vpu

Summary

Gene Symbol: vpu
Description: p16
Alias: p16, Vpu
Species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1

Top Publications

  1. Goffinet C, Allespach I, Homann S, Tervo H, Habermann A, Rupp D, et al. HIV-1 antagonism of CD317 is species specific and involves Vpu-mediated proteasomal degradation of the restriction factor. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:285-97 pubmed publisher
    ..blocks release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from the cell surface and can be overcome by HIV-1 Vpu. Here, we show that mouse and rat CD317 potently inhibit HIV-1 release but are resistant to Vpu...
  2. Schubert U, Strebel K. Differential activities of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1-encoded Vpu protein are regulated by phosphorylation and occur in different cellular compartments. J Virol. 1994;68:2260-71 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific Vpu is an 81-amino-acid amphipathic integral membrane protein with at least two different biological functions: (i) enhancement of virus particle release from the plasma membrane ..
  3. Strebel K. HIV accessory genes Vif and Vpu. Adv Pharmacol. 2007;55:199-232 pubmed
  4. Dubé M, Roy B, Guiot Guillain P, Mercier J, Binette J, Leung G, et al. Suppression of Tetherin-restricting activity upon human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particle release correlates with localization of Vpu in the trans-Golgi network. J Virol. 2009;83:4574-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Vpu promotes the efficient release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by overcoming the activity of tetherin, a host cell restriction factor that retains assembled virions at the cell surface...
  5. Neil S, Bieniasz P. Human immunodeficiency virus, restriction factors, and interferon. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2009;29:569-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Such knowledge could allow for novel forms of therapeutic intervention in pathogenic retroviral infections, as well as the development of animal models of human disease. ..
  6. Casartelli N, Sourisseau M, Feldmann J, Guivel Benhassine F, Mallet A, Marcelin A, et al. Tetherin restricts productive HIV-1 cell-to-cell transmission. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000955 pubmed publisher
    ..24) impairs release of mature HIV-1 particles from infected cells. HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the effect of tetherin. The fate of virions trapped at the cell surface remains poorly understood...
  7. Hotter D, Kirchhoff F, Sauter D. HIV-1 Vpu does not degrade interferon regulatory factor 3. J Virol. 2013;87:7160-5 pubmed publisher
    It has been reported that HIV-1 Vpu mediates the degradation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) to avoid innate immune sensing...
  8. Miyakawa K, Ryo A, Murakami T, Ohba K, Yamaoka S, Fukuda M, et al. BCA2/Rabring7 promotes tetherin-dependent HIV-1 restriction. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000700 pubmed publisher
  9. Alvarez R, Hamlin R, Monroe A, Moldt B, Hotta M, Rodriguez Caprio G, et al. HIV-1 Vpu antagonism of tetherin inhibits antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic responses by natural killer cells. J Virol. 2014;88:6031-46 pubmed publisher
    The type I interferon-inducible factor tetherin retains virus particles on the surfaces of cells infected with vpu-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  10. Schindler M, Rajan D, Banning C, Wimmer P, Koppensteiner H, Iwanski A, et al. Vpu serine 52 dependent counteraction of tetherin is required for HIV-1 replication in macrophages, but not in ex vivo human lymphoid tissue. Retrovirology. 2010;7:1 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein degrades CD4 and counteracts a restriction factor termed tetherin (CD317; Bst-2) to enhance virion release...

Detail Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. Goffinet C, Allespach I, Homann S, Tervo H, Habermann A, Rupp D, et al. HIV-1 antagonism of CD317 is species specific and involves Vpu-mediated proteasomal degradation of the restriction factor. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:285-97 pubmed publisher
    ..blocks release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from the cell surface and can be overcome by HIV-1 Vpu. Here, we show that mouse and rat CD317 potently inhibit HIV-1 release but are resistant to Vpu...
  2. Schubert U, Strebel K. Differential activities of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1-encoded Vpu protein are regulated by phosphorylation and occur in different cellular compartments. J Virol. 1994;68:2260-71 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific Vpu is an 81-amino-acid amphipathic integral membrane protein with at least two different biological functions: (i) enhancement of virus particle release from the plasma membrane ..
  3. Strebel K. HIV accessory genes Vif and Vpu. Adv Pharmacol. 2007;55:199-232 pubmed
  4. Dubé M, Roy B, Guiot Guillain P, Mercier J, Binette J, Leung G, et al. Suppression of Tetherin-restricting activity upon human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particle release correlates with localization of Vpu in the trans-Golgi network. J Virol. 2009;83:4574-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Vpu promotes the efficient release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by overcoming the activity of tetherin, a host cell restriction factor that retains assembled virions at the cell surface...
  5. Neil S, Bieniasz P. Human immunodeficiency virus, restriction factors, and interferon. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2009;29:569-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Such knowledge could allow for novel forms of therapeutic intervention in pathogenic retroviral infections, as well as the development of animal models of human disease. ..
  6. Casartelli N, Sourisseau M, Feldmann J, Guivel Benhassine F, Mallet A, Marcelin A, et al. Tetherin restricts productive HIV-1 cell-to-cell transmission. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000955 pubmed publisher
    ..24) impairs release of mature HIV-1 particles from infected cells. HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the effect of tetherin. The fate of virions trapped at the cell surface remains poorly understood...
  7. Hotter D, Kirchhoff F, Sauter D. HIV-1 Vpu does not degrade interferon regulatory factor 3. J Virol. 2013;87:7160-5 pubmed publisher
    It has been reported that HIV-1 Vpu mediates the degradation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) to avoid innate immune sensing...
  8. Miyakawa K, Ryo A, Murakami T, Ohba K, Yamaoka S, Fukuda M, et al. BCA2/Rabring7 promotes tetherin-dependent HIV-1 restriction. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000700 pubmed publisher
  9. Alvarez R, Hamlin R, Monroe A, Moldt B, Hotta M, Rodriguez Caprio G, et al. HIV-1 Vpu antagonism of tetherin inhibits antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic responses by natural killer cells. J Virol. 2014;88:6031-46 pubmed publisher
    The type I interferon-inducible factor tetherin retains virus particles on the surfaces of cells infected with vpu-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  10. Schindler M, Rajan D, Banning C, Wimmer P, Koppensteiner H, Iwanski A, et al. Vpu serine 52 dependent counteraction of tetherin is required for HIV-1 replication in macrophages, but not in ex vivo human lymphoid tissue. Retrovirology. 2010;7:1 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein degrades CD4 and counteracts a restriction factor termed tetherin (CD317; Bst-2) to enhance virion release...
  11. Lim E, Malik H, Emerman M. Ancient adaptive evolution of tetherin shaped the functions of Vpu and Nef in human immunodeficiency virus and primate lentiviruses. J Virol. 2010;84:7124-34 pubmed publisher
    ..However, viruses have evolved antagonists of Tetherin, including the Vpu and Nef proteins of primate lentiviruses...
  12. Douglas J, Gustin J, Viswanathan K, Mansouri M, Moses A, Fruh K. The great escape: viral strategies to counter BST-2/tetherin. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000913 pubmed publisher
    ..However, viral proteins such as HIV-1 Vpu, simian immunodeficiency virus Nef, and KSHV K5 counteract BST-2, thereby allowing mature virions to readily escape ..
  13. Evans D, Serra Moreno R, Singh R, Guatelli J. BST-2/tetherin: a new component of the innate immune response to enveloped viruses. Trends Microbiol. 2010;18:388-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This barrier was crossed by HIV-1 when its Vpu protein acquired activity as a BST-2 antagonist...
  14. Dave V, Hajjar F, Dieng M, Haddad E, Cohen E. Efficient BST2 antagonism by Vpu is critical for early HIV-1 dissemination in humanized mice. Retrovirology. 2013;10:128 pubmed publisher
    b>Vpu is a multifunctional accessory protein that enhances the release of HIV-1 by counteracting the entrapment of nascent virions on infected cell surface mediated by BST2/Tetherin...
  15. Sauter D, Hue S, Petit S, Plantier J, Towers G, Kirchhoff F, et al. HIV-1 Group P is unable to antagonize human tetherin by Vpu, Env or Nef. Retrovirology. 2011;8:103 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus far, three SIV/HIV gene products (vpu, nef and env) are known to have the potential to counteract primate tetherin proteins, often in a species-specific ..
  16. Fischer W, Li L, Mahato D, Wang Y, Chen C. Viral channel proteins in intracellular protein-protein communication: Vpu of HIV-1, E5 of HPV16 and p7 of HCV. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1838:1113-21 pubmed publisher
    ..An overview of the interactions with host proteins is given for Vpu from HIV-1, E5 from HPV-16 and p7 from HCV...
  17. Richard J, Cohen E. HIV-1 Vpu disarms natural killer cells. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;8:389-91 pubmed publisher
    ..2010) demonstrate that HIV-1 protects infected cells from NK-cell-mediated killing by hindering NK-cell degranulation through downmodulation of NTB-A coactivation receptor ligands by the Vpu accessory protein.
  18. Serra Moreno R, Jia B, Breed M, Alvarez X, Evans D. Compensatory changes in the cytoplasmic tail of gp41 confer resistance to tetherin/BST-2 in a pathogenic nef-deleted SIV. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;9:46-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas HIV-1 Vpu and HIV-2 Env counteract human tetherin, most SIVs use Nef to antagonize the tetherin proteins of their nonhuman ..
  19. Lehmann M, Rocha S, Mangeat B, Blanchet F, Uji i H, Hofkens J, et al. Quantitative multicolor super-resolution microscopy reveals tetherin HIV-1 interaction. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002456 pubmed publisher
    ..virus 1 (HIV-1) through direct incorporation into viral membranes and is counteracted by the HIV-1 protein Vpu. For super-resolution analysis of HIV-1 and tetherin interactions, we established fluorescence labeling of HIV-1 ..
  20. Rollason R, Dunstan K, Billcliff P, Bishop P, Gleeson P, Wise H, et al. Expression of HIV-1 Vpu leads to loss of the viral restriction factor CD317/Tetherin from lipid rafts and its enhanced lysosomal degradation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75680 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the HIV viral accessory protein Vpu has been shown to lead to intracellular sequestration and degradation of tetherin, thereby counteracting the ..
  21. Margottin F, Bour S, Durand H, Selig L, Benichou S, Richard V, et al. A novel human WD protein, h-beta TrCp, that interacts with HIV-1 Vpu connects CD4 to the ER degradation pathway through an F-box motif. Mol Cell. 1998;1:565-74 pubmed
    HIV-1 Vpu interacts with CD4 in the endoplasmic reticulum and triggers CD4 degradation, presumably by proteasomes...
  22. Evrard Todeschi N, Gharbi Benarous J, Bertho G, Coadou G, Megy S, Benarous R, et al. NMR studies for identifying phosphopeptide ligands of the HIV-1 protein Vpu binding to the F-box protein beta-TrCP. Peptides. 2006;27:194-210 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu enhances viral particle release and, its interaction with the ubiquitin ligase SCF-beta-TrCP triggers the HIV-1 receptor CD4 degradation by the proteasome...
  23. Harila K, Prior I, Sjöberg M, Salminen A, Hinkula J, Suomalainen M. Vpu and Tsg101 regulate intracellular targeting of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 core protein precursor Pr55gag. J Virol. 2006;80:3765-72 pubmed
    ..indicated that Pr55gag was inserted into the plasma membrane and, when coexpressed with the viral accessory protein Vpu, Pr55gag remained at the plasma membrane and virions assembled at this site...
  24. Morrison J, Guevara R, Marcano A, Saenz D, Fadel H, Rogstad D, et al. Feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins antagonize tetherin through a distinctive mechanism that requires virion incorporation. J Virol. 2014;88:3255-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Primate lentiviruses have evolved specific antagonists (Vpu, Nef, and Env)...
  25. Willey R, Maldarelli F, Martin M, Strebel K. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein regulates the formation of intracellular gp160-CD4 complexes. J Virol. 1992;66:226-34 pubmed
    ..This CD4-mediated inhibition of gp160 processing was alleviated by coexpression of the HIV-1-encoded Vpu protein. The coexpression of Vpu and CD4 in the presence of gp160 resulted in increased degradation of CD4...
  26. Schubert U, Henklein P, Boldyreff B, Wingender E, Strebel K, Porstmann T. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 encoded Vpu protein is phosphorylated by casein kinase-2 (CK-2) at positions Ser52 and Ser56 within a predicted alpha-helix-turn-alpha-helix-motif. J Mol Biol. 1994;236:16-25 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encoded Vpu is a small integral membrane phosphoprotein that functions in the enhancement of viral particle release and has more recently been shown to cause degradation of CD4 at the ..
  27. Belaïdouni N, Marchal C, Benarous R, Besnard Guerin C. Involvement of the betaTrCP in the ubiquitination and stability of the HIV-1 Vpu protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;357:688-93 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein binds to the CD4 receptor and targets it to the proteasome for degradation...
  28. Zhang F, Wilson S, Landford W, Virgen B, Gregory D, Johnson M, et al. Nef proteins from simian immunodeficiency viruses are tetherin antagonists. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:54-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The HIV-1 Vpu protein antagonizes the antiviral activity of human but not monkey tetherins and many simian immunodeficiency ..
  29. Dubé M, Roy B, Guiot Guillain P, Binette J, Mercier J, Chiasson A, et al. Antagonism of tetherin restriction of HIV-1 release by Vpu involves binding and sequestration of the restriction factor in a perinuclear compartment. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000856 pubmed publisher
    The Vpu accessory protein promotes HIV-1 release by counteracting Tetherin/BST-2, an interferon-regulated restriction factor, which retains virions at the cell-surface...
  30. Gustin J, Douglas J, Bai Y, Moses A. Ubiquitination of BST-2 protein by HIV-1 Vpu protein does not require lysine, serine, or threonine residues within the BST-2 cytoplasmic domain. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:14837-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu binds to both BST-2 and ?TrCP, a substrate-recognition subunit for the SCF (Skip1-Cullin1-F-box protein) E3 ..
  31. Sauter D, Schindler M, Specht A, Landford W, M nch J, Kim K, et al. Tetherin-driven adaptation of Vpu and Nef function and the evolution of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1 strains. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:409-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Vpu proteins of pandemic HIV-1 M strains degrade the viral receptor CD4 and antagonize human tetherin to promote viral release and replication...
  32. Sauter D, Specht A, Kirchhoff F. Tetherin: holding on and letting go. Cell. 2010;141:392-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This Essay discusses the host restriction factor tetherin, which blocks the release of enveloped viruses like HIV-1, and the factors evolved by primate lentiviruses, such as Vpu and Nef, that antagonize tetherin's action.
  33. Skasko M, Wang Y, Tian Y, Tokarev A, Munguia J, Ruiz A, et al. HIV-1 Vpu protein antagonizes innate restriction factor BST-2 via lipid-embedded helix-helix interactions. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:58-67 pubmed publisher
    The Vpu protein of HIV-1 antagonizes BST-2 (tetherin), a broad spectrum effector of the innate immune response to viral infection, by an intermolecular interaction that maps genetically to the ?-helical transmembrane domains (TMDs) of ..
  34. Fritz J, Tibroni N, Keppler O, Fackler O. HIV-1 Vpu's lipid raft association is dispensable for counteraction of the particle release restriction imposed by CD317/Tetherin. Virology. 2012;424:33-44 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the block to particle release mediated by CD317 (BST-2/HM1.24/Tetherin) via incompletely understood mechanisms...
  35. Singh S, Möckel L, Thiagarajan Rosenkranz P, Wittlich M, Willbold D, Koenig B. Mapping the interaction between the cytoplasmic domains of HIV-1 viral protein U and human CD4 with NMR spectroscopy. FEBS J. 2012;279:3705-3714 pubmed publisher
    Viral protein U (VpU) of HIV-1 plays an important role in downregulation of the main HIV-1 receptor CD4 from the surface of infected cells...
  36. Jafari M, Guatelli J, Lewinski M. Activities of transmitted/founder and chronic clade B HIV-1 Vpu and a C-terminal polymorphism specifically affecting virion release. J Virol. 2014;88:5062-78 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 has evolved to counteract these factors, and one such adaptation, the ability of Vpu to counteract BST2/tetherin, is associated with the evolution of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz) into ..
  37. Hatziioannou T, Del Prete G, Keele B, Estes J, McNatt M, Bitzegeio J, et al. HIV-1-induced AIDS in monkeys. Science. 2014;344:1401-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, an adapted HIV-1 can cause AIDS in macaques, and stark differences in outcome can be determined by immunological perturbations during early infection. ..
  38. Janvier K, Pelchen Matthews A, Renaud J, Caillet M, Marsh M, Berlioz Torrent C. The ESCRT-0 component HRS is required for HIV-1 Vpu-mediated BST-2/tetherin down-regulation. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001265 pubmed publisher
    ..This activity is related to the ability of the HIV-1 Vpu protein to down-regulate BST-2/tetherin...
  39. Hout D, Gomez M, Pacyniak E, Gomez L, Inbody S, Mulcahy E, et al. Scrambling of the amino acids within the transmembrane domain of Vpu results in a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIVTM) that is less pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques. Virology. 2005;339:56-69 pubmed
    Previous studies have shown that the transmembrane (TM) domain of the subtype B Vpu enhances virion release from cells and some studies have shown that this domain may form an oligomeric structure with properties of an ion channel...
  40. Ruiz A, Lau D, Mitchell R, Hill M, Schmitt K, Guatelli J, et al. BST-2 mediated restriction of simian-human immunodeficiency virus. Virology. 2010;406:312-21 pubmed publisher
    Pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) contain HIV-1 Vpu and SIV Nef, both shown to counteract BST-2 (HM1.24; CD317; tetherin) inhibition of virus release in a species-specific manner...
  41. Strebel K. HIV-1 Vpu - an ion channel in search of a job. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1838:1074-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Vpu is a small membrane protein encoded by HIV-1 and some SIV isolates. The protein is best known for its ability to degrade CD4 and to enhance the release of progeny virions from infected cells...
  42. Sauter D, Hotter D, Engelhart S, Giehler F, Kieser A, Kubisch C, et al. A rare missense variant abrogates the signaling activity of tetherin/BST-2 without affecting its effect on virus release. Retrovirology. 2013;10:85 pubmed publisher
    ..affects the ability of tetherin to inhibit HIV-1 virion release or its sensitivity to antagonism by HIV-1 Vpu or SIVtan Env, although Y8H alters a potential YxY endocytic motif proposed to play a role in virion uptake...
  43. Yin X, Hu Z, Gu Q, Wu X, Zheng Y, Wei P, et al. Equine tetherin blocks retrovirus release and its activity is antagonized by equine infectious anemia virus envelope protein. J Virol. 2014;88:1259-70 pubmed publisher
    ..activity of equine tetherin is neutralized by EIAV envelope protein, but not by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu, which is a human tetherin antagonist, and EIAV envelope protein does not counteract human tetherin...
  44. Raja N, Vincent M, Abdul Jabbar M. Vpu-mediated proteolysis of gp160/CD4 chimeric envelope glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum: requirement of both the anchor and cytoplasmic domains of CD4. Virology. 1994;204:357-66 pubmed
    The Vpu protein of HIV-1 induces degradation of CD4 in the endoplasmic reticulum...
  45. Singh D, Griffin D, Pacyniak E, Jackson M, Werle M, Wisdom B, et al. The presence of the casein kinase II phosphorylation sites of Vpu enhances the CD4(+) T cell loss caused by the simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(KU-lbMC33) in pig-tailed macaques. Virology. 2003;313:435-51 pubmed
    ..virus (SHIV)/ macaque model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 has become a useful tool to assess the role of Vpu in lentivirus pathogenesis...
  46. Ruiz A, Guatelli J, Stephens E. The Vpu protein: new concepts in virus release and CD4 down-modulation. Curr HIV Res. 2010;8:240-52 pubmed
    ..virus type 1 (HIV-1) and several simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) encode for a transmembrane protein known as Vpu (viral protein U)...
  47. Moll M, Andersson S, Smed Sorensen A, Sandberg J. Inhibition of lipid antigen presentation in dendritic cells by HIV-1 Vpu interference with CD1d recycling from endosomal compartments. Blood. 2010;116:1876-84 pubmed publisher
    ..the surface expression of CD1d in productively infected DCs and identify this as a novel activity of the HIV-1 vpu gene product...
  48. Willey R, Maldarelli F, Martin M, Strebel K. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein induces rapid degradation of CD4. J Virol. 1992;66:7193-200 pubmed
    ..We have recently demonstrated that the presence of the HIV-1-encoded integral membrane protein Vpu can reduce the formation of Env-CD4 complexes, resulting in increased gp160 processing and decreased CD4 stability...
  49. Friborg J, Ladha A, Gottlinger H, Haseltine W, Cohen E. Functional analysis of the phosphorylation sites on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995;8:10-22 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-encoded vpu product is a small class 1 integral membrane protein that is phosphorylated by the ubiquitous casein kinase II (CKII) in HIV-1-infected cells...
  50. Pacyniak E, Gomez M, Gomez L, Mulcahy E, Jackson M, Hout D, et al. Identification of a region within the cytoplasmic domain of the subtype B Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that is responsible for retention in the golgi complex and its absence in the Vpu protein from a subtype C HIV-1. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2005;21:379-94 pubmed
    The structure of the Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is composed of a short Nterminal domain (NTD), a transmembrane domain (TM), and a cytoplasmic domain (CD)...
  51. Van Damme N, Goff D, Katsura C, Jorgenson R, Mitchell R, Johnson M, et al. The interferon-induced protein BST-2 restricts HIV-1 release and is downregulated from the cell surface by the viral Vpu protein. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;3:245-52 pubmed publisher
    The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu counteracts a host factor that restricts virion release from infected cells. Here we show that the interferon-induced cellular protein BST-2/HM1.24/CD317 is such a factor...
  52. Sandberg J, Andersson S, Bachle S, Nixon D, Moll M. HIV-1 Vpu interference with innate cell-mediated immune mechanisms. Curr HIV Res. 2012;10:327-33 pubmed
    The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu is emerging as a viral factor with a range of activities devoted to counteracting host innate immunity...
  53. Doehle B, Chang K, Fleming L, McNevin J, Hladik F, McElrath M, et al. Vpu-deficient HIV strains stimulate innate immune signaling responses in target cells. J Virol. 2012;86:8499-506 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently identified the viral protein Vpu to be a key determinant responsible for HIV-1 targeting and degradation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a ..
  54. Tanaka M, Ueno T, Nakahara T, Sasaki K, Ishimoto A, Sakai H. Downregulation of CD4 is required for maintenance of viral infectivity of HIV-1. Virology. 2003;311:316-25 pubmed
    ..HIV-1 encodes multiple gene products, Env, Vpu, and Nef, involved in downregulation of CD4, a major HIV-1 receptor...
  55. Kirchhoff F. Immune evasion and counteraction of restriction factors by HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;8:55-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, I summarize some of our current knowledge on the acquisition and function of the viral vif, vpr, vpu, and nef genes, with a particular focus on the evolution and specific properties of pandemic HIV-1 strains that may ..
  56. Lu J, Sharpe S, Ghirlando R, Yau W, Tycko R. Oligomerization state and supramolecular structure of the HIV-1 Vpu protein transmembrane segment in phospholipid bilayers. Protein Sci. 2010;19:1877-96 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 Vpu is an 81-residue protein with a single N-terminal transmembrane (TM) helical segment that is involved in the release of new virions from host cell membranes...
  57. Yoshida T, Kao S, Strebel K. Identification of Residues in the BST-2 TM Domain Important for Antagonism by HIV-1 Vpu Using a Gain-of-Function Approach. Front Microbiol. 2011;2:35 pubmed publisher
    The HIV-1 Vpu protein enhances the release of viral particles from the cell-surface in a cell-type specific manner. In the absence of Vpu, nascent virions remain tethered to the cell-surface in restricted cell-types...
  58. Alter G, Heckerman D, Schneidewind A, Fadda L, Kadie C, Carlson J, et al. HIV-1 adaptation to NK-cell-mediated immune pressure. Nature. 2011;476:96-100 pubmed publisher
    ..NK cells might therefore have a previously underappreciated role in contributing to viral evolution. ..
  59. Schubert U, Schneider T, Henklein P, Hoffmann K, Berthold E, Hauser H, et al. Human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-encoded Vpu protein is phosphorylated by casein kinase II. Eur J Biochem. 1992;204:875-83 pubmed
    b>Vpu as a human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-encoded 81-amino-acid integral-membrane protein was expressed in Escherichia coli using the inducible ptrc promoter of an ATG fusion vector. Recombinant Vpu is associated with membranes of E...
  60. Yao X, Friborg J, Checroune F, Gratton S, Boisvert F, Sekaly R, et al. Degradation of CD4 induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein: a predicted alpha-helix structure in the proximal cytoplasmic region of CD4 contributes to Vpu sensitivity. Virology. 1995;209:615-23 pubmed
    The HIV-1-encoded Vpu protein induces a rapid and specific degradation of CD4 molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
  61. Butticaz C, Michielin O, Wyniger J, Telenti A, Rothenberger S. Silencing of both beta-TrCP1 and HOS (beta-TrCP2) is required to suppress human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu-mediated CD4 down-modulation. J Virol. 2007;81:1502-5 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein interacts with CD4 within the endoplasmic reticula of infected cells and targets CD4 for degradation through interaction with beta-TrCP1...
  62. Malim M, Emerman M. HIV-1 accessory proteins--ensuring viral survival in a hostile environment. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;3:388-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the interactions of the HIV-1 Nef, Vif, Vpu, and Vpr proteins with factors and pathways expressed in cells of the immune system...
  63. Andrew A, Miyagi E, Kao S, Strebel K. The formation of cysteine-linked dimers of BST-2/tetherin is important for inhibition of HIV-1 virus release but not for sensitivity to Vpu. Retrovirology. 2009;6:80 pubmed publisher
    The Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein enhances virus release from infected cells and induces proteasomal degradation of CD4...
  64. Jolly C, Booth N, Neil S. Cell-cell spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 overcomes tetherin/BST-2-mediated restriction in T cells. J Virol. 2010;84:12185-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The HIV-1 Vpu protein antagonizes tetherin activity; however, whether tetherin also restricts cell-cell spread is unclear...
  65. Andrew A, Miyagi E, Strebel K. Differential effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu on the stability of BST-2/tetherin. J Virol. 2011;85:2611-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The HIV-1-encoded Vpu protein effectively antagonizes the activity of BST-2...
  66. Arias J, Heyer L, von Bredow B, Weisgrau K, Moldt B, Burton D, et al. Tetherin antagonism by Vpu protects HIV-infected cells from antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:6425-30 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 overcomes this restriction factor by expressing HIV-1 viral protein U (Vpu), which down-regulates and degrades tetherin...
  67. Arias J, Iwabu Y, Tokunaga K. Structural Basis for the Antiviral Activity of BST-2/Tetherin and Its Viral Antagonism. Front Microbiol. 2011;2:250 pubmed publisher
    ..viruses have evolved specific antagonists to counteract this host antiviral molecule, such as the HIV-1 protein Vpu. BST-2 is a type II transmembrane protein with an unusual topology consisting of an N-terminal cytoplasmic tail (CT)..
  68. Patel P, Khan N, Rani M, Gupta D, Jameel S. The expression of HIV-1 Vpu in monocytes causes increased secretion of TGF-? that activates profibrogenic genes in hepatic stellate cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e88934 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the role of HIV-1 Vpu accessory protein in promoting profibrogenic activation of hepatic stellate cells...
  69. Leulier F, Marchal C, Miletich I, Limbourg Bouchon B, Benarous R, Lemaitre B. Directed expression of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu in Drosophila fat-body cells inhibits Toll-dependent immune responses. EMBO Rep. 2003;4:976-81 pubmed
    ..One of them, viral protein U (Vpu), has been shown to interfere with the cellular degradation machinery through interaction with SCF(beta-TrCP) ..
  70. Iwabu Y, Fujita H, Kinomoto M, Kaneko K, Ishizaka Y, Tanaka Y, et al. HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu internalizes cell-surface BST-2/tetherin through transmembrane interactions leading to lysosomes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:35060-72 pubmed publisher
    ..effect is counteracted by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein viral protein U (Vpu)...
  71. Dubé M, Paquay C, Roy B, Bego M, Mercier J, Cohen E. HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes BST-2 by interfering mainly with the trafficking of newly synthesized BST-2 to the cell surface. Traffic. 2011;12:1714-29 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 Vpu is thought to antagonize BST-2 by downregulating its surface levels via a mechanism that involves intracellular ..
  72. Besnard Guerin C, Belaïdouni N, Lassot I, Segeral E, Jobart A, Marchal C, et al. HIV-1 Vpu sequesters beta-transducin repeat-containing protein (betaTrCP) in the cytoplasm and provokes the accumulation of beta-catenin and other SCFbetaTrCP substrates. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:788-95 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein acts as an adaptor for the proteasomal degradation of CD4 by recruiting CD4 and beta-transducin repeat-containing protein (betaTrCP), the receptor component of the multisubunit SCF-..
  73. Caillet M, Janvier K, Pelchen Matthews A, Delcroix Genête D, Camus G, Marsh M, et al. Rab7A is required for efficient production of infectious HIV-1. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002347 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Rab7A contributes to the mechanism by which Vpu counteracts the restriction factor BST2/Tetherin and rescues HIV-1 release...
  74. Chu H, Wang J, Qi M, Yoon J, Chen X, Wen X, et al. Tetherin/BST-2 is essential for the formation of the intracellular virus-containing compartment in HIV-infected macrophages. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;12:360-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The HIV Vpu protein, which downregulates tetherin from the plasma membrane, did not fully overcome tetherin-mediated ..
  75. Cocka L, Bates P. Identification of alternatively translated Tetherin isoforms with differing antiviral and signaling activities. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002931 pubmed publisher
    ..which lacks 12 residues present in the long isoform (l-Tetherin), is significantly more resistant to HIV-1 Vpu-mediated downregulation and consequently more effectively restricts HIV-1 viral budding in the presence of Vpu...
  76. Casella C, Rapaport E, Finkel T. Vpu increases susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells to fas killing. J Virol. 1999;73:92-100 pubmed
    ..The increase in sensitivity of HIV-infected cells to Fas killing mapped to vpu, while nef, vif, vpr, and second exon of tat did not appear to contribute...
  77. Meusser B, Sommer T. Vpu-mediated degradation of CD4 reconstituted in yeast reveals mechanistic differences to cellular ER-associated protein degradation. Mol Cell. 2004;14:247-58 pubmed
    ..crucial step of viral infection occurs at the endoplasmic reticulum and is triggered by the HIV encoded protein Vpu. Here we show that this process can be recapitulated in baker's yeast...
  78. Wildum S, Schindler M, Munch J, Kirchhoff F. Contribution of Vpu, Env, and Nef to CD4 down-modulation and resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected T cells to superinfection. J Virol. 2006;80:8047-59 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) utilizes Vpu, Env, and Nef to down-modulate its primary CD4 receptor from the cell surface, and this function seems to be critical for the pathogenesis of AIDS...
  79. Waheed A, Ablan S, Soheilian F, Nagashima K, Ono A, Schaffner C, et al. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 assembly and release by the cholesterol-binding compound amphotericin B methyl ester: evidence for Vpu dependence. J Virol. 2008;82:9776-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, we found that AME does not inhibit the release of Vpu-defective HIV-1 or Vpu(-) retroviruses such as murine leukemia virus and simian immunodeficiency virus...
  80. Raja N, Jabbar M. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein tethered to the CD4 extracellular domain is localized to the plasma membrane and is biologically active in the secretory pathway of mammalian cells: implications for the mechanisms of Vpu function. Virology. 1996;220:141-51 pubmed
    The HIV-1 Vpu protein induces the proteolysis of CD4 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and enhances the release of virus particles from the plasma membrane...
  81. Addo M, Altfeld M, Rathod A, Yu M, Yu X, Goulder P, et al. HIV-1 Vpu represents a minor target for cytotoxic T lymphocytes in HIV-1-infection. AIDS. 2002;16:1071-3 pubmed
    We have previously shown that Vpu is rarely targeted by HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
  82. Hill M, Ruiz A, Schmitt K, Stephens E. Identification of amino acids within the second alpha helical domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu that are critical for preventing CD4 cell surface expression. Virology. 2010;397:104-12 pubmed publisher
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes for a Vpu protein, which interacts with CD4 resulting in its degradation...
  83. Chen M, Maldarelli F, Karczewski M, Willey R, Strebel K. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein induces degradation of CD4 in vitro: the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 contributes to Vpu sensitivity. J Virol. 1993;67:3877-84 pubmed
    ..We have recently demonstrated that Vpu, an HIV type 1 (HIV-1) encoded integral membrane phosphoprotein, induces rapid degradation of CD4 in the ..
  84. Lindwasser O, Chaudhuri R, Bonifacino J. Mechanisms of CD4 downregulation by the Nef and Vpu proteins of primate immunodeficiency viruses. Curr Mol Med. 2007;7:171-84 pubmed
    ..primate immunodeficiency viruses have evolved at least two distinct mechanisms, mediated by the Nef and Vpu viral proteins, to "downregulate" CD4 in the host cells...
  85. Greene W, Debyser Z, Ikeda Y, Freed E, Stephens E, Yonemoto W, et al. Novel targets for HIV therapy. Antiviral Res. 2008;80:251-65 pubmed publisher
    ..of discussed topics that included Vif-APOBEC3G, LEDGF/p75, TRIM 5alpha, virus assembly and maturation, and Vpu. The described viral and host factors represent some of the most noted examples of recent scientific breakthroughs ..
  86. Sato K, Misawa N, Fukuhara M, Iwami S, An D, Ito M, et al. Vpu augments the initial burst phase of HIV-1 propagation and downregulates BST2 and CD4 in humanized mice. J Virol. 2012;86:5000-13 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, the HIV-1 accessory protein, Vpu, has the ability to downregulate and counteract BST2...
  87. Lv M, Zhu Y, Wang J, Zhang H, Wang X, Zuo T, et al. Purification of eukaryotic tetherin/Vpu proteins and detection of their interaction by ELISA. Protein Expr Purif. 2013;91:112-8 pubmed publisher
    Tetherin/BST-2/CD317 inhibits HIV-1 release from infected cells, while HIV-1 Vpu efficiently antagonizes tetherin based on intermolecular interactions between the transmembrane domains of each protein...
  88. Lenburg M, Landau N. Vpu-induced degradation of CD4: requirement for specific amino acid residues in the cytoplasmic domain of CD4. J Virol. 1993;67:7238-45 pubmed
    Two functions have been attributed to the product of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpu open reading frame: it increases virion release from infected cells and induces rapid degradation of CD4 shortly after its synthesis...
  89. Tiganos E, Yao X, Friborg J, Daniel N, Cohen E. Putative alpha-helical structures in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein and CD4 are involved in binding and degradation of the CD4 molecule. J Virol. 1997;71:4452-60 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpu gene encodes a 16-kDa class I integral membrane phosphoprotein with an N-terminal membrane-spanning region and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain...
  90. Hout D, Mulcahy E, Pacyniak E, Gomez L, Gomez M, Stephens E. Vpu: a multifunctional protein that enhances the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Curr HIV Res. 2004;2:255-70 pubmed
    The Vpu protein is the smallest of the proteins encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  91. Gupta R, Mlcochova P, Pelchen Matthews A, Petit S, Mattiuzzo G, Pillay D, et al. Simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein counteracts tetherin/BST-2/CD317 by intracellular sequestration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20889-94 pubmed publisher
    ..factor that inhibits HIV-1 particle release in the absence of the HIV-1 countermeasure, viral protein U (Vpu)...
  92. Kuhl B, Sloan R, Donahue D, Bar Magen T, Liang C, Wainberg M. Tetherin restricts direct cell-to-cell infection of HIV-1. Retrovirology. 2010;7:115 pubmed publisher
    ..In HIV-1 infection, the viral protein U (Vpu) counteracts this antiviral action by down-modulating tetherin from the cell surface...
  93. Verma S, Ali A, Arora S, Banerjea A. Inhibition of ?-TrcP-dependent ubiquitination of p53 by HIV-1 Vpu promotes p53-mediated apoptosis in human T cells. Blood. 2011;117:6600-7 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 viral protein U (Vpu) is involved in ubiquitination and degradation of BM stromal cell Ag 2 and surface receptor CD4 through their recruitment to SCF(?-TrcP) (Skp1/Cul1/F-box) ubiquitin ligase (SCF) complex...