of influenza A viruses interacts with cellular factors through its N-terminal RNA-binding, middle effector and C-terminal non-structured domains...
  28. van Wielink R, Harmsen M, Martens D, Peeters B, Wijffels R, Moormann R. Mutations in the M-gene segment can substantially increase replication efficiency of NS1 deletion influenza A virus in MDCK cells. J Virol. 2012;86:12341-50 pubmed publisher
    Influenza viruses unable to express NS1 protein (delNS1) replicate poorly and induce large amounts of interferon (IFN). They are therefore considered candidate viruses for live-attenuated influenza vaccines...
  29. Kathum O, Schräder T, Anhlan D, Nordhoff C, Liedmann S, Pande A, et al. Phosphorylation of influenza A virus NS1 protein at threonine 49 suppresses its interferon antagonistic activity. Cell Microbiol. 2016;18:784-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus is an important factor regulating virulence by counteracting cellular immune responses ..
  30. Miyazaki M, Nishihara H, Hasegawa H, Tashiro M, Wang L, Kimura T, et al. NS1-binding protein abrogates the elevation of cell viability by the influenza A virus NS1 protein in association with CRKL. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;441:953-7 pubmed publisher
    The influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional virulence factor consisting of an RNA binding domain and several Src-homology (SH) 2 and SH3 binding motifs, which promotes virus replication in the host cell and ..
  31. Hall R, Air G. Variation in nucleotide sequences coding for the N-terminal regions of the matrix and nonstructural proteins of influenza A viruses. J Virol. 1981;38:1-7 pubmed
  32. Zhirnov O, Klenk H. Influenza A virus proteins NS1 and hemagglutinin along with M2 are involved in stimulation of autophagy in infected cells. J Virol. 2013;87:13107-14 pubmed publisher
    The NS1 protein of influenza A virus is known to downregulate apoptosis early in infection in order to support virus replication (O. P. Zhirnov, T. E. Konakova, T. Wolff, and H. D. Klenk, J. Virol. 76:1617-1625, 2002)...
  33. Schierhorn K, Jolmes F, Bespalowa J, Saenger S, Peteranderl C, Dzieciolowski J, et al. Influenza A Virus Virulence Depends on Two Amino Acids in the N-Terminal Domain of Its NS1 Protein To Facilitate Inhibition of the RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase PKR. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..The pleiotropic NS1 protein of influenza A virus acts as silencer of PKR activation and ensures high-level viral replication and ..
  34. Pal S, Rosas J, Rosas Acosta G. Identification of the non-structural influenza A viral protein NS1A as a bona fide target of the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier by the use of dicistronic expression constructs. J Virol Methods. 2010;163:498-504 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of NS1A as a bona fide SUMO target suggests, for the first time, a role for SUMOylation during influenza virus infection. ..
  35. Li W, Zhang H, Wang G, Zhang C, Zeng X, Liu H, et al. Heterologous interactions between NS1 proteins from different influenza A virus subtypes/strains. Sci China Life Sci. 2012;55:507-15 pubmed publisher
    Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of the influenza virus plays a crucial role in modulating the host immune response and facilitating virus replication...
  36. Mok B, Song W, Wang P, Tai H, Chen Y, Zheng M, et al. The NS1 protein of influenza A virus interacts with cellular processing bodies and stress granules through RNA-associated protein 55 (RAP55) during virus infection. J Virol. 2012;86:12695-707 pubmed publisher
    The nonstructural protein (NS1) of influenza A virus performs multiple functions in the virus life cycle...
  37. Moltedo B, L pez C, Pazos M, Becker M, Hermesh T, Moran T. Cutting edge: stealth influenza virus replication precedes the initiation of adaptive immunity. J Immunol. 2009;183:3569-73 pubmed publisher
    A timely immune response is crucial for the effective control of virus infection. The influenza virus NS1 protein interferes with the expression of key proinflammatory cytokines from infected cells in vitro...
  38. Lin L, Li Y, Pyo H, Lu X, Raman S, Liu Q, et al. Identification of RNA helicase A as a cellular factor that interacts with influenza A virus NS1 protein and its role in the virus life cycle. J Virol. 2012;86:1942-54 pubmed publisher
    Influenza A virus NS1 protein has multiple functions in the infected cell during the virus life cycle...
  39. Jiang W, Sheng C, Gu X, Liu D, Yao C, Gao S, et al. Suppression of Rac1 Signaling by Influenza A Virus NS1 Facilitates Viral Replication. Sci Rep. 2016;6:35041 pubmed publisher
    ..in mammalian cells, we generated stable A549 cell lines with over-expression of the viral non-structural protein (NS1) to investigate the potential host factors that might be modulated by the NS1 protein...
  40. Jia D, Rahbar R, Chan R, Lee S, Chan M, Wang B, et al. Influenza virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) disrupts interferon signaling. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13927 pubmed publisher
    ..to evade this defense mechanism and during infection with influenza A viruses, the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) encoded by the virus genome suppresses induction of IFNs-?/?...
  41. van Rikxoort M, Michaelis M, Wolschek M, Muster T, Egorov A, Seipelt J, et al. Oncolytic effects of a novel influenza A virus expressing interleukin-15 from the NS reading frame. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36506 pubmed publisher
    Oncolytic influenza A viruses with deleted NS1 gene (delNS1) replicate selectively in tumour cells with defective interferon response and/or activated Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signalling pathway...
  42. Feng W, Sun X, Shi N, Zhang M, Guan Z, Duan M. Influenza a virus NS1 protein induced A20 contributes to viral replication by suppressing interferon-induced antiviral response. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;482:1107-1113 pubmed publisher
    ..findings described in this study support and extend previous results on interferon-antagonistic strategies of IAV NS1 by showing an induced host target A20, which restricts IAV-induced host innate immune antiviral responses and ..
  43. Wang C, Zhang Y, Wu B, Liu S, Xu P, Lu Y, et al. Evolutionary characterization of the pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus in humans based on non-structural genes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56201 pubmed publisher
    ..of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza A virus could be divided into two categories based on the V123I mutation in the NS1 gene: G1 (characterized as 123 Val) and G2 (characterized as 123 Ile)...