Gene Symbol: HA
Description: hemagglutinin
Species: Influenza A virus (A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1))
Products:     HA

Top Publications

  1. Maines T, Chen L, Van Hoeven N, Tumpey T, Blixt O, Belser J, et al. Effect of receptor binding domain mutations on receptor binding and transmissibility of avian influenza H5N1 viruses. Virology. 2011;413:139-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have introduced receptor binding domain mutations within the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of two H5N1 viruses and evaluated changes in receptor binding specificity by glycan microarray analysis...
  2. Nayak B, Kumar S, DiNapoli J, Paldurai A, Perez D, Collins P, et al. Contributions of the avian influenza virus HA, NA, and M2 surface proteins to the induction of neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity. J Virol. 2010;84:2408-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the individual contributions of each of the three HPAIV surface proteins, namely, the hemagglutinin (HA), the neuraminidase (NA), and the M2 proteins, to the induction of HPAIV-neutralizing serum antibodies and ..
  3. Tan L, Su S, Smith D, He S, Zheng Y, Shao Z, et al. A combination of HA and PA mutations enhances virulence in a mouse-adapted H6N6 influenza A virus. J Virol. 2014;88:14116-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Amino acid substitutions in PB2 (E627K), PA (I38M), and hemagglutinin ([HA] L111F, H156N, and S263R) occurred in GDK6-MA...
  4. Shelton H, Roberts K, Molesti E, Temperton N, Barclay W. Mutations in haemagglutinin that affect receptor binding and pH stability increase replication of a PR8 influenza virus with H5 HA in the upper respiratory tract of ferrets and may contribute to transmissibility. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1220-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As well as mediating receptor interactions, the haemagglutinin (HA) protein of influenza facilitates fusion of the viral membrane and genome entry into the host cell; this process is ..
  5. Chen W, Zhong Y, Qin Y, Sun S, Li Z. The evolutionary pattern of glycosylation sites in influenza virus (H5N1) hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49224 pubmed publisher
    Two glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), on the surface of influenza viruses play crucial roles in transfaunation, membrane fusion and the release of progeny virions...
  6. Zhu X, Guo Y, Jiang T, Wang Y, Chan K, Li X, et al. A unique and conserved neutralization epitope in H5N1 influenza viruses identified by an antibody against the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 hemagglutinin. J Virol. 2013;87:12619-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Neutralizing antibodies against conserved epitopes on the viral hemagglutinin (HA) could confer immunity to the diverse H5N1 virus strains and provide information for effective vaccine design...
  7. Velkov T, Ong C, Baker M, Kim H, Li J, Nation R, et al. The antigenic architecture of the hemagglutinin of influenza H5N1 viruses. Mol Immunol. 2013;56:705-19 pubmed publisher
    ..antibody (Ab) response against the major epitope regions of the viral surface glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA)...
  8. Han P, Li J, Hu Y, Sun W, Zhang S, Yang Y, et al. H5N1 influenza A virus with K193E and G225E double mutations in haemagglutinin is attenuated and immunogenic in mice. J Gen Virol. 2015;96:2522-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The receptor-binding domain (RBD) in haemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus is responsible for viral binding to the avian-type 2,3-α-linked or human-type 2,6-α-linked ..
  9. Glinsky G. Genomic analysis of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 reveals association of increasing disease severity with emergence of novel hemagglutinin mutations. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:958-70 pubmed publisher
    ..of individuals who died from laboratory-confirmed cases of the pandemic (H1N1) were infected with the hemagglutinin (HA) Q310H mutant virus...

More Information


  1. Li Z, Gabbard J, Mooney A, Chen Z, Tompkins S, He B. Efficacy of parainfluenza virus 5 mutants expressing hemagglutinin from H5N1 influenza A virus in mice. J Virol. 2013;87:9604-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently reported that PIV5 expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) from highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 (PIV5-H5) provides sterilizing immunity against lethal ..
  2. Suguitan A, Matsuoka Y, Lau Y, Santos C, Vogel L, Cheng L, et al. The multibasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) avian influenza virus acts as a virulence factor in a host-specific manner in mammals. J Virol. 2012;86:2706-14 pubmed publisher
    ..and H7 subtypes typically possess multiple basic amino acids around the cleavage site (MBS) of their hemagglutinin (HA) protein, a recognized virulence motif in poultry...
  3. Liu W, Lin S, Yu Y, Chu C, Wu S. Dendritic cell activation by recombinant hemagglutinin proteins of H1N1 and H5N1 influenza A viruses. J Virol. 2010;84:12011-7 pubmed publisher
    ..play a key role in defense against influenza virus infection, we examined the effects of recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) proteins derived from mouse-adapted H1N1 (A/WSN/1933), swine-origin 2009 pandemic H1N1 (A/Texas/05/2009), and ..
  4. Johnson R, Hamill M, Harvey R, Nicolson C, Robertson J, Engelhardt O. Permissible variation in the 3' non-coding region of the haemagglutinin genome segment of the H5N1 candidate influenza vaccine virus NIBRG-14 [corrected]. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36241 pubmed publisher
    ..NIBRG-14 was created by reverse genetics and is composed of the neuraminidase (NA) and modified haemagglutinin (HA) genes from A/Vietnam/1194/2004 and the internal genes of PR8, a high growing laboratory adapted influenza A(H1N1) ..
  5. Hervé P, Lorin V, Jouvion G, Da Costa B, Escriou N. Addition of N-glycosylation sites on the globular head of the H5 hemagglutinin induces the escape of highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses from vaccine-induced immunity. Virology. 2015;486:134-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These viruses evolve regularly by substitutions in antigenic sites of the hemagglutinin (HA), which prevent neutralization by antibodies directed against previous strains (antigenic drift)...
  6. Li J, Wang Y, Liang Y, Ni B, Wan Y, Liao Z, et al. Fine antigenic variation within H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin's antigenic sites defined by yeast cell surface display. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:3498-510 pubmed publisher
    Fifteen strains of mAb specific for HA of the A/Hong Kong/482/97 (H5N1) influenza virus were generated...
  7. Lim A, Chan C, Wong S, Chan A, Ooi E, Hanson B. Neutralizing human monoclonal antibody against H5N1 influenza HA selected from a Fab-phage display library. Virol J. 2008;5:130 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we used a combination of panning strategies against the hemagglutinin (HA) of several antigenic distinct H5N1 isolates to bias selection of Fab-phage from a naïve human library away from ..
  8. Antanasijevic A, Basu A, Bowlin T, Mishra R, Rong L, Caffrey M. Mutagenesis studies of the H5 influenza hemagglutinin stem loop region. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:22237-45 pubmed publisher
    ..and decreased sensitivities to MBX2329, which gives further insight into the binding site of the compound on HA and potential mechanisms of escape...
  9. Schrauwen E, Herfst S, Leijten L, van Run P, Bestebroer T, Linster M, et al. The multibasic cleavage site in H5N1 virus is critical for systemic spread along the olfactory and hematogenous routes in ferrets. J Virol. 2012;86:3975-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the multibasic cleavage site (MBCS) in the hemagglutinin (HA) of HPAI H5N1 viruses is a major determinant of systemic spread in poultry, the association between the MBCS and ..
  10. Zaraket H, Bridges O, Duan S, Baranovich T, Yoon S, Reed M, et al. Increased acid stability of the hemagglutinin protein enhances H5N1 influenza virus growth in the upper respiratory tract but is insufficient for transmission in ferrets. J Virol. 2013;87:9911-22 pubmed publisher
    Influenza virus entry is mediated by the acidic-pH-induced activation of hemagglutinin (HA) protein...
  11. Li Z, Liu Z, Ma C, Zhang L, Su Y, Gao G, et al. Identification of amino acids in highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus hemagglutinin that determine avian influenza species specificity. Arch Virol. 2011;156:1803-12 pubmed publisher
    ..virus, two H5N1 strains, isolated from human and avian hosts, with four amino acid differences in hemagglutinin (HA) and seven HA mutations were studied...
  12. Wang C, Chen J, Tseng Y, Hsu C, Hung Y, Chen S, et al. Glycans on influenza hemagglutinin affect receptor binding and immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Viral transmission begins with a critical interaction between hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, which is on the viral coat of influenza, and sialic acid (SA) containing glycans, which are on the ..
  13. Das P, Li J, Royyuru A, Zhou R. Free energy simulations reveal a double mutant avian H5N1 virus hemagglutinin with altered receptor binding specificity. J Comput Chem. 2009;30:1654-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Most critically, the major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) must adapt to the usage of human-like (alpha-2,6-linked) sialylated glycan receptors...
  14. Abdelwhab E, Veits J, Tauscher K, Ziller M, Grund C, Hassan M, et al. Progressive glycosylation of the haemagglutinin of avian influenza H5N1 modulates virus replication, virulence and chicken-to-chicken transmission without significant impact on antigenic drift. J Gen Virol. 2016;97:3193-3204 pubmed publisher
    ..They exhibit a peculiar stepwise accumulation of glycosylation sites (GS) in the haemagglutinin (HA) with viruses carrying, beyond the conserved 5 GS, additional GS at amino acid residues 72, 154, 236 and 273 ..
  15. Tang D, Lam Y, Siu Y, Lam C, Chu S, Peiris J, et al. A single residue substitution in the receptor-binding domain of H5N1 hemagglutinin is critical for packaging into pseudotyped lentiviral particles. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43596 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously characterized lentiviral particles pseudotyped with H5-HA (H5pp) and validated an H5pp-based assay as a safe alternative for high-throughput serological studies in BSL-2 ..
  16. Lee K, Pessi A, Gui L, Santoprete A, Talekar A, Moscona A, et al. Capturing a fusion intermediate of influenza hemagglutinin with a cholesterol-conjugated peptide, a new antiviral strategy for influenza virus. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we compare the activity of fusion-inhibitory peptides derived from the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and show that although the unconjugated peptides are inactive, the cholesterol-conjugated compounds are effective ..
  17. Metwally A, Yousif A. Visualization of Alternative Functional Configurations of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Facilitates Rapid Selection of Complementing Vaccines in Emergency Situations. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..against avian influenza virus (AIV) requires eliciting an adequate polyclonal response to AIV hemagglutinin (HA) subunit 1 (HA1) epitopes...
  18. Smrt S, Draney A, Lorieau J. The influenza hemagglutinin fusion domain is an amphipathic helical hairpin that functions by inducing membrane curvature. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:228-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The inverted wedge shape of HAfp23 is likely to play a crucial role in the initial stages of membrane fusion by stabilizing negative curvature in the fusion stalk. ..
  19. Zhang Y, Sun Y, Sun H, Pu J, Bi Y, Shi Y, et al. A single amino acid at the hemagglutinin cleavage site contributes to the pathogenicity and neurovirulence of H5N1 influenza virus in mice. J Virol. 2012;86:6924-31 pubmed publisher
    H5 influenza viruses containing a motif of multiple basic amino acids at the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site (HACS) are highly pathogenic in chicken but display different virulence phenotypes in mammals...
  20. Xu X, Cox N, Guo Y. Genetic characterization of the pathogenic influenza A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1) virus: similarity of its hemagglutinin gene to those of H5N1 viruses from the 1997 outbreaks in Hong Kong. Virology. 1999;261:15-9 pubmed
    ..from a sick goose during an outbreak in Guangdong province, China, in 1996, revealed that the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the virus was genetically similar to those of the H5N1 viruses isolated in Hong Kong in 1997...
  21. Maamary J, Pica N, Belicha Villanueva A, Chou Y, Krammer F, Gao Q, et al. Attenuated influenza virus construct with enhanced hemagglutinin protein expression. J Virol. 2012;86:5782-90 pubmed publisher
    ..H5N1 and H1N1 influenza viruses encoding a truncated NS1 protein expressed lower levels of hemagglutinin (HA) protein in infected cells than did wild-type viruses...
  22. . Evolution of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1515-21 pubmed publisher
    ..An updated nonpathogenic H5N1 reference virus, lacking the polybasic cleavage site in the hemagglutinin gene, was produced by reverse genetics in anticipation of the possible need to vaccinate humans...
  23. Zhang X, Li Y, Xiong L, Chen S, Peng D, Liu X. [Construction and biological characteristics of H5N1 avian influenza viruses with different patterns of the glycosylation sites in HA protein]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2013;29:495-9 pubmed
    The distribution of glycosylation sites in HA proteins was various among H5 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs), however, the role of glycosylation sites to the virus is still unclear...
  24. Zaraket H, Bridges O, Russell C. The pH of activation of the hemagglutinin protein regulates H5N1 influenza virus replication and pathogenesis in mice. J Virol. 2013;87:4826-34 pubmed publisher
    After receptor binding and internalization during influenza virus entry, the hemagglutinin (HA) protein is triggered by low pH to undergo irreversible conformational changes that mediate membrane fusion...
  25. Vongsakul M, Kasisith J, Noisumdaeng P, Puthavathana P. The difference in IL-1beta , MIP-1alpha, IL-8 and IL-18 production between the infection of PMA activated U937 cells with recombinant vaccinia viruses inserted 2004 H5N1 influenza HA genes and NS genes. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2011;29:349-56 pubmed
    ..To elaborate the function of each virus gene, the recombinant vaccinia virus inserted HA and NS gene from the 2004 H5N1 virus were used in the study...
  26. Song H, Luo W, Zheng Z, Chen Y, Chen Y, Chen Z, et al. [Identification of peptide mimotopes of an abroad-spectrum neutralizing epitope of highly pathogenic avian influenza hemagglutinin]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2008;24:421-6 pubmed
    ..This result indicated the presence of highly conserved neutralizing site on hemagglutinin (HA) of various H5N1 subtypes...