Gene Symbol: HA
Description: haemagglutinin
Species: Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1))
Products:     HA

Top Publications

  1. Liu Y, Childs R, Matrosovich T, Wharton S, Palma A, Chai W, et al. Altered receptor specificity and cell tropism of D222G hemagglutinin mutants isolated from fatal cases of pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 influenza virus. J Virol. 2010;84:12069-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These features of 222G mutants may contribute to exacerbation of disease. ..
  2. Chutinimitkul S, Herfst S, Steel J, Lowen A, Ye J, van Riel D, et al. Virulence-associated substitution D222G in the hemagglutinin of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus affects receptor binding. J Virol. 2010;84:11802-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Altered receptor specificity of the virus with D222G thus affected interaction with cells of the human lower respiratory tract, possibly explaining the observed association with enhanced disease in humans. ..
  3. Lorieau J, Louis J, Bax A. The complete influenza hemagglutinin fusion domain adopts a tight helical hairpin arrangement at the lipid:water interface. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11341-6 pubmed publisher
    All but five of the N-terminal 23 residues of the HA2 domain of the influenza virus glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) are strictly conserved across all 16 serotypes of HA genes...
  4. Suptawiwat O, Jeamtua W, Boonarkart C, Kongchanagul A, Puthawathana P, Auewarakul P. Effects of the Q223R mutation in the hemagglutinin (HA) of egg-adapted pandemic 2009 (H1N1) influenza A virus on virus growth and binding of HA to human- and avian-type cell receptors. Acta Virol. 2013;57:333-8 pubmed
    ..The glutamine to arginine mutation at the amino acid position 223 (Q223R) of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene is the major mutation previously found in egg-adapted 2009 H1N1 strains and shown to enhance viral growth in ..
  5. Xu R, McBride R, Nycholat C, Paulson J, Wilson I. Structural characterization of the hemagglutinin receptor specificity from the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. J Virol. 2012;86:982-90 pubmed publisher
    Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is the viral envelope protein that mediates viral attachment to host cells and elicits membrane fusion...
  6. Zhang Y, Zhang Q, Gao Y, He X, Kong H, Jiang Y, et al. Key molecular factors in hemagglutinin and PB2 contribute to efficient transmission of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. J Virol. 2012;86:9666-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that an amino acid in hemagglutinin (HA) is important for the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic virus (2009/H1N1) to bind to human virus receptors and confer ..
  7. Gnirß K, Zmora P, Blazejewska P, Winkler M, Lins A, Nehlmeier I, et al. Tetherin Sensitivity of Influenza A Viruses Is Strain Specific: Role of Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase. J Virol. 2015;89:9178-88 pubmed publisher
    ..a virus-like particle system and analysis of reassortant viruses provided evidence that the viral hemagglutinin (HA) is an important determinant of tetherin antagonism but requires the presence of its cognate neuraminidase (NA) to ..
  8. Shembekar N, Mallajosyula V, Malik A, Saini A, Varadarajan R, Gupta S. Neutralization and Binding Profile of Monoclonal Antibodies Generated Against Influenza A H1N1 Viruses. Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother. 2016;35:191-8 pubmed publisher
    ..20?nM) and exhibited potent in vitro neutralization (IC50?=?2.50??g/mL). MA-2070 bound within the stem domain of HA. MA-M exhibited both hemagglutination inhibition (HI, 1.50??g/mL) and in vitro neutralization (IC50?=?0...
  9. Zhirnov O, Klenk H. Influenza A virus proteins NS1 and hemagglutinin along with M2 are involved in stimulation of autophagy in infected cells. J Virol. 2013;87:13107-14 pubmed publisher
    ..experiments revealed that NS1 expressed alone was unable to upregulate autophagy, whereas hemagglutinin (HA) and M2 were. Proteolytic cleavage of HA increased autophagy...

More Information


  1. Butler J, Hooper K, Petrie S, Lee R, Maurer Stroh S, Reh L, et al. Estimating the fitness advantage conferred by permissive neuraminidase mutations in recent oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza viruses. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004065 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that recent A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses are now more permissive to the acquisition of H275Y than earlier A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, increasing the risk that OR A(H1N1)pdm09 will emerge and spread worldwide...
  2. Ding X, Jiang L, Ke C, Yang Z, Lei C, Cao K, et al. Amino acid sequence analysis and identification of mutations under positive selection in hemagglutinin of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates. Virus Genes. 2010;41:329-40 pubmed publisher
    ..By comparing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene and protein sequences among over 700 A/H1N1/09 isolates, mutations in the receptor-binding sites and antigenic ..
  3. de Vries R, de Vries E, Mart nez Romero C, McBride R, van Kuppeveld F, Rottier P, et al. Evolution of the hemagglutinin protein of the new pandemic H1N1 influenza virus: maintaining optimal receptor binding by compensatory substitutions. J Virol. 2013;87:13868-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In the subsequent 4 years, it acquired several genetic changes in its hemagglutinin (HA). Mutations may be expected while virus is adapting to the human host or upon evasion from adaptive immune responses...
  4. Morlighem J, Aoki S, Kishima M, Hanami M, Ogawa C, Jalloh A, et al. Mutation analysis of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) viruses collected in Japan during the peak phase of the pandemic. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18956 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed partial sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the 2009 pdm influenza virus in the collected clinical samples...
  5. Xia C, Wolf J, Vijayan M, Studstill C, Ma W, Hahm B. Casein Kinase 1? Mediates the Degradation of Receptors for Type I and Type II Interferons Caused by Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..Our recent data showed that hemagglutinin (HA) of IAV induces degradation of type I IFN receptor 1 (IFNAR1)...
  6. Heaton N, Sachs D, Chen C, Hai R, Palese P. Genome-wide mutagenesis of influenza virus reveals unique plasticity of the hemagglutinin and NS1 proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:20248-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This model implies that the ability to rapidly acquire mutations is an inherent aspect of influenza HA and nonstructural protein 1 proteins; further, this may explain why rapid antigenic drift and a broad host range is ..
  7. Wang W, Castel n Vega J, Jim nez Alberto A, Vassell R, Ye Z, Weiss C. A mutation in the receptor binding site enhances infectivity of 2009 H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin pseudotypes without changing antigenicity. Virology. 2010;407:374-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Using lentiviral pseudotypes bearing influenza hemagglutinin (HA-pseudotypes) we evaluated a glutamine to arginine mutation at position 223 (Q223R) and glycosylation at residue 276 ..
  8. Winter G, Fields S, Brownlee G. Nucleotide sequence of the haemagglutinin gene of a human influenza virus H1 subtype. Nature. 1981;292:72-5 pubmed
  9. Tse H, Kao R, Wu W, Lim W, Chen H, Yeung M, et al. Structural basis and sequence co-evolution analysis of the hemagglutinin protein of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (2009) virus. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2011;236:915-25 pubmed publisher
    ..the lower respiratory tract, is often associated with the virus carrying a D222G substitution in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the virus. The mechanism for this association has not been fully explored...
  10. Ohkura T, Momose F, Ichikawa R, Takeuchi K, Morikawa Y. Influenza A virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase mutually accelerate their apical targeting through clustering of lipid rafts. J Virol. 2014;88:10039-55 pubmed publisher
    In polarized epithelial cells, influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are intrinsically associated with lipid rafts and target the apical plasma membrane for viral assembly and budding...
  11. Wang N, Ma W, Zhao H, Wei M, Zhang B, Zhang W, et al. [Survey of the evolutionary characteristics of influenza H1N1 hemagglutinin gene HA1 in 2000-2009]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2010;30:92-5 pubmed
    ..The HA1 gene of novel influenza virus might originate from the early swine H1N1 influenza virus from North America, and in the evolutionary process, a number of important sites of HA1 gene mutated to result in the outbreak of influenza. ..
  12. Puzelli S, Facchini M, De Marco M, Palmieri A, Spagnolo D, Boros S, et al. Molecular surveillance of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) viruses circulating in Italy from May 2009 to February 2010: association between haemagglutinin mutations and clinical outcome. Euro Surveill. 2010;15: pubmed
    ..6%) and severe cases (38.4%). A cluster of D222E viruses among school children confirms reported human-to-human transmission of viruses mutated at amino acid position 222...
  13. Mallajosyula V, Citron M, Ferrara F, Lu X, Callahan C, Heidecker G, et al. Influenza hemagglutinin stem-fragment immunogen elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies and confers heterologous protection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E2514-23 pubmed publisher
    Influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is the primary target of the humoral response during infection/vaccination. Current influenza vaccines typically fail to elicit/boost broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), thereby limiting their efficacy...
  14. Martínez Romero C, de Vries E, Belicha Villanueva A, Mena I, Tscherne D, Gillespie V, et al. Substitutions T200A and E227A in the hemagglutinin of pandemic 2009 influenza A virus increase lethality but decrease transmission. J Virol. 2013;87:6507-11 pubmed publisher
    We report that swine influenza virus-like substitutions T200A and E227A in the hemagglutinin (HA) of the 2009 pandemic influenza virus alter its pathogenesis and transmission. Viral replication is increased in mammalian cells...
  15. Retamal M, Abed Y, Corbeil J, Boivin G. Epitope mapping of the 2009 pandemic and the A/Brisbane/59/2007 seasonal (H1N1) influenza virus haemagglutinins using mAbs and escape mutants. J Gen Virol. 2014;95:2377-89 pubmed publisher
    mAbs constitute an important biological tool for influenza virus haemagglutinin (HA) epitope mapping through the generation of escape mutants, which could provide insights into immune evasion mechanisms and may benefit the future ..
  16. Pan D, Xue W, Wang X, Guo J, Liu H, Yao X. Molecular mechanism of the enhanced virulence of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus from D222G mutation in the hemagglutinin: a molecular modeling study. J Mol Model. 2012;18:4355-66 pubmed publisher
    D222G mutation of the hemagglutinin (HA) is of special interest because of its close association with the enhanced virulence of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus through the increased binding affinity to ?2,3-linked sialylated glycan ..
  17. Mir M, Lal R, Sullender W, Singh Y, Garten R, Krishnan A, et al. Genetic diversity of HA1 domain of hemagglutinin gene of pandemic influenza H1N1pdm09 viruses in New Delhi, India. J Med Virol. 2012;84:386-93 pubmed publisher
    ..n?=?23) from 2009 or 2010 were characterized by nucleotide sequence determination of the HA1 subunit of the HA gene...
  18. Xu R, Zhu X, McBride R, Nycholat C, Yu W, Paulson J, et al. Functional balance of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities accompanies the emergence of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. J Virol. 2012;86:9221-32 pubmed publisher
    ..swine progenitors and human viruses from the 2009 pandemic and measured the activities of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), which are the two viral surface proteins that interact with host glycan receptors...
  19. Watanabe T, Tisoncik Go J, Tchitchek N, Watanabe S, Benecke A, Katze M, et al. 1918 Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and the viral RNA polymerase complex enhance viral pathogenicity, but only HA induces aberrant host responses in mice. J Virol. 2013;87:5239-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies indicated a prominent role of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene in efficient replication and high virulence of the 1918 virus in mice...
  20. Tse L, Marcano V, Huang W, Pocwierz M, Whittaker G. Plasmin-mediated activation of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin is independent of the viral neuraminidase. J Virol. 2013;87:5161-9 pubmed publisher
    ..host tropism and pathogenesis based on mutations in the proteolytic cleavage site of the viral hemagglutinin (HA), which activates HA and exposes the fusion peptide for membrane fusion...
  21. Ginting T, Shinya K, Kyan Y, Makino A, Matsumoto N, Kaneda S, et al. Amino acid changes in hemagglutinin contribute to the replication of oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 influenza viruses. J Virol. 2012;86:121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the importance of the functional balance between hemagglutinin (HA) and NA, we focused on amino acid changes in HA...
  22. El Moussi A, Ben Hadj Kacem M, Pozo F, Ledesma J, Cuevas M, Casas I, et al. Genetic diversity of HA1 domain of heammaglutinin gene of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Tunisia. Virol J. 2013;10:150 pubmed publisher
    ..However it also reveals a trend of 2010 strains to accumulate amino acid variation and form new phylogenetic clade with three specific amino acid substitutions: V47I, E172K and K308E. ..
  23. Li W, Shi W, Qiao H, Ho S, Luo A, Zhang Y, et al. Positive selection on hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of H1N1 influenza viruses. Virol J. 2011;8:183 pubmed publisher
    ..path of these new pathogens, we performed a selection-pressure analysis of a large number of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences of H1N1 influenza viruses from different hosts. ..
  24. Liu W, Lin S, Yu Y, Chu C, Wu S. Dendritic cell activation by recombinant hemagglutinin proteins of H1N1 and H5N1 influenza A viruses. J Virol. 2010;84:12011-7 pubmed publisher
    ..play a key role in defense against influenza virus infection, we examined the effects of recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) proteins derived from mouse-adapted H1N1 (A/WSN/1933), swine-origin 2009 pandemic H1N1 (A/Texas/05/2009), and ..
  25. Resende P, Motta F, Oliveira M, Gregianini T, Fernandes S, Cury A, et al. Polymorphisms at residue 222 of the hemagglutinin of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: association of quasi-species to morbidity and mortality in different risk categories. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e92789 pubmed publisher
    The D222G substitution in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has been identified as a potential virulence marker, because this change allows for virus invasion deeper into the respiratory tract...
  26. Memoli M, Bristol T, Proudfoot K, Davis A, Dunham E, Taubenberger J. In vivo evaluation of pathogenicity and transmissibility of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 hemagglutinin receptor binding domain 222 intrahost variants isolated from a single immunocompromised patient. Virology. 2012;428:21-9 pubmed publisher
    ..pathogenic in ferrets and developed the most diversity at the 222 amino acid position during infection, suggesting that increased diversity and not a specific polymorphism at HA 222 may be important in predicting pathogenic potential.
  27. Kim J, Lee I, Park S, Hwang M, Bae J, Lee S, et al. Genetic requirement for hemagglutinin glycosylation and its implications for influenza A H1N1 virus evolution. J Virol. 2013;87:7539-49 pubmed publisher
    ..viruses had acquired additional N-linked glycosylation (NLG) sites within the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA) until the NLG-free HA head pattern of the 1918 H1N1 virus was renewed with the swine-derived 2009 pandemic H1N1 ..
  28. Cotter C, Jin H, Chen Z. A single amino acid in the stalk region of the H1N1pdm influenza virus HA protein affects viral fusion, stability and infectivity. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1003831 pubmed publisher
    ..viruses have evolved to contain an E47K substitution in the HA2 subunit of the stalk region of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein...
  29. Khurana S, Larkin C, Verma S, Joshi M, Fontana J, Steven A, et al. Recombinant HA1 produced in E. coli forms functional oligomers and generates strain-specific SRID potency antibodies for pandemic influenza vaccines. Vaccine. 2011;29:5657-65 pubmed publisher
    ..antisera for the single-radial immunodiffusion (SRID) potency assay are generated in sheep immunized repeatedly with HA released and purified after bromelain-treatment of influenza virus grown in eggs...
  30. Maamary J, Pica N, Belicha Villanueva A, Chou Y, Krammer F, Gao Q, et al. Attenuated influenza virus construct with enhanced hemagglutinin protein expression. J Virol. 2012;86:5782-90 pubmed publisher
    ..H5N1 and H1N1 influenza viruses encoding a truncated NS1 protein expressed lower levels of hemagglutinin (HA) protein in infected cells than did wild-type viruses...