Gene Symbol: XBP1
Description: X-box binding protein 1
Alias: TREB-5, TREB5, XBP-1, XBP2, X-box-binding protein 1, tax-responsive element-binding protein 5
Species: human
Products:     XBP1

Top Publications

  1. Maestre L, Tooze R, Canamero M, Montes Moreno S, Ramos R, Doody G, et al. Expression pattern of XBP1(S) in human B-cell lymphomas. Haematologica. 2009;94:419-22 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor XBP1 (X-box-binding protein 1) is essential for plasma cell (PC) differentiation and immunoglobulin secretion...
  2. Taubenheim N, Tarlinton D, Crawford S, Corcoran L, Hodgkin P, Nutt S. High rate of antibody secretion is not integral to plasma cell differentiation as revealed by XBP-1 deficiency. J Immunol. 2012;189:3328-38 pubmed
    ..Thus, XBP-1 deficiency demonstrates that the gene regulatory program controlling plasma cell differentiation can proceed relatively normally in the absence of high rates of Ig secretion. ..
  3. Yoshida H, Matsui T, Hosokawa N, Kaufman R, Nagata K, Mori K. A time-dependent phase shift in the mammalian unfolded protein response. Dev Cell. 2003;4:265-71 pubmed
    ..The ATF6 and IRE1-XBP1 pathways are important for the refolding process in mammalian cells; activation of these transcriptional programs ..
  4. Guo F, Xiong Z, Lu X, Ye M, Han X, Jiang R. ATF6 upregulates XBP1S and inhibits ER stress-mediated apoptosis in osteoarthritis cartilage. Cell Signal. 2014;26:332-42 pubmed publisher
    ..1) whether XBP1S influences ER stress-mediated apoptosis in osteoarthritis (OA); (2) whether ATF6 regulates IRE1/XBP1 signal pathway in OA cartilage; (3) what are the associated molecules affecting apoptosis in osteoarthritis and the ..
  5. Yoshida H, Uemura A, Mori K. pXBP1(U), a negative regulator of the unfolded protein response activator pXBP1(S), targets ATF6 but not ATF4 in proteasome-mediated degradation. Cell Struct Funct. 2009;34:1-10 pubmed
    ..The substrate of this splicing in mammalian cells is XBP1 mRNA, which encodes the unfolded protein response (UPR)-specific transcription factor XBP1...
  6. Kakiuchi C, Ishiwata M, Umekage T, Tochigi M, Kohda K, Sasaki T, et al. Association of the XBP1-116C/G polymorphism with schizophrenia in the Japanese population. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004;58:438-40 pubmed
    ..Recently, the authors found that the -116C-->G substitution in the promotor region of XBP1, a pivotal gene in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, causes the impairment of ER stress response, and ..
  7. Wilson S, Tsao E, Webb B, Ye H, Dalton Griffin L, Tsantoulas C, et al. X box binding protein XBP-1s transactivates the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF50 promoter, linking plasma cell differentiation to KSHV reactivation from latency. J Virol. 2007;81:13578-86 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the highly active spliced isoform of plasma cell transcription factor X box binding protein 1 (XBP-1s) is a lytic switch for KSHV...
  8. Yamamoto K, Yoshida H, Kokame K, Kaufman R, Mori K. Differential contributions of ATF6 and XBP1 to the activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress-responsive cis-acting elements ERSE, UPRE and ERSE-II. J Biochem. 2004;136:343-50 pubmed
    ATF6 and XBP1 are transcription factors activated specifically in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
  9. Margariti A, Li H, Chen T, Martin D, Vizcay Barrena G, Alam S, et al. XBP1 mRNA splicing triggers an autophagic response in endothelial cells through BECLIN-1 transcriptional activation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:859-72 pubmed publisher
    Sustained activation of X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) results in endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis and atherosclerosis development...

More Information


  1. Sawada T, Minamino T, Fu H, Asai M, Okuda K, Isomura T, et al. X-box binding protein 1 regulates brain natriuretic peptide through a novel AP1/CRE-like element in cardiomyocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;48:1280-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined whether X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a major UPR-linked transcriptional factor, regulates the expression of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in ..
  2. Iwawaki T, Tokuda M. Function of yeast and amphioxus tRNA ligase in IRE1alpha-dependent XBP1 mRNA splicing. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;413:527-31 pubmed publisher
    ..not only occurs in tRNA splicing, but also in yeast HAC1 mRNA splicing and in animal X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing under conditions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
  3. Bagratuni T, Wu P, Gonzalez De Castro D, Davenport E, Dickens N, Walker B, et al. XBP1s levels are implicated in the biology and outcome of myeloma mediating different clinical outcomes to thalidomide-based treatments. Blood. 2010;116:250-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have highlighted the importance of IRE1alpha and X box binding protein 1 (XBP1), key members of this pathway, in normal B-plasma cell development...
  4. Lee J, Won S, Suh J, Son S, Moon G, Park U, et al. Induction of the unfolded protein response and cell death pathway in Alzheimer's disease, but not in aged Tg2576 mice. Exp Mol Med. 2010;42:386-94 pubmed
    ..The present study suggests that disturbed induction of the UPR and activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins contribute to neuropathological process in AD irrespective of amyloid beta and senile plaque. ..
  5. Liou H, Boothby M, Finn P, Davidon R, Nabavi N, Zeleznik Le N, et al. A new member of the leucine zipper class of proteins that binds to the HLA DR alpha promoter. Science. 1990;247:1581-4 pubmed
    ..Mutation of the hXBP-1 DNA target sequence decreased DR alpha promoter activity in vivo. These studies suggest that the hXBP-1 protein acts as a transcription factor in B cells. ..
  6. Wu C, Kraft P, Zhai K, Chang J, Wang Z, Li Y, et al. Genome-wide association analyses of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese identify multiple susceptibility loci and gene-environment interactions. Nat Genet. 2012;44:1090-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results underscore the direct genetic contribution to ESCC risk, as well as the genetic contribution to ESCC through interaction with alcohol consumption. ..
  7. Bommiasamy H, Back S, Fagone P, Lee K, Meshinchi S, Vink E, et al. ATF6alpha induces XBP1-independent expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1626-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The UPR transcriptional activator X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) regulates the expression of proteins that function throughout the secretory pathway and is necessary for ..
  8. Martino M, Olsen J, Fulcher N, Wolfgang M, O Neal W, Ribeiro C. Airway epithelial inflammation-induced endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ store expansion is mediated by X-box binding protein-1. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14904-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that, in inflamed HBE, XBP-1s is responsible for the ER/Ca(2+) store expansion that confers amplification of Ca(2+)-dependent inflammatory responses. ..
  9. Dalton Griffin L, Wilson S, Kellam P. X-box binding protein 1 contributes to induction of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic cycle under hypoxic conditions. J Virol. 2009;83:7202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypoxia also induces active XBP-1s, and here, we show that both transcription factors contribute to the induction of RTA expression, leading to the production of infectious KSHV under hypoxic conditions. ..
  10. Zeng L, Zampetaki A, Margariti A, Pepe A, Alam S, Martin D, et al. Sustained activation of XBP1 splicing leads to endothelial apoptosis and atherosclerosis development in response to disturbed flow. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8326-31 pubmed publisher
    X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is a key signal transducer in endoplasmic reticulum stress response, and its potential role in the atherosclerosis development is unknown...
  11. Watanabe Y, Fukui N, Muratake T, Amagane H, Kaneko N, Nunokawa A, et al. Association study of a functional promoter polymorphism of the X-box binding protein 1 gene in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2006;60:633-5 pubmed
    The functional promoter polymorphism -116C/G of the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) gene was found to be associated with schizophrenia in Han Chinese and Japanese subjects, although contradictive negative findings were also reported in ..
  12. Jonsson E, Cichon S, Schumacher J, Abou Jamra R, Schulze T, Deschner M, et al. Association study of a functional promoter polymorphism in the XBP1 gene and schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006;141B:71-5 pubmed
    A functional promoter polymorphism (-116C/G) of the X-box binding protein 1 gene (XBP1) gene was reported to be associated with schizophrenia in Asian subjects...
  13. Lotz C, Mutallib S, Oehlrich N, Liewer U, Ferreira E, Moos M, et al. Targeting positive regulatory domain I-binding factor 1 and X box-binding protein 1 transcription factors by multiple myeloma-reactive CTL. J Immunol. 2005;175:1301-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that transcription factors governing terminal cellular differentiation may provide MM- and tumor-associated CTL epitopes. ..
  14. Masui T, Hashimoto R, Kusumi I, Suzuki K, Tanaka T, Nakagawa S, et al. A possible association between the -116C/G single nucleotide polymorphism of the XBP1 gene and lithium prophylaxis in bipolar disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2006;9:83-8 pubmed
    ..Recently, a functional polymorphism (-116C/G) of the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) gene was reported to be a genetic risk factor for BPD...
  15. Hou S, Yen F, Cheng C, Tsai S, Hong C. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) C--116G polymorphisms in bipolar disorders and age of onset. Neurosci Lett. 2004;367:232-4 pubmed
    X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a critical gene in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response, is located on chromosome 22q12, which has been linked with bipolar disorders in several studies...
  16. Chen W, Duan S, Zhou J, Sun Y, Zheng Y, Gu N, et al. A case-control study provides evidence of association for a functional polymorphism -197C/G in XBP1 to schizophrenia and suggests a sex-dependent effect. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;319:866-70 pubmed
    ..In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated a functional polymorphism -197C/G in XBP1, which was reported to increase the risk of bipolar disorder, in a case-control study (374 cases vs...
  17. Kakiuchi C, Iwamoto K, Ishiwata M, Bundo M, Kasahara T, Kusumi I, et al. Impaired feedback regulation of XBP1 as a genetic risk factor for bipolar disorder. Nat Genet. 2003;35:171-5 pubmed
    ..Here we identified XBP1, a pivotal gene in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, as contributing to the genetic risk factor for ..
  18. Yoshida H, Matsui T, Yamamoto A, Okada T, Mori K. XBP1 mRNA is induced by ATF6 and spliced by IRE1 in response to ER stress to produce a highly active transcription factor. Cell. 2001;107:881-91 pubmed
    ..Here, we identified the transcription factor XBP1, a target of ATF6, as a mammalian substrate of such an unconventional mRNA splicing system and showed that only the ..
  19. Reimold A, Iwakoshi N, Manis J, Vallabhajosyula P, Szomolanyi Tsuda E, Gravallese E, et al. Plasma cell differentiation requires the transcription factor XBP-1. Nature. 2001;412:300-7 pubmed
    ..XBP-1 is the only transcription factor known to be selectively and specifically required for the terminal differentiation of B lymphocytes to plasma cells. ..
  20. Reimold A, Etkin A, Clauss I, Perkins A, Friend D, Zhang J, et al. An essential role in liver development for transcription factor XBP-1. Genes Dev. 2000;14:152-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, XBP-1 is a transcription factor essential for hepatocyte growth. ..
  21. Dickie L, Aziz A, Savic S, Lucherini O, Cantarini L, Geiler J, et al. Involvement of X-box binding protein 1 and reactive oxygen species pathways in the pathogenesis of tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:2035-43 pubmed publisher
    ..b>XBP1 splicing and UPR-associated transcript expression were assessed by reverse transcription PCR/quantitative real-time ..
  22. Winnay J, Boucher J, Mori M, Ueki K, Kahn C. A regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase increases the nuclear accumulation of X-box-binding protein-1 to modulate the unfolded protein response. Nat Med. 2010;16:438-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, p85alphaalpha forms a previously unrecognized link between the PI3K pathway, which is central to insulin action, and the regulation of the cellular response to ER stress, a state that when unresolved leads to insulin resistance. ..
  23. Shajahan A, Riggins R, Clarke R. The role of X-box binding protein-1 in tumorigenicity. Drug News Perspect. 2009;22:241-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, combining inhibitors of XBP-1 with other anti-UPR drugs may enhance the activity of some antineoplastic therapies. ..
  24. Zeng L, Xiao Q, Chen M, Margariti A, Martin D, Ivetic A, et al. Vascular endothelial cell growth-activated XBP1 splicing in endothelial cells is crucial for angiogenesis. Circulation. 2013;127:1712-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is believed to be a signal transducer in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response...
  25. Chen X, Iliopoulos D, Zhang Q, Tang Q, Greenblatt M, Hatziapostolou M, et al. XBP1 promotes triple-negative breast cancer by controlling the HIF1? pathway. Nature. 2014;508:103-107 pubmed publisher
    ..2) and its substrate XBP1 (ref. 3)...
  26. Fujimoto T, Onda M, Nagai H, Nagahata T, Ogawa K, Emi M. Upregulation and overexpression of human X-box binding protein 1 (hXBP-1) gene in primary breast cancers. Breast Cancer. 2003;10:301-6 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that increased expression of the hXBP-1 gene may play some role in human breast carcinogenesis through impairment of cell differentiation regulation. ..
  27. Kaser A, Lee A, Franke A, Glickman J, Zeissig S, Tilg H, et al. XBP1 links ER stress to intestinal inflammation and confers genetic risk for human inflammatory bowel disease. Cell. 2008;134:743-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription factor XBP1, a key component of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, is required for development and maintenance of ..
  28. Yoshida H, Oku M, Suzuki M, Mori K. pXBP1(U) encoded in XBP1 pre-mRNA negatively regulates unfolded protein response activator pXBP1(S) in mammalian ER stress response. J Cell Biol. 2006;172:565-75 pubmed
    Upon the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum (ER), X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) premessenger RNA (premRNA) is converted to mature mRNA by unconventional splicing that is mediated by the endonuclease ..
  29. Iwawaki T, Akai R. Analysis of the XBP1 splicing mechanism using endoplasmic reticulum stress-indicators. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;350:709-15 pubmed
    Under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions, XBP1 mRNA is processed by unconventional splicing and translated into a functional transcription factor. ER stress-specific XBP1 splicing is also known to be activated by IRE1...
  30. Sun C, Thorley Lawson D. Plasma cell-specific transcription factor XBP-1s binds to and transactivates the Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 promoter. J Virol. 2007;81:13566-77 pubmed
    ..We are currently investigating other signals, such as the endoplasmic reticulum stress response proteins, which act upstream of XBP-1s, to identify other interacting factors that initiate and/or amplify the lytic switch. ..
  31. Newman J, Keating A. Comprehensive identification of human bZIP interactions with coiled-coil arrays. Science. 2003;300:2097-101 pubmed
    ..Biophysical studies in solution support the relative binding strengths observed with the arrays. New associations provide insights into the circadian clock and the unfolded protein response. ..
  32. Li B, Gao B, Ye L, Han X, Wang W, Kong L, et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) activates ATF6 and IRE1-XBP1 pathways of unfolded protein response. Virus Res. 2007;124:44-9 pubmed
    ..Two UPR-specific signaling pathways involving transmembrane proteins ATF6 and XBP1 generate critical transcription factors that activate UPR-responsive genes...
  33. Jiang C, Yang F, Thorne R, Zhu B, Hersey P, Zhang X. Human melanoma cells under endoplasmic reticulum stress acquire resistance to microtubule-targeting drugs through XBP-1-mediated activation of Akt. Neoplasia. 2009;11:436-47 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results identify activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway by XBP-1-mediated signaling of the unfolded protein response as a resistance mechanism against docetaxel and vincristine in melanoma cells under ER stress. ..
  34. Carrasco D, Sukhdeo K, Protopopova M, Sinha R, Enos M, Carrasco D, et al. The differentiation and stress response factor XBP-1 drives multiple myeloma pathogenesis. Cancer Cell. 2007;11:349-60 pubmed
    ..The similarities of this model with the human disease, coupled with documented frequent XBP-1s overexpression in human MM, serve to implicate XBP-1s dysregulation in MM pathogenesis. ..
  35. Guo X, Koff J, Moffitt A, Cinar M, Ramachandiran S, Chen Z, et al. Molecular impact of selective NFKB1 and NFKB2 signaling on DLBCL phenotype. Oncogene. 2017;36:4224-4232 pubmed publisher
    ..silencing p100 in ABC-DLBCL cells resulted in a GCB-like phenotype, with suppression of Blimp, IRF4 and XBP1 and upregulation of BCL6, whereas introduction of p52 or p100 into GC cells resulted in differentiation toward an ..
  36. Leung Hagesteijn C, Erdmann N, Cheung G, Keats J, Stewart A, Reece D, et al. Xbp1s-negative tumor B cells and pre-plasmablasts mediate therapeutic proteasome inhibitor resistance in multiple myeloma. Cancer Cell. 2013;24:289-304 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal the tumor progenitor structure in MM and highlight its role in therapeutic failure. ..
  37. Kanemoto S, Kondo S, Ogata M, Murakami T, Urano F, Imaizumi K. XBP1 activates the transcription of its target genes via an ACGT core sequence under ER stress. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;331:1146-53 pubmed
    ..protein kinase/endoribonuclease IRE1 is activated by endoplasmic reticulum stress and subsequently processes XBP1 mRNA to generate an active form of XBP1 protein...
  38. Yang J, Zhou S, Gu J, Guo M, Xia H, Liu Y. UPR Activation and the Down-Regulation of α-Crystallin in Human High Myopia-Related Cataract Lens Epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0137582 pubmed publisher
    ..to detect the mRNA levels of α-crystallins as well as unfolded protein response (UPR)-related GRP78, spliced-XBP1, ATF4 and ATF6...
  39. Korfei M, Ruppert C, Mahavadi P, Henneke I, Markart P, Koch M, et al. Epithelial endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in sporadic idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;178:838-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Severe ER stress response in the AECIIs of patients with sporadic IPF may underlie the apoptosis of this cell type and development of fibrosis in this disease. ..
  40. Yeganeh B, Rezaei Moghadam A, Alizadeh J, Wiechec E, Alavian S, Hashemi M, et al. Hepatitis B and C virus-induced hepatitis: Apoptosis, autophagy, and unfolded protein response. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21:13225-39 pubmed publisher
    ..We used specific antibodies for LC3β, cleaved caspase-3, BIP (GRP78), and XBP1 to detect autophagy, apoptosis and UPR, respectively...
  41. Liu Y, Rajamanikham V, Baron M, Patel S, Mathur S, Schwantes E, et al. Association of ORMDL3 with rhinovirus-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and type I Interferon responses in human leucocytes. Clin Exp Allergy. 2017;47:371-382 pubmed publisher
    ..ER stress was monitored by measuring HSPA5, CHOP and spliced XBP1 gene expression, and type I IFN by measuring IFNB1 (IFN-β) and CXCL10 expression in human cell lines and primary ..
  42. McKnight J, Boerma J, Breeden L, Tsukiyama T. Global Promoter Targeting of a Conserved Lysine Deacetylase for Transcriptional Shutoff during Quiescence Entry. Mol Cell. 2015;59:732-43 pubmed publisher
    ..deacetylase targeting to at least half of gene promoters via quiescence-specific transcription factors including Xbp1 and Stb3...
  43. Asada R, Kanemoto S, Matsuhisa K, Hino K, Cui M, Cui X, et al. IRE1α-XBP1 is a novel branch in the transcriptional regulation of Ucp1 in brown adipocytes. Sci Rep. 2015;5:16580 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that one of the UPR branches, the IRE1α-XBP1 pathway, was activated during the transcriptional induction of Ucp1...
  44. Meng X, Zhu Y, Tao L, Zhao S, Qiu S. Periostin has a protective role in melatonin?induced cell apoptosis by inhibiting the eIF2??ATF4 pathway in human osteoblasts. Int J Mol Med. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..associated with the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) pathways, including ATF6 and X?box binding protein 1 (XBP1), were not significantly altered...
  45. Pehar M, Jonas M, Hare T, Puglielli L. SLC33A1/AT-1 protein regulates the induction of autophagy downstream of IRE1/XBP1 pathway. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:29921-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that IRE1/XBP1 controls the induction of autophagy/ERAD(II) during the unfolded protein response by activating the ER membrane ..
  46. Silva P, Weber W, Crooker B, Collier R, Thatcher W, Chebel R. Hepatic mRNA expression for genes related to somatotropic axis, glucose and lipid metabolisms, and inflammatory response of periparturient dairy cows treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:3983-3999 pubmed publisher
    ..involved in inflammation (TNFRSF1A, ICAM1, CXCL1, MYD88, HIF1A, IL1RN, NFKBIA, and SOCS3) and oxidative stress (XBP1)...
  47. Guo X, Ma W, Liu L, Huang Y, Wang J, Huang L, et al. Effects of gene polymorphisms in the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway on clinical outcomes of chemoradiotherapy in Chinese patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2017;38:571-580 pubmed publisher
    ..rs7566, HSPA5 [heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5] rs430397, CALCR (calcitonin receptor) rs2528521, and XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1) rs2269577 were analyzed by Sequenom MassARRAY system...
  48. Tohmonda T, Yoda M, Iwawaki T, Matsumoto M, Nakamura M, Mikoshiba K, et al. IRE1α/XBP1-mediated branch of the unfolded protein response regulates osteoclastogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:3269-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The inositol-requiring protein-1α/X-box-binding protein-mediated (IRE1α/XBP1-mediated) branch of the UPR is highly conserved and has also been shown to regulate various cell-fate decisions...
  49. Lubamba B, Jones L, O Neal W, Boucher R, Ribeiro C. X-Box-Binding Protein 1 and Innate Immune Responses of Human Cystic Fibrosis Alveolar Macrophages. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;192:1449-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that AMs contribute to the robust inflammation of CF airways via an up-regulation of XBP-1s-mediated cytokine production. ..
  50. Zhang L, Hapon M, Goyeneche A, Srinivasan R, Gamarra Luques C, Callegari E, et al. Mifepristone increases mRNA translation rate, triggers the unfolded protein response, increases autophagic flux, and kills ovarian cancer cells in combination with proteasome or lysosome inhibitors. Mol Oncol. 2016;10:1099-117 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, the synthetic steroid acutely increased mRNA translation rate, which, if prevented, abrogated the splicing of XBP1 mRNA, a non-translatable readout of IRE1? activation...
  51. Marchetti P, Bugliani M, Lupi R, Marselli L, Masini M, Boggi U, et al. The endoplasmic reticulum in pancreatic beta cells of type 2 diabetes patients. Diabetologia. 2007;50:2486-94 pubmed
    ..shock 70 kDa protein 5 [glucose-regulated protein, 78 kDa] [HSPA5]), X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1, also known as XBP1) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP, also known as damage-inducible transcript 3 [DDIT3]) was not higher in type 2 ..
  52. Cheng J, Sun Y, Zhang F, Zhang X, Qiu X, Yu L, et al. Newcastle disease virus NP and P proteins induce autophagy via the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related unfolded protein response. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24721 pubmed publisher
    ..NP or P expression also altered ER homeostasis. The PERK and ATF6 pathways, but not the XBP1 pathway, all of which are components of the UPR, were activated in both NDV-infected and NP or P-transfected cells...
  53. Plácido A, Pereira C, Correira S, Carvalho C, Oliveira C, Moreira P. Phosphatase 2A Inhibition Affects Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria Homeostasis Via Cytoskeletal Alterations in Brain Endothelial Cells. Mol Neurobiol. 2017;54:154-168 pubmed publisher
    ..Under these conditions, an increase in the levels of ER stress markers, namely GRP78, XBP1, p-eIF2αSer51, and ERO1α, was observed...
  54. Shuda M, Kondoh N, Imazeki N, Tanaka K, Okada T, Mori K, et al. Activation of the ATF6, XBP1 and grp78 genes in human hepatocellular carcinoma: a possible involvement of the ER stress pathway in hepatocarcinogenesis. J Hepatol. 2003;38:605-14 pubmed
    ..in the unfolded protein response, the expression of which can be regulated by the transcription factors ATF6 and XBP1. Thus, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms of the grp78 gene in liver malignancy...
  55. Hsiao J, Chang K, Chen C, Wu S, Su I, Hsu M, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress triggers XBP-1-mediated up-regulation of an EBV oncoprotein in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2009;69:4461-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study not only provides a novel clue linking ER stress/UPR to EBV-associated NPC but also suggests that ER stress/UPR can promote virus-associated cancer in a unique way by driving expression of a viral oncogene. ..
  56. Schubert D, Klein M, Hassdenteufel S, Caballero Oteyza A, Yang L, Proietti M, et al. Plasma cell deficiency in human subjects with heterozygous mutations in Sec61 translocon alpha 1 subunit (SEC61A1). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;141:1427-1438 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a monogenic defect leading to a specific PC deficiency in human subjects, expanding our knowledge about the pathogenesis of antibody deficiencies. ..
  57. Cisse M, Duplan E, Lorivel T, Dunys J, Bauer C, Meckler X, et al. The transcription factor XBP1s restores hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory by control of the Kalirin-7 pathway in Alzheimer model. Mol Psychiatry. 2017;22:1562-1575 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, our findings reveal that XBP1s is neuroprotective through a mechanism that engages Kal7 pathway with therapeutic implications in AD pathology. ..
  58. Thorpe J, Schwarze S. IRE1alpha controls cyclin A1 expression and promotes cell proliferation through XBP-1. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2010;15:497-508 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that IRE1alpha activity controls a subset of the ER stress response and mediates proliferation through tight control of Xbp-1 splicing. ..
  59. Woodworth Hobbs M, Perry B, Rahnert J, Hudson M, Zheng B, Russ Price S. Docosahexaenoic acid counteracts palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in C2C12 myotubes: Impact on muscle atrophy. Physiol Rep. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that DHA prevents PA-induced muscle cell atrophy, in part, by preventing ER stress/UPR, a process that leads to activation of caspase-mediated proteolysis and an increase in expression of autophagy-related genes. ..
  60. Bae J, Carrasco R, Lee A, Prabhala R, Tai Y, Anderson K, et al. Identification of novel myeloma-specific XBP1 peptides able to generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes: a potential therapeutic application in multiple myeloma. Leukemia. 2011;25:1610-9 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of these studies was to identify human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2(+) immunogenic peptides derived from XBP1 antigens to induce a multiple myeloma (MM)-specific immune response...
  61. Gerakis Y, Hetz C. A decay of the adaptive capacity of the unfolded protein response exacerbates Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2018;63:162-164 pubmed publisher
    ..that enforces adaptive programs through the induction of transcription factors such as X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1)...
  62. Blazanin N, Son J, Craig Lucas A, John C, Breech K, Podolsky M, et al. ER stress and distinct outputs of the IRE1? RNase control proliferation and senescence in response to oncogenic Ras. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:9900-9905 pubmed publisher
    ..ER stress, the inositol requiring enzyme 1? (IRE1?) endoribonuclease (RNase), a key mediator of the UPR, cleaves Xbp1 mRNA to generate a potent transcription factor adaptive toward ER stress...
  63. Saito A, Cai L, Matsuhisa K, Ohtake Y, Kaneko M, Kanemoto S, et al. Neuronal activity-dependent local activation of dendritic unfolded protein response promotes expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in cell soma. J Neurochem. 2018;144:35-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Activated dendritic IRE1 accelerated accumulation of the downstream transcription factor, x-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1), in the nucleus...
  64. Ren Z, Chen S, Qing T, Xuan J, Couch L, Yu D, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and MAPK signaling pathway activation underlie leflunomide-induced toxicity in HepG2 Cells. Toxicology. 2017;392:11-21 pubmed publisher
    ..and GADD34; and elevated protein levels of typical ER stress markers including CHOP, ATF-4, p-eIF2?, and spliced XBP1. The secretion of Gaussia luciferase was suppressed in cells treated with leflunomide in an ER stress reporter ..
  65. Jiang D, Niwa M, Koong A. Targeting the IRE1α-XBP1 branch of the unfolded protein response in human diseases. Semin Cancer Biol. 2015;33:48-56 pubmed publisher
    ..As the most conserved signaling branch of the UPR, the IRE1α-XBP1 pathway plays important roles in both physiological and pathological settings and its activity has profound effects ..
  66. Poothong J, Tirasophon W, Kaufman R. Functional analysis of the mammalian RNA ligase for IRE1 in the unfolded protein response. Biosci Rep. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
    ..Upon ER stress, HAC1/XBP1 undergoes exon/intron-specific excision by inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) to remove an intron and liberate ..
  67. Zhu H, Abulimiti M, Liu H, Su X, Liu C, Pei H. RITA enhances irradiation-induced apoptosis in p53-defective cervical cancer cells via upregulation of IRE1α/XBP1 signaling. Oncol Rep. 2015;34:1279-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In the irradiated C-33A and HT-3 cells, RITA significantly increased the expression of IRE1α, the spliced XBP1 mRNA level, as well as apoptosis; the effects were abolished by knockdown of IRE1α...
  68. Jurkin J, Henkel T, Nielsen A, Minnich M, Popow J, Kaufmann T, et al. The mammalian tRNA ligase complex mediates splicing of XBP1 mRNA and controls antibody secretion in plasma cells. EMBO J. 2014;33:2922-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Active UPR signaling leads to unconventional, enzymatic splicing of XBP1 mRNA enabling expression of the transcription factor XBP1s to control ER homeostasis...
  69. Chen C, Malchus N, Hehn B, Stelzer W, Avci D, Langosch D, et al. Signal peptide peptidase functions in ERAD to cleave the unfolded protein response regulator XBP1u. EMBO J. 2014;33:2492-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we identify an ERAD complex that controls the abundance of XBP1u and thereby tunes signaling through the UPR. ..
  70. Liu Y, Zhang X, Liang Y, Yu H, Chen X, Zheng T, et al. Targeting X box-binding protein-1 (XBP1) enhances sensitivity of glioma cells to oxidative stress. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2011;37:395-405 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported the protective role of X box-binding protein-1 (XBP1) against oxidative stress in both mouse embryofibroblasts and human Hela cells...
  71. Gomez B, Riggins R, Shajahan A, Klimach U, Wang A, Crawford A, et al. Human X-box binding protein-1 confers both estrogen independence and antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer cell lines. FASEB J. 2007;21:4013-27 pubmed
    Human X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) is an alternatively spliced transcription factor that participates in the unfolded protein response (UPR), a stress-signaling pathway that allows cells to survive the accumulation of unfolded proteins ..
  72. Grunebaum M, Galfalvy H, Huang Y, Cooper T, Burke A, Agnello M, et al. Association of X-box binding protein 1 ( XBP1) genotype with morning cortisol and 1-year clinical course after a major depressive episode. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;12:281-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Psychiatric illnesses such as depressive disorders are thought to involve brain stress-response pathways. The XBP1 gene encodes a key transcription factor in the UPR stress response and therefore could be involved in the ..