ZP2

Summary

Gene Symbol: ZP2
Description: zona pellucida glycoprotein 2
Alias: ZPA, Zp-2, zona pellucida sperm-binding protein 2, zona pellucida glycoprotein 2 (sperm receptor), zona pellucida glycoprotein ZP2, zona pellucida protein A
Species: human
Products:     ZP2

Top Publications

  1. Burkart A, Xiong B, Baibakov B, Jim nez Movilla M, Dean J. Ovastacin, a cortical granule protease, cleaves ZP2 in the zona pellucida to prevent polyspermy. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:37-44 pubmed publisher
    The mouse zona pellucida is composed of three glycoproteins (ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3), of which ZP2 is proteolytically cleaved after gamete fusion to prevent polyspermy...
  2. Rankin T, Coleman J, Epifano O, Hoodbhoy T, Turner S, Castle P, et al. Fertility and taxon-specific sperm binding persist after replacement of mouse sperm receptors with human homologs. Dev Cell. 2003;5:33-43 pubmed
    The zona pellucida surrounding ovulated mouse eggs contains three glycoproteins, two of which (ZP2 and ZP3) are reported sperm receptors...
  3. Zhao M, Gold L, Ginsberg A, Liang L, Dean J. Conserved furin cleavage site not essential for secretion and integration of ZP3 into the extracellular egg coat of transgenic mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:3111-20 pubmed
    The extracellular zona pellucida surrounding mammalian eggs is formed by interactions of the ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3 glycoproteins. Female mice lacking ZP2 or ZP3 do not form a stable zona matrix and are sterile...
  4. Zhou Z, Ni C, Wu L, Chen B, Xu Y, Zhang Z, et al. Novel mutations in ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3 cause female infertility due to abnormal zona pellucida formation. Hum Genet. 2019;138:327-337 pubmed publisher
    The human zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular glycoprotein matrix composed of ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4 surrounding the oocyte, and it plays an important role in sperm-egg interactions during fertilization...
  5. Anderson C, Williams V, Moyon B, Daubas P, Tajbakhsh S, Buckingham M, et al. Sonic hedgehog acts cell-autonomously on muscle precursor cells to generate limb muscle diversity. Genes Dev. 2012;26:2103-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) from the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) drives myogenesis specifically within the ventral muscle mass...
  6. Kowsar R, Izadi F, Sadeghi N, Riasi A, Zadegan F, Hajian M, et al. Urea changes oocyte competence and gene expression in resultant bovine embryo in vitro. Zygote. 2018;26:207-219 pubmed publisher
    ..a docking calculation (in silico), urea showed a favorable binding activity towards the ZP-N domain of ZP3, that of ZP2, and towards the predicted full-length sperm receptor ZP3...
  7. Costa J, Pereira R, Oliveira J, Alves A, Marques Magalhães Â, Frutuoso A, et al. Structural and molecular analysis of the cancer prostate cell line PC3: Oocyte zona pellucida glycoproteins. Tissue Cell. 2018;55:91-106 pubmed publisher
    ..In prostate carcinoma tissue and PC3-cells we found protein expression of the four oocyte glycoproteins, ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4...
  8. Zou Y, Zhou J, Guo J, Zhang Z, Luo Y, Liu F, et al. Mutation analysis of ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4 genes in 152 Han Chinese samples with ovarian endometriosis. Mutat Res. 2019;813:46-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed a total of 152 Han Chinese samples with ovarian endometriosis for the presence of mutations in the ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4 genes. Two novel nonsynonymous ZP4 mutations were identified in three out of 152 (2.0%) samples: a p...
  9. Xuan B, Li Z, Wang Q, Xu M, Chen X, Jin Y. Inhibition of PSMD4 alters ZP1 ubiquitination state and sperm-oocyte-binding ability in pigs. Reprod Domest Anim. 2018;53:688-694 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to determine how the duration of culture affects the ubiquitination of zona pellucida (ZP) proteins (ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3) during porcine oocyte maturation in vitro...

More Information

Publications85

  1. Moros Nicolás C, Leza A, Chevret P, Guillén Martínez A, González Brusi L, Boue F, et al. Analysis of ZP1 gene reveals differences in zona pellucida composition in carnivores. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2018;30:272-285 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies suggested that carnivore ZP was formed by three glycoproteins (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4), with ZP1 being a pseudogene...
  2. Shah S, Saini N, Ashraf S, Singh M, Manik R, Singla S, et al. Cumulus cell-conditioned medium supports embryonic stem cell differentiation to germ cell-like cells. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2017;29:679-693 pubmed publisher
    ..Boule) and tektin 1 (Tekt1)) and oocyte-specific growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf9) and zona pellucida 2 /3 (Zp2/3)) genes over 8-14 days in culture...
  3. Watson B, Feenstra J, Van Arsdale J, Rai Bhatti K, Kim D, Coggins A, et al. LHX2 Mediates the FGF-to-SHH Regulatory Loop during Limb Development. J Dev Biol. 2018;6: pubmed publisher
    ..anterior?posterior axes by maintaining Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression in cells of the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) in the distal posterior mesoderm...
  4. Kempisty B, Piotrowska H, Bukowska D, Woźna M, Ciesiółka S, Wojtanowicz Markiewicz K, et al. Expression and cellular distribution of zona pellucida glycoproteins in canine oocytes before and after in vitro maturation. Zygote. 2015;23:863-73 pubmed publisher
    This study was aimed at investigating zona pellucida glycoproteins (ZP) ZP2, ZP3 mRNA expression as well as ZP3, ZP4 (ZPB) protein distribution before and after in vitro maturation (IVM) in canine oocytes...
  5. Dai C, Hu L, Gong F, Tan Y, Cai S, Zhang S, et al. ZP2 pathogenic variants cause in vitro fertilization failure and female infertility. Genet Med. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequent PV screening of ZP2 was performed in additional eight unrelated infertile women whose oocytes exhibited abnormal ZP and similar ..
  6. Nishio S, Kohno Y, Iwata Y, Arai M, Okumura H, Oshima K, et al. Glycosylated chicken ZP2 accumulates in the egg coat of immature oocytes and remains localized to the germinal disc region of mature eggs. Biol Reprod. 2014;91:107 pubmed publisher
    ..Two mammalian egg coat subunits, ZP2 and ZP3, have been suggested to act as sperm receptors...
  7. Benson A, Malloy M, Steed J, Christensen V, Fairchild B, Davis A. Zona pellucida protein B2 messenger ribonucleic acid expression varies with follicular development and granulosa cell location. Poult Sci. 2017;96:3414-3421 pubmed publisher
    ..The IPVL contains zona pellucida proteins and 6 distinct zona pellucida genes have been identified (ZPA, ZPB1, ZPB2, ZPC, ZPD and ZPX1) in the chicken...
  8. Yauger B, Boggs N, Dean J. Human ZP4 is not sufficient for taxon-specific sperm recognition of the zona pellucida in transgenic mice. Reproduction. 2011;141:313-9 pubmed publisher
    ..study sperm-egg recognition, but the mouse zona pellucida surrounding ovulated eggs contains three proteins (ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3) whereas the human zona contains four (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4)...
  9. Gahlay G, Gauthier L, Baibakov B, Epifano O, Dean J. Gamete recognition in mice depends on the cleavage status of an egg's zona pellucida protein. Science. 2010;329:216-9 pubmed publisher
    At fertilization, mouse sperm bind to the zona pellucida (which consists of glycoproteins ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3) that surrounds eggs...
  10. Nie C, Yao G, Cao Z. [Preparation and characterization of rabbit anti-mouse zona pellucida 2 antibodies]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2015;35:522-5 pubmed
    ..7%. We obtained rabbit anti-mouse ZP2 polyclonal antibodies that can inhibit the binding of oocytes with acrosomal reacted sperm.
  11. Tokuhiro K, Dean J. Glycan-Independent Gamete Recognition Triggers Egg Zinc Sparks and ZP2 Cleavage to Prevent Polyspermy. Dev Cell. 2018;46:627-640.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Using mouse transgenesis, we document that the N terminus of ZP2 is sufficient for sperm binding to the zona matrix and for in vivo fertility...
  12. Costa J, de Souza G, Bernardo J, Ribeiro R, Passos J, Bezerra F, et al. Expression of markers for germ cells and oocytes in cow dermal fibroblast treated with 5-azacytidine and cultured in differentiation medium containing BMP2, BMP4 or follicular fluid. Zygote. 2017;25:341-357 pubmed publisher
    ..It also analysis the mRNA levels for OCT4, NANOG, REX, SOX2, VASA, DAZL, cKIT, SCP3, ZPA and GDF9 after culturing 5-Aza treated fibroblasts in the different tested medium...
  13. Vandermeer J, Smith R, Jones S, Ahituv N. Genome-wide identification of signaling center enhancers in the developing limb. Development. 2014;141:4194-8 pubmed publisher
    ..system and changes to gene expression patterns in its signaling centers, notably the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) and the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), are known to cause limb malformations and evolutionary differences in limb ..
  14. Wassarman P, Litscher E. The Mouse Egg's Zona Pellucida. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2018;130:331-356 pubmed publisher
    ..Homozygous knockout female mice that fail to synthesize either ZP2 or ZP3 are unable to construct a ZP, ovulate few if any eggs, and are infertile...
  15. Hu X, Lu H, Cao S, Deng Y, Li Q, Wan Q, et al. Stem cells derived from human first-trimester umbilical cord have the potential to differentiate into oocyte-like cells in vitro. Int J Mol Med. 2015;35:1219-29 pubmed publisher
    ..as synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3), growth/differentiation factor-9 (GDF9), GDF9B and zona pellucida (ZP)1, ZP2 and ZP3. The COC-like cells secreted estradiol, vascular endothelial growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor...
  16. Gupta S. The Human Egg's Zona Pellucida. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2018;130:379-411 pubmed publisher
    ..a delicate network of thin interconnected filaments, is primarily composed of four glycoproteins, namely, ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4...
  17. Ma W, Tian W. [The function of transcription factor P63 and its signaling pathway during limb development]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2014;31:466-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In brief, three signaling pathways are related to the digit formation along three axes, including SHH-ZPA, FGFs-AER and Lmx1B-Wnt7a-En1...
  18. Moussa M, Li M, Zheng H, Yang C, Yan S, Yu N, et al. Developmental competence of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) denuded oocytes cocultured with cumulus cells: Protective role of cumulus cells. Theriogenology. 2018;120:40-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Matured oocytes were used to determine the relative mRNA abundance of Gdf-9, Bmp15, Zar1, Caspase-3, Bcl-2, Zp2, Zp3, Cd9 and Pde3a by Rt-qPCR and CASPASE-3 protein expression by immunofluorescence...
  19. Körschgen H, Kuske M, Karmilin K, Yiallouros I, Balbach M, Floehr J, et al. Intracellular activation of ovastacin mediates pre-fertilization hardening of the zona pellucida. Mol Hum Reprod. 2017;23:607-616 pubmed publisher
    ..The metalloproteinase ovastacin is stored in cortical granules, it cleaves zona pellucida protein 2 (ZP2) upon fertilization and thereby destroys the ZP sperm ligand and triggers ZPH...
  20. Gupta S. Role of zona pellucida glycoproteins during fertilization in humans. J Reprod Immunol. 2015;108:90-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed model in mice of ZP glycoprotein-3 (ZP3) acting as primary sperm receptor and ZP glycoprotein-2 (ZP2) as secondary sperm receptor has been modified for sperm-egg binding in humans...
  21. Stetson I, Avilés M, Moros C, García Vázquez F, Gimeno L, Torrecillas A, et al. Four glycoproteins are expressed in the cat zona pellucida. Theriogenology. 2015;83:1162-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In cat (Felis catus), this matrix is composed of at least three glycoproteins called ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4...
  22. Akiyama R, Kawakami H, Wong J, Oishi I, Nishinakamura R, Kawakami Y. Sall4-Gli3 system in early limb progenitors is essential for the development of limb skeletal elements. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:5075-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The Sall4-Gli3 system also functions upstream of the Shh-expressing ZPA and the Fgf8-expressing AER in fore- and hindlimbs...
  23. Yang J, Li X, Cao Y, Pokharel K, Hu X, Chen Z, et al. Comparative mRNA and miRNA expression in European mouflon (Ovis musimon) and sheep (Ovis aries) provides novel insights into the genetic mechanisms for female reproductive success. Heredity (Edinb). 2019;122:172-186 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified several novel genes with differentially expressed mRNAs (e.g., EREG, INHBA, SPP1, AMH, TDRD5, and ZP2) between the wild and domestic sheep, which are functionally involved in oocyte and follicle development and ..
  24. Raj I, Sadat Al Hosseini H, Dioguardi E, Nishimura K, Han L, Villa A, et al. Structural Basis of Egg Coat-Sperm Recognition at Fertilization. Cell. 2017;169:1315-1326.e17 pubmed publisher
    ..VERL repeats fold like the functionally essential N-terminal repeat of mammalian sperm receptor ZP2, whose structure is also described here...
  25. Lee S, Horsfield J, Black M, Rutherford K, Fisher A, Gemmell N. Histological and transcriptomic effects of 17α-methyltestosterone on zebrafish gonad development. BMC Genomics. 2017;18:557 pubmed publisher
    ..It also repressed expression of ovarian development and folliculogenesis genes (bmp15, gdf9, figla, zp2.1 and zp3b). Furthermore, MT treatment altered epigenetic modification of histones in zebrafish gonads...
  26. Zhang M, Dai X, Lu Y, Miao Y, Zhou C, Cui Z, et al. Melatonin protects oocyte quality from Bisphenol A-induced deterioration in the mouse. J Pineal Res. 2017;62: pubmed publisher
    ..by reducing the number of sperm binding to the zona pellucida, which is consistent with the premature cleavage of ZP2 as well as the mis-localization and decreased protein level of ovastacin...
  27. Egge N, Muthusubramanian A, Cornwall G. Amyloid properties of the mouse egg zona pellucida. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0129907 pubmed publisher
    ..The mouse ZP is composed of three proteins, ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3, all of which have a ZP polymerization domain that directs protein fibril formation and assembly into the ..
  28. Hwang J, Chung J. Sex at Atomic Resolution. Cell. 2017;169:1174-1176 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that VERL is structurally similar to mammalian ZP2, the mechanism elucidating species-specific gamete recognition likely exists in mammals.
  29. Shah S, Saini N, Singh M, Manik R, Singla S, Palta P, et al. Testicular cell-conditioned medium supports embryonic stem cell differentiation toward germ lineage and to spermatocyte- and oocyte-like cells. Theriogenology. 2016;86:715-29 pubmed publisher
    ..SYCP3, MLH1, TNP1/2, and PRM2), spermatocyte-specific (BOULE and TEKT1), and oocyte-specific genes (GDF9 and ZP2/3) for a culture period of 14 days under both floating and adherent differentiation...
  30. Xiong B, Zhao Y, Beall S, Sadusky A, Dean J. A Unique Egg Cortical Granule Localization Motif Is Required for Ovastacin Sequestration to Prevent Premature ZP2 Cleavage and Ensure Female Fertility in Mice. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006580 pubmed publisher
    Monospermic fertilization is mediated by the extracellular zona pellucida composed of ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3...
  31. Wu T, Cheng Y, Liu Z, Tao W, Zheng S, Wang D. Bioinformatic analyses of zona pellucida genes in vertebrates and their expression in Nile tilapia. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2018;44:435-449 pubmed publisher
    ..16, 9, 17, 27, 21, 20, 26, 19, 14,11, 24, 17, 9, 18, 8, 11, 9, 8, 5, and 4 ZP genes belonging to 5 subfamilies (ZPA, ZPB, ZPC, ZPD, and ZPAX) were found in the sea lamprey, elephant shark, coelacanth, spotted gar, zebrafish, medaka,..
  32. Suzuki K, Tatebe N, Kojima S, Hamano A, Orita M, Yonezawa N. The Hinge Region of Bovine Zona Pellucida Glycoprotein ZP3 Is Involved in the Formation of the Sperm-Binding Active ZP3/ZP4 Complex. Biomolecules. 2015;5:3339-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Bovine ZP consists of glycoproteins ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4...
  33. Floehr J, Dietzel E, Schmitz C, Chappell A, Jahnen Dechent W. Down-regulation of the liver-derived plasma protein fetuin-B mediates reversible female infertility. Mol Hum Reprod. 2017;23:34-44 pubmed publisher
    ..fetuin-B is a potent and highly specific inhibitor of the zona proteinase ovastacin, which cleaves ZP protein 2 (ZP2) and thus mediates definitive ZP hardening. Ten fetuin-B ASO boli (100 mg/kg) were injected s.c...
  34. Cao Z, Nie C, Xie Y, Cai D. The bioactivities of the central segment of Zp2 polypeptide. Zygote. 2016;24:768-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the central peptide of ZP2 (190-505) is immunogenic and contains zona pellucida-specific epitopes, however the central polypeptide might not ..
  35. Yang P, Luan X, Peng Y, Chen T, Su S, Zhang C, et al. Novel zona pellucida gene variants identified in patients with oocyte anomalies. Fertil Steril. 2017;107:1364-1369 pubmed publisher
    ..247T>C (p.W83R) and c.1413G>A (p.W471X)] and two in the ZP2 gene [c.1599G>T (p.R533S) and c.1696T>C (p...
  36. Shah S, Singla S, Palta P, Manik R, Chauhan M. Retinoic acid induces differentiation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells into germ cells. Gene. 2017;626:358-366 pubmed publisher
    ..SYCP3, MLH1, TNP1/2 and PRM2, while mature germ cell genes like BOULE and TEKT1 (Spermatocyte markers), GDF9 and ZP2 (Oocyte markers) showed higher expression at 2?M RA dose, suggesting functional concentration-gradient of RA ..
  37. Zhao X, Yang W, Sun M, Zhang X. [ZRS mutations in two Chinese Han families featuring triphalangeal thumbs and preaxial polydactyly]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2016;33:281-5 pubmed publisher
    ..After genomic DNA was extracted, the ZPA regulatory sequence (ZRS) region was analyzed with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Sanger sequencing...
  38. Spieker J, Ackermann A, Salfelder A, Vogel Höpker A, Layer P. Acetylcholinesterase Regulates Skeletal In Ovo Development of Chicken Limbs by ACh-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0161675 pubmed publisher
    ..in two organizing centers of the limb anlage, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), respectively...
  39. Bokhove M, Nishimura K, Brunati M, Han L, de Sanctis D, Rampoldi L, et al. A structured interdomain linker directs self-polymerization of human uromodulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:1552-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the crystal structures of polymerization regions of human UMOD and mouse ZP2, an essential sperm receptor protein that is structurally related to UMOD but forms heteropolymers...
  40. Louros N, Iconomidou V, Giannelou P, Hamodrakas S. Structural analysis of peptide-analogues of human Zona Pellucida ZP1 protein with amyloidogenic properties: insights into mammalian Zona Pellucida formation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73258 pubmed publisher
    ..Mammalian ZP consists of three to four glycoproteins, called ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, ZP4...
  41. Matsubara Y, Nakano M, Kawamura K, Tsudzuki M, Funahashi J, Agata K, et al. Inactivation of Sonic Hedgehog Signaling and Polydactyly in Limbs of Hereditary Multiple Malformation, a Novel Type of Talpid Mutant. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2016;4:149 pubmed publisher
    ..The Zone of Polarizing Activity (ZPA) of the hmm-/- limb bud does not show polarizing activity regardless of the presence of SHH ..
  42. Matsubara H, Saito D, Abe G, Yokoyama H, Suzuki T, Tamura K. Upstream regulation for initiation of restricted Shh expression in the chick limb bud. Dev Dyn. 2017;246:417-430 pubmed publisher
    ..The organizing center for limb morphogenesis, the ZPA (zone of polarizing activity), specifically expresses the Shh gene and is restricted to the posterior region of the ..
  43. Kędra Królik K, Rosso K, Zarzycki P. Probing size-dependent electrokinetics of hematite aggregates. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2017;488:218-224 pubmed publisher
    ..and quantified in the electrokinetic potential (?), using commercially available Zeta Potential Analyzers (ZPA)...
  44. Uren Webster T, Shears J, Moore K, Santos E. Identification of conserved hepatic transcriptomic responses to 17β-estradiol using high-throughput sequencing in brown trout. Physiol Genomics. 2015;47:420-31 pubmed publisher
    ..known estrogen-responsive transcripts in fish exposed to the lower treatment concentrations (including esr1 and zp2.5)...
  45. Louros N, Chrysina E, Baltatzis G, Patsouris E, Hamodrakas S, Iconomidou V. A common 'aggregation-prone' interface possibly participates in the self-assembly of human zona pellucida proteins. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:619-30 pubmed publisher
    Human zona pellucida (ZP) is composed of four glycoproteins, namely ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4...
  46. Jia Y, Nan P, Zhang W, Wang F, Zhang R, Liang T, et al. Transcriptome analysis of three critical periods of ovarian development in Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio). Theriogenology. 2018;105:15-26 pubmed publisher
    ..in PG, such as cyp19a and sox9, while some oocyte-specific genes were upregulated in OJ, such as nobox, bmp15 and zp2. Among DEGs between OJ and OA, many oocyte physiological function-related genes were upregulated in OA, such as fem-..
  47. Que E, Duncan F, Bayer A, Philips S, Roth E, Bleher R, et al. Zinc sparks induce physiochemical changes in the egg zona pellucida that prevent polyspermy. Integr Biol (Camb). 2017;9:135-144 pubmed publisher
    ..A major event in zona hardening is cleavage of ZP2 proteins by ovastacin; however, the overall physiochemical changes contributing to zona hardening are not well ..
  48. Liang L, Dean J. Conservation of mammalian secondary sperm receptor genes enables the promoter of the human gene to function in mouse oocytes. Dev Biol. 1993;156:399-408 pubmed
    The human zona pellucida is an extracellular sheath composed of three major proteins (ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3) which surround the ovulated egg and mediate the initial interactions with sperm...
  49. Howes E, Pascall J, Engel W, Jones R. Interactions between mouse ZP2 glycoprotein and proacrosin; a mechanism for secondary binding of sperm to the zona pellucida during fertilization. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:4127-36 pubmed
    ..Safe mimetics of suramin have potential as non-steroidal antifertility agents. ..
  50. Caballero Campo P, Chirinos M, Fan X, González González M, Galicia Chavarría M, Larrea F, et al. Biological effects of recombinant human zona pellucida proteins on sperm function. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:760-8 pubmed
    ..Recently, human ZP was demonstrated to be composed of four proteins: ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4...
  51. Wassarman P, Litscher E. Influence of the zona pellucida of the mouse egg on folliculogenesis and fertility. Int J Dev Biol. 2012;56:833-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Eggs from mZP1-/- females have a distorted ZP and, although the mice are fertile, they exhibit reduced fertility due to early embryonic loss. Potential relationships between ZP biogenesis, folliculogenesis, and fertility are addressed...
  52. Kiefer S, Saling P. Proteolytic processing of human zona pellucida proteins. Biol Reprod. 2002;66:407-14 pubmed
    ..Zona pellucida glycoproteins, ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3, are secreted to form an insoluble extracellular matrix surrounding mammalian eggs...
  53. Adib S, Valojerdi M. Molecular assessment, characterization, and differentiation of theca stem cells imply the presence of mesenchymal and pluripotent stem cells in sheep ovarian theca layer. Res Vet Sci. 2017;114:378-387 pubmed publisher
    ..OLCs expressed oocyte-specific marker genes including, ZP3, ZP2, GDF9, SYCP3, PRDM1, STELLA, FRAGILIS, DAZL, as well as POU5F1, and showed separated sphere structure...
  54. Tsai T, JOHNSON J, White Y, John J. The molecular characterization of porcine egg precursor cells. Oncotarget. 2017;8:63484-63505 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of Zp1, Zp2, Zp3 and Nobox were not detected, indicating that porcine EPCs are not indicative of mature ..
  55. Mori T, Guo M, Sato E, Baba T, Takasaki S, Mori E. Molecular and immunological approaches to mammalian fertilization. J Reprod Immunol. 2000;47:139-58 pubmed
    ..We found that Sp38 protein bind to porcine ZP2 and expressed in murine and human sperm cells...
  56. Bray C, Son J, Kumar P, Harris J, Meizel S. A role for the human sperm glycine receptor/Cl(-) channel in the acrosome reaction initiated by recombinant ZP3. Biol Reprod. 2002;66:91-7 pubmed
  57. Zhu J, Mackem S. John Saunders' ZPA, Sonic hedgehog and digit identity - How does it really all work?. Dev Biol. 2017;429:391-400 pubmed publisher
    ..many seminal contributions to developmental biology, his discovery of the limb 'zone of polarizing activity' (ZPA) is arguably one of the most memorable and ground-breaking...
  58. Avella M, Baibakov B, Jimenez Movilla M, Sadusky A, Dean J. ZP2 peptide beads select human sperm in vitro, decoy mouse sperm in vivo, and provide reversible contraception. Sci Transl Med. 2016;8:336ra60 pubmed publisher
    ..acellular zona matrix is composed of three (mouse) or four (human) proteins (ZP1 to ZP4), and the amino terminus of ZP2 is the primary sperm-binding ligand...
  59. Furlong L, Harris J, Vazquez Levin M. Binding of recombinant human proacrosin/acrosin to zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins. I. Studies with recombinant human ZPA, ZPB, and ZPC. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:1780-90 pubmed
    ..The interaction involves mannosyl, fucosyl, and sulfated glycans. Binding sites for rec-hZP would be located both at the N- and C-terminus of proacrosin, revealing a key role of the proenzyme in the interaction. ..
  60. Chen T, Bian Y, Liu X, Zhao S, Wu K, Yan L, et al. A Recurrent Missense Mutation in ZP3 Causes Empty Follicle Syndrome and Female Infertility. Am J Hum Genet. 2017;101:459-465 pubmed publisher
    ..When mutant ZP3 was co-expressed with wild-type ZP3, the interaction between wild-type ZP3 and ZP2 was markedly decreased as a result of the binding of wild-type ZP3 and mutant ZP3, via dominant negative inhibition...
  61. Gook D, Edgar D, Borg J, Martic M. Detection of zona pellucida proteins during human folliculogenesis. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:394-402 pubmed
    ..system were stained, using immunohistochemical techniques, for the presence of the three human ZP proteins, ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3. Over 500 primordial follicles and >20 follicles at each developmental stage were examined...
  62. Miao Y, Zhou C, Cui Z, Tang L, ShiYang X, Lu Y, et al. Dynein promotes porcine oocyte meiotic progression by maintaining cytoskeletal structures and cortical granule arrangement. Cell Cycle. 2017;16:2139-2145 pubmed publisher
    ..of cortical granules and precocious exocytosis of ovastacin, a cortical granule component, which predicts that ZP2, the sperm binding site in the zona pellucida, might be prematurely cleaved in the unfertilized dynein-inhibited ..
  63. Margalit M, Paz G, Yavetz H, Yogev L, Amit A, Hevlin Schwartz T, et al. Genetic and physiological study of morphologically abnormal human zona pellucida. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012;165:70-6 pubmed publisher
    ..No new mutations were observed in the ZP1 (12 exons), ZP2 (19 exons), ZP3 (9 exons), ZP4 (12 exons) genes or in the ZP3 regulatory element of the three studied women...
  64. Shah S, Singla S, Palta P, Manik R, Chauhan M. Retinoic acid induces differentiation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells into germ cells. Gene. 2017;631:54-67 pubmed publisher
    ..SYCP3, MLH1, TNP1/2 and PRM2, while mature germ cell genes like BOULE and TEKT1 (Spermatocyte markers), GDF9 and ZP2 (Oocyte markers) showed higher expression at 2?M RA dose, suggesting functional concentration-gradient of RA ..
  65. Moros Nicolás C, Chevret P, Izquierdo Rico M, Holt W, Esteban Díaz D, Lopez Bejar M, et al. Composition of marsupial zona pellucida: a molecular and phylogenetic approach. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..In eutherians it is formed from three or four proteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, ZP4)...
  66. José O, Hernandez Hernandez O, Chirinos M, González González M, Larrea F, Almanza A, et al. Recombinant human ZP3-induced sperm acrosome reaction: evidence for the involvement of T- and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;395:530-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this, we detected in human sperm transcripts for the Ca(V)1 auxiliary subunits, alpha(2)delta, beta(1), beta(2) and beta(4), but not the neuronal specific isoforms beta(3) and gamma(2). ..
  67. Zhang M, Miao Y, Chen Q, Cai M, Dong W, Dai X, et al. BaP exposure causes oocyte meiotic arrest and fertilization failure to weaken female fertility. FASEB J. 2018;32:342-352 pubmed publisher
    ..Zhang, M., Miao, Y., Chen, Q., Cai, M., Dong, W., Dai, X., Lu, Y., Zhou, C., Cui, Z., Xiong, B. BaP exposure causes oocyte meiotic arrest and fertilization failure to weaken female fertility. ..
  68. Hinsch E, Groeger S, Oehninger S, Hinsch K. Localization and functional importance of a conserved zona pellucida 2 protein domain in the human and bovine ovary using monoclonal anti-ZP2 peptide antibodies. Theriogenology. 2003;60:1331-44 pubmed
    ..The ZP2 protein mediates secondary sperm binding to the ZP...
  69. Young J, Tabin C. Saunders's framework for understanding limb development as a platform for investigating limb evolution. Dev Biol. 2017;429:401-408 pubmed publisher
    ..He discovered the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), and the domains of interdigital cell death within the developing limb and determined their function through ..
  70. Qi H, Williams Z, Wassarman P. Secretion and assembly of zona pellucida glycoproteins by growing mouse oocytes microinjected with epitope-tagged cDNAs for mZP2 and mZP3. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:530-41 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that nascent mZP2 and mZP3 are incorporated into only the innermost layer of the ZP and that excision of the C-terminal region of the glycoproteins is required for assembly into the oocyte ZP. ..
  71. Avella M, Baibakov B, Dean J. A single domain of the ZP2 zona pellucida protein mediates gamete recognition in mice and humans. J Cell Biol. 2014;205:801-9 pubmed publisher
    ..have established transgenic mice expressing human ZP4 that form zonae pellucidae in the absence of mouse or human ZP2. Neither mouse nor human sperm bound to these ovulated eggs, and these female mice were sterile after in vivo ..
  72. Liu W, Li K, Bai D, Yin J, Tang Y, Chi F, et al. Dosage effects of ZP2 and ZP3 heterozygous mutations cause human infertility. Hum Genet. 2017;136:975-985 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified two novel heritable mutations of ZP2 and ZP3, both occurring in an infertile female patient with ZP-abnormal eggs...
  73. Rankin T, Dean J. The zona pellucida: using molecular genetics to study the mammalian egg coat. Rev Reprod. 2000;5:114-21 pubmed
    ..In mice and humans, this matrix is known as the zona pellucida and comprises three glycoproteins: ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3...
  74. Tsubamoto H, Hasegawa A, Nakata Y, Naito S, Yamasaki N, Koyama K. Expression of recombinant human zona pellucida protein 2 and its binding capacity to spermatozoa. Biol Reprod. 1999;61:1649-54 pubmed
    The human zona pellucida (ZP) is composed of three major glycoproteins: ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of ZP2 by focusing on the polypeptide structure...
  75. Petit F, Serres C, Bourgeon F, Pineau C, Auer J. Identification of sperm head proteins involved in zona pellucida binding. Hum Reprod. 2013;28:852-65 pubmed publisher
    Which human sperm proteins interact with zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins, ZPA/2, ZPB/4 and ZPC/3? Co-precipitation experiments with recombinant human ZP (rhZP) coated beads demonstrated interactions with various proteins, including ..
  76. Tanii I, Oh oka T, Yoshinaga K, Toshimori K. A mouse acrosomal cortical matrix protein, MC41, has ZP2-binding activity and forms a complex with a 75-kDa serine protease. Dev Biol. 2001;238:332-41 pubmed
    ..Far Western blotting technique indicated that MC41 bound to both ZP2 and ZP2(f) in the presence of high-salt-soluble sperm proteins...