vpr

Summary

Gene Symbol: vpr
Description: p15
Alias: Vpr
Species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1

Top Publications

  1. doi HIV-1 accessory proteins--ensuring viral survival in a hostile environment
    Michael H Malim
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, 2nd Floor, Borough Wing, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, London, SE1 9RT, UK
    Cell Host Microbe 3:388-98. 2008
  2. pmc The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpr gene arrests infected T cells in the G2 + M phase of the cell cycle
    J B Jowett
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, UCLA School of Medicine 90095 1678, USA
    J Virol 69:6304-13. 1995
  3. doi HIV-1 Vpr up-regulates expression of ligands for the activating NKG2D receptor and promotes NK cell-mediated killing
    Jonathan Richard
    Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, QC, Canada
    Blood 115:1354-63. 2010
  4. pmc The functions of the HIV1 protein Vpr and its action through the DCAF1.DDB1.Cullin4 ubiquitin ligase
    Laurieann Casey
    Center for Immunology and Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College, 43 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Cytokine 51:1-9. 2010
  5. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr induces apoptosis in human neuronal cells
    C A Patel
    The Dorrance H Hamilton Laboratories, Center for Human Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    J Virol 74:9717-26. 2000
  6. doi Delineating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders using transgenic models: the neuropathogenic actions of Vpr
    Christopher Power
    Department of Medicine Neurology, University of Alberta, Heritage Medical Research Center, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 7:319-31. 2012
  7. pmc HIV-1 Vpr-mediated G2 arrest involves the DDB1-CUL4AVPRBP E3 ubiquitin ligase
    Jean Philippe Belzile
    Laboratory of Human Retrovirology, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS Pathog 3:e85. 2007
  8. pmc The HIV-1 virion-associated protein vpr is a coactivator of the human glucocorticoid receptor
    T Kino
    Section on Pediatric Endocrinology, Developmental Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 189:51-62. 1999
  9. pmc HIV-1 Vpr triggers natural killer cell-mediated lysis of infected cells through activation of the ATR-mediated DNA damage response
    Jeffrey Ward
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000613. 2009
  10. pmc DDB1 and Cul4A are required for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr-induced G2 arrest
    Lindi Tan
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 81:10822-30. 2007

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications122 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi HIV-1 accessory proteins--ensuring viral survival in a hostile environment
    Michael H Malim
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, 2nd Floor, Borough Wing, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, London, SE1 9RT, UK
    Cell Host Microbe 3:388-98. 2008
    ..Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the interactions of the HIV-1 Nef, Vif, Vpu, and Vpr proteins with factors and pathways expressed in cells of the immune system...
  2. pmc The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpr gene arrests infected T cells in the G2 + M phase of the cell cycle
    J B Jowett
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, UCLA School of Medicine 90095 1678, USA
    J Virol 69:6304-13. 1995
    ..Furthermore, we identify the HIV-1 vpr gene product as being both necessary and sufficient for eliciting this cell cycle arrest...
  3. doi HIV-1 Vpr up-regulates expression of ligands for the activating NKG2D receptor and promotes NK cell-mediated killing
    Jonathan Richard
    Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, QC, Canada
    Blood 115:1354-63. 2010
    ..However, the viral factor(s) involved in NKG2D ligand expression still remains undefined. HIV-1 Vpr activates the DNA damage/stress-sensing ATR kinase and promotes G(2) cell-cycle arrest, conditions known to up-..
  4. pmc The functions of the HIV1 protein Vpr and its action through the DCAF1.DDB1.Cullin4 ubiquitin ligase
    Laurieann Casey
    Center for Immunology and Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College, 43 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Cytokine 51:1-9. 2010
    Among the proteins encoded by human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) at least three, Vif, Vpu and Vpr, subvert cellular ubiquitin ligases to block the action of anti-viral defenses...
  5. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr induces apoptosis in human neuronal cells
    C A Patel
    The Dorrance H Hamilton Laboratories, Center for Human Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    J Virol 74:9717-26. 2000
    ..Of note, a higher level of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr has been detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patients with neurological disorders...
  6. doi Delineating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders using transgenic models: the neuropathogenic actions of Vpr
    Christopher Power
    Department of Medicine Neurology, University of Alberta, Heritage Medical Research Center, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 7:319-31. 2012
    ..Herein, we concentrate on the neuropathogenic effects of HIV-1 Vpr expressed under the control of c-fms, resulting transgene expression in myeloid cells in both the central and ..
  7. pmc HIV-1 Vpr-mediated G2 arrest involves the DDB1-CUL4AVPRBP E3 ubiquitin ligase
    Jean Philippe Belzile
    Laboratory of Human Retrovirology, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS Pathog 3:e85. 2007
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) has been shown to cause G2 cell cycle arrest in human cells by inducing ATR-mediated inactivation of p34cdc2, but factors directly engaged in this process remain unknown...
  8. pmc The HIV-1 virion-associated protein vpr is a coactivator of the human glucocorticoid receptor
    T Kino
    Section on Pediatric Endocrinology, Developmental Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 189:51-62. 1999
    The HIV-1 virion-associated accessory protein Vpr affects both viral replication and cellular transcription, proliferation, and differentiation...
  9. pmc HIV-1 Vpr triggers natural killer cell-mediated lysis of infected cells through activation of the ATR-mediated DNA damage response
    Jeffrey Ward
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000613. 2009
    ..Our studies reveal that expression of vpr is necessary and sufficient to elicit the expression of NKG2D ligands in the context of HIV-1 infection...
  10. pmc DDB1 and Cul4A are required for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr-induced G2 arrest
    Lindi Tan
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 81:10822-30. 2007
    b>Vpr-mediated induction of G2 cell cycle arrest has been postulated to be important for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication, but the precise role of Vpr in this cell cycle arrest is unclear...
  11. ncbi HIV-1 Vpr causes neuronal apoptosis and in vivo neurodegeneration
    Gareth J Jones
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1
    J Neurosci 27:3703-11. 2007
    ..governing neurodegeneration during HIV-1 infection remain uncertain, the HIV-1 accessory protein, viral protein R (Vpr), has been proposed as a neurotoxic protein...
  12. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr inhibits axonal outgrowth through induction of mitochondrial dysfunction
    Hiroko Kitayama
    Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoinkawara cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    J Virol 82:2528-42. 2008
    ..produce factors that impair the development of neuronal precursor cells and that soluble viral protein R (Vpr) is one of the factors that has the ability to suppress axonal growth...
  13. pmc Virion-associated Vpr of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 triggers activation of apoptotic events and enhances fas-induced apoptosis in human T cells
    Hubert Arokium
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California at Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, 615 Charles E Young Dr South, BSRB 173, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    J Virol 83:11283-97. 2009
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr protein exists in three different forms: soluble, intracellular, and virion associated...
  14. ncbi Diversity of HIV-1 Vpr interactions involves usage of the WXXF motif of host cell proteins
    M Bouhamdan
    The Dorrance H Hamilton Laboratories, Center for Human Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    J Biol Chem 273:8009-16. 1998
    ..One such retroviral-incorporated protein is Vpr, which is present in all primate lentiviruses...
  15. doi HIV-1 Vpr induces TLR4/MyD88-mediated IL-6 production and reactivates viral production from latency
    Shigeki Hoshino
    Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, 1 21 1 Toyama, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8655, Japan
    J Leukoc Biol 87:1133-43. 2010
    b>Vpr, a HIV-1 accessory protein, was believed to be present in the plasma of HIV-1-positive patients, and our previous work demonstrated the presence of plasma Vpr in 20 out of 52 patients...
  16. ncbi Gelsolin segment 5 inhibits HIV-induced T-cell apoptosis via Vpr-binding to VDAC
    Hongjiang Qiao
    Department of Dermatology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita 15, Nishi 7, Kita ku, Sapporo 060 0815, Japan
    FEBS Lett 581:535-40. 2007
    Viral protein R (Vpr) from the human immunodeficiency virus induces cell cycle arrest in proliferating cells, stimulates virus transcription, and regulates activation and apoptosis of infected T-lymphocytes...
  17. pmc PP2A1 binding, cell transducing and apoptotic properties of Vpr(77-92): a new functional domain of HIV-1 Vpr proteins
    Angélique N Godet
    Laboratoire E3 Phosphatases, Unité Signalisation Moléculaire et Activation Cellulaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 5:e13760. 2010
    ..HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) is a major pro-apoptotic gene product...
  18. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr-regulated cell death: insights into mechanism
    K Muthumani
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Cell Death Differ 12:962-70. 2005
    ..been proposed to play a role in this aspect of HIV pathogenesis including a 14 kDa protein named viral protein R (Vpr)...
  19. pmc Lentiviral Vpr usurps Cul4-DDB1[VprBP] E3 ubiquitin ligase to modulate cell cycle
    Kasia Hrecka
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:11778-83. 2007
    ..Viruses have evolved functions that alleviate restrictions imposed on their replication by the host. Vpr, an accessory factor of primate lentiviruses, arrests cells at the DNA damage checkpoint in G2 phase of the cell ..
  20. pmc The HIV-1 vpr protein acts as a negative regulator of apoptosis in a human lymphoblastoid T cell line: possible implications for the pathogenesis of AIDS
    L Conti
    Laboratory of Virology, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena, 299 00161 Rome, Italy
    J Exp Med 187:403-13. 1998
    ..b>Vpr is an auxiliary HIV-1 protein, which, unlike the other regulatory gene products, is present at high copy number in ..
  21. doi Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr: functions and molecular interactions
    Bizhan Romani
    Department of Pathology, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    J Gen Virol 90:1795-805. 2009
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) is an accessory protein that interacts with a number of cellular and viral proteins...
  22. ncbi The C-terminal moiety of HIV-1 Vpr induces cell death via a caspase-independent mitochondrial pathway
    T Roumier
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR1599, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, F 94805 Villejuif, France
    Cell Death Differ 9:1212-9. 2002
    Previous biochemical studies suggested that HIV-1-encoded Vpr may kill cells through an effect on the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), thereby causing mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP)...
  23. doi Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nuclear import via Vpr-Importin alpha interactions as a novel HIV-1 therapy
    Tatsunori Suzuki
    Viral Infectious Diseases Unit, RIKEN, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 380:838-43. 2009
    ..One such target is the interaction between Vpr, one of the accessory gene products of HIV-1 and Importin alpha, which is crucial, not only for the nuclear import ..
  24. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R (Vpr) arrests cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle by inhibiting p34cdc2 activity
    J He
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, New York, New York 10016, USA
    J Virol 69:6705-11. 1995
    The Vpr accessory gene product of human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus is believed to play a role in permitting entry of the viral core into the nucleus of nondividing cells...
  25. ncbi Immunodetection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr in brain tissue of HIV-1 encephalitic patients
    Elizabeth D A Wheeler
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Neurovirol 12:200-10. 2006
    ..Several HIV-1 viral proteins have been implicated in HIVE-associated neurodegeneration. HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr), a virion associated gene product known to induce apoptosis in nonproliferating cells, including neurons, is ..
  26. doi HIV-1 Vpr inhibits cytokinesis in human proximal tubule cells
    Paul E Rosenstiel
    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Kidney Int 74:1049-58. 2008
    ..HIV-1 vpr plays an important role in the glomerulosclerosis of HIVAN, especially when it is associated with nef expression in ..
  27. pmc Vpr14-88-Apobec3G fusion protein is efficiently incorporated into Vif-positive HIV-1 particles and inhibits viral infection
    Zhujun Ao
    Laboratory of Molecular Human Retrovirology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    PLoS ONE 3:e1995. 2008
    ..Thus, it is interesting to elucidate a mechanism that would allow A3G to escape the effects of Vif in order to rescue its potent antiviral activity and to provide a possible novel therapeutic strategy for treating HIV-1 infection...
  28. pmc HLA class I-driven evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype c proteome: immune escape and viral load
    Christine M Rousseau
    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 358070, Seattle, WA 98195 8070, USA
    J Virol 82:6434-46. 2008
    ..ratio of susceptible to resistant residues among those without the corresponding HLA alleles varied in the order Vpr > Gag > Rev > Pol > Nef > Vif > Tat > Env > Vpu (Fisher's exact test; P < or = 0...
  29. ncbi Roles of p53 and caspases in the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by HIV-1 vpr
    L D Shostak
    Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Cancer Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    Exp Cell Res 251:156-65. 1999
    The vpr gene from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) encodes a 14-kDa protein that prevents cell proliferation by causing a block in the G(2) phase of the cell cycle...
  30. ncbi Cell-surface processing of extracellular human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr by proprotein convertases
    Yong Xiao
    Laboratory of Human Retrovirology, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Virology 372:384-97. 2008
    Increasing evidence suggests that extracellular Vpr could contribute to HIV pathogenesis through its effect on bystander cells...
  31. ncbi Interplay between HIV-1 Vpr and Sp1 modulates p21(WAF1) gene expression in human astrocytes
    Shohreh Amini
    Center for Neurovirology and Cancer Biology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:46046-56. 2004
    The Vpr (viral protein R) of human immunodeficiency virus, type 1, which is expressed during the late stage of the viral infection, has received special attention because of its ability to control transcription of the human ..
  32. pmc HIV transcriptional activation by the accessory protein, VPR, is mediated by the p300 co-activator
    L K Felzien
    Departments of Internal Medicine and Biological Chemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0650, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:5281-6. 1998
    The accessory protein, Vpr, is a virion-associated protein that is required for HIV-1 replication in macrophages and regulates viral gene expression in T cells...
  33. pmc Roles of Vpr and Vpx in modulating the virus-host cell relationship
    Vicente Planelles
    Division of Cell Biology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, 2100 Room 2520, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 31:398-406. 2010
    The human and simian immunodeficiency viruses contain small open reading frames known as vpr and vpx. These genes encode proteins that are highly related both at the amino acid level and functionally, although key differences do exist...
  34. doi Modulating the activity of the channel-forming segment of Vpr protein from HIV-1
    Chin Pei Chen
    Institute of Biophotonics, School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 112, Taiwan
    Eur Biophys J 39:1089-95. 2010
    Viral protein of regulation (Vpr) encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a short auxiliary protein that is 96 amino acids in length...
  35. pmc Induction of G2 arrest and binding to cyclophilin A are independent phenotypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr
    Orly Ardon
    Division of Cellular Biology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, 30 N 1900 East, SOM 5C210, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA
    J Virol 80:3694-700. 2006
    ..and function (specifically, induction of G2 arrest) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protein R (Vpr). In the present study, we examine the role of the Vpr-CypA interaction on Vpr-induced G2 arrest...
  36. ncbi Effects of HIV-1 Vpr on neuroinvasion and neuropathogenesis
    Roger J Pomerantz
    Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Division of Infectious Disease and Environmental Medicine, Center for Human Virology and Biodefense, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    DNA Cell Biol 23:227-38. 2004
    ..One of these proteins, the accessory HIV-1 protein Vpr, is a critical moiety in these studies, and will be discussed in this article.
  37. ncbi HIV1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle by recruiting DCAF1/VprBP, a receptor of the Cul4-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase
    Erwann Le Rouzic
    Institut Cochin, Département Maladies Infectieuses, INSERM, CNRS, Universite Paris 5, Paris, France
    Cell Cycle 6:182-8. 2007
    How the HIV1 Vpr protein initiates the host cell response leading to cell cycle arrest in G(2) has remained unknown...
  38. ncbi Carboxyl terminus of hVIP/mov34 is critical for HIV-1-Vpr interaction and glucocorticoid-mediated signaling
    Mathura P Ramanathan
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:47854-60. 2002
    Human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) vpr is a highly conserved gene among lentiviruses. The diverse functions of Vpr support interactions of this HIV accessory protein with host cell partners of important pathways...
  39. ncbi T cell apoptosis causes peripheral T cell depletion in mice transgenic for the HIV-1 vpr gene
    J Yasuda
    Center for Experimental Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato ku, Tokyo, 108 8639, Japan
    Virology 285:181-92. 2001
    b>Vpr, an accessory protein of HIV, is known to affect viral replication as well as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis in vitro...
  40. pmc The immunosuppressive properties of the HIV Vpr protein are linked to a single highly conserved residue, R90
    Irina Tcherepanova
    Research and Development Department, Argos Therapeutics Inc, Durham, NC, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e5853. 2009
    ..IL-12, a critical Th1 cytokine secreted by antigen presenting cells (APCs) is suppressed by Vpr, implicating it as an important virulence factor...
  41. ncbi The HIV1 protein Vpr acts to promote G2 cell cycle arrest by engaging a DDB1 and Cullin4A-containing ubiquitin ligase complex using VprBP/DCAF1 as an adaptor
    Xiaoyun Wen
    Center for Immunology and Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:27046-57. 2007
    The roles of the HIV1 protein Vpr in virus replication and pathogenesis remain unclear. Expression of Vpr in dividing cells causes cell cycle arrest in G(2)...
  42. ncbi HIV-1 protein Vpr suppresses IL-12 production from human monocytes by enhancing glucocorticoid action: potential implications of Vpr coactivator activity for the innate and cellular immunity deficits observed in HIV-1 infection
    Marco Mirani
    Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 169:6361-8. 2002
    The HIV-1 protein Vpr has glucocorticoid receptor coactivator activity, potently increasing the sensitivity of glucocorticoid target tissues to cortisol...
  43. pmc Nuclear import of HIV-1 intracellular reverse transcription complexes is mediated by importin 7
    Ariberto Fassati
    The Wohl Virion Centre, Windeyer Institute, University College London Medical School, 46 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF, UK
    EMBO J 22:3675-85. 2003
    ..These results provide a new insight into the molecular mechanism for HIV-1 nuclear import and reveal potential targets for therapeutic intervention...
  44. pmc Characterization of the molecular determinants of primary HIV-1 Vpr proteins: impact of the Q65R and R77Q substitutions on Vpr functions
    Guillaume Jacquot
    Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, CNRS, UMR 8104, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 4:e7514. 2009
    Although HIV-1 Vpr displays several functions in vitro, limited information exists concerning their relevance during infection. Here, we characterized Vpr variants isolated from a rapid and a long-term non-progressor (LTNP)...
  45. ncbi Heat-shock protein 70 exerts opposing effects on Vpr-dependent and Vpr-independent HIV-1 replication in macrophages
    Sergey Iordanskiy
    The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037, USA
    Blood 104:1867-72. 2004
    HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and is believed to contribute to the process of nuclear translocation of the viral preintegration complex, thus facilitating HIV-1 replication in macrophages...
  46. pmc The Vif and Vpr accessory proteins independently cause HIV-1-induced T cell cytopathicity and cell cycle arrest
    Keiko Sakai
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:3369-74. 2006
    ..However, elimination of the vif and vpr accessory genes together, but not individually, renders the virus incapable of causing cell death and G(2) cell ..
  47. ncbi Cooperative actions of HIV-1 Vpr and p53 modulate viral gene transcription
    B E Sawaya
    Center for NeuroVirology and NeuroOncology, Allegheny University of the Health Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19102, USA
    J Biol Chem 273:20052-7. 1998
    ..In this study, we have examined the capacity of the viral auxiliary protein, Vpr, to modulate transcriptional activity of the HIV-1 promoter sequence located within the long terminal repeat (LTR)...
  48. pmc HIV-1 Vpr activates the G2 checkpoint through manipulation of the ubiquitin proteasome system
    Jason L Dehart
    Division of Cell Biology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    Virol J 4:57. 2007
    HIV-1 Vpr is a viral accessory protein that activates ATR through the induction of DNA replication stress. ATR activation results in cell cycle arrest in G2 and induction of apoptosis...
  49. pmc Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 binds to 14-3-3 proteins and facilitates complex formation with Cdc25C: implications for cell cycle arrest
    Tomoshige Kino
    Human Retrovirus Section, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute Frederick, Bldg 535, Rm 210, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    J Virol 79:2780-7. 2005
    b>Vpr and selected mutants were used in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae two-hybrid screen to identify cellular interactors. We found Vpr interacted with 14-3-3 proteins, a family regulating a multitude of proteins in the cell...
  50. pmc HIV-1 Vpr interacts with the nuclear transport pathway to promote macrophage infection
    M A Vodicka
    Divisions of Molecular Medicine and Basic Science, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109 USA
    Genes Dev 12:175-85. 1998
    HIV-1 Vpr promotes nuclear entry of viral nucleic acids in nondividing macrophages and also causes a G2 cell-cycle arrest...
  51. ncbi HIV-1 Vpr suppresses immune activation and apoptosis through regulation of nuclear factor kappa B
    V Ayyavoo
    Department of Pathology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Nat Med 3:1117-23. 1997
    The HIV-1 accessory gene product Vpr can influence viral pathogenesis by affecting viral replication as well as host cell transcription and proliferation...
  52. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr impairs dendritic cell maturation and T-cell activation: implications for viral immune escape
    Biswanath Majumder
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Virol 79:7990-8003. 2005
    ..In this study, we determined the effects of HIV-1 Vpr on one of the initial target of the virus, dendritic cells (DC), by investigating DC maturation, cytokine profiling,..
  53. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr induces apoptosis following cell cycle arrest
    S A Stewart
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, UCLA School of Medicine and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Virol 71:5579-92. 1997
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpr gene encodes a protein which induces arrest of cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle...
  54. ncbi Critical implication of the (70-96) domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr protein in apoptosis of primary rat cortical and striatal neurons
    Emmanuelle N Sabbah
    Unite de Pharmacochimie Moleculaire et Structurale, INSERM U266, CNRS UMR 8600, UFR des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Universite Rene Descartes, Paris, France
    J Neurovirol 11:489-502. 2005
    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 regulatory protein Vpr has been detected in the serum of HIV-seropositive individuals and in the cerebrospinal fluid of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients suffering from ..
  55. pmc tRNAs promote nuclear import of HIV-1 intracellular reverse transcription complexes
    Lyubov Zaitseva
    1Wohl Virion Centre, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 4:e332. 2006
    ..Here we provide evidence that at least some tRNA species can be imported into the nucleus of human cells and promote HIV-1 nuclear import...
  56. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 Vpr induces differential regulation of T cell costimulatory molecules: direct effect of Vpr on T cell activation and immune function
    Narasimhan J Venkatachari
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Virology 358:347-56. 2007
    ..Here we evaluated the direct effects of HIV-1 Vpr-mediated immune modulation of infected T cells...
  57. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr interacts with spliceosomal protein SAP145 to mediate cellular pre-mRNA splicing inhibition
    Chieko Hashizume
    Retrovirus Research Unit, RIKEN, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Microbes Infect 9:490-7. 2007
    b>Vpr, an accessory gene product of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), affects both viral and cellular proliferation by mediating long terminal repeat activation, cell cycle arrest at the G2 phase, and apoptosis...
  58. pmc Novel nuclear import of Vpr promoted by importin alpha is crucial for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in macrophages
    Yuko Nitahara-Kasahara
    Retrovirus Research Unit, RIKEN, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    J Virol 81:5284-93. 2007
    ..b>Vpr, one of the accessory gene products of HIV-1, is essential for the nuclear import of PIC in these cells, although ..
  59. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle in G2 by inhibiting the activation of p34cdc2-cyclin B
    F Re
    Department of Microbiology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Virol 69:6859-64. 1995
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpr inhibits the replication of tumor cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
  60. ncbi Structure of a human DNA repair protein UBA domain that interacts with HIV-1 Vpr
    T Dieckmann
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the Molecular Biology Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, 90095, USA
    Nat Struct Biol 5:1042-7. 1998
    The HIV-1 protein Vpr is critical for a number of viral functions including a unique ability to arrest T-cells at a G2/M checkpoint and induce subsequent apoptosis...
  61. ncbi Biochemical mechanism of HIV-I Vpr function. Specific interaction with a cellular protein
    L J Zhao
    Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics, and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City 66160 7424
    J Biol Chem 269:15577-82. 1994
    b>vpr is an accessory gene of human immunodeficiency virus I (HIV-I)...
  62. ncbi Mitochondrial control of cell death induced by HIV-1-encoded proteins
    K F Ferri
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR1599, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, F 94805 Villejuif, France
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 926:149-64. 2000
    ..MMP also occurs in HIV-1-induced apoptosis. Different HIV-1 encoded proteins (Env, Vpr, Tat, PR) can directly or indirectly trigger MMP, thereby causing cell death...
  63. pmc FAT10: a novel mediator of Vpr-induced apoptosis in human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy
    Alexandra Snyder
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Box 1243, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Virol 83:11983-8. 2009
    ..b>Vpr-induced cell cycle dysregulation and apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells are important components of the ..
  64. pmc Viral protein R regulates nuclear import of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex
    S Popov
    The Picower Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    EMBO J 17:909-17. 1998
    ..Genetic evidence suggests that viral protein R (Vpr) and matrix antigen (MA) are directly involved in the import process...
  65. ncbi Lentiviral expression of HIV-1 Vpr induces apoptosis in human neurons
    Charvi A Patel
    The Dorrance H Hamilton Laboratories, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    J Neurovirol 8:86-99. 2002
    Our recent studies have demonstrated that extracellular, recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) Vpr protein is highly neurotoxic in the microenvironment of differentiated mature human neurons and undifferentiated ..
  66. doi Host cell-specific effects of lentiviral accessory proteins on the eukaryotic cell cycle progression
    Mari Matsuda
    Department of Microbiology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi, Japan
    Microbes Infect 11:646-53. 2009
    ..For example, Vpr of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) induces the cell cycle G2 arrest in a host cell-specific manner...
  67. pmc Two putative alpha-helical domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr mediate nuclear localization by at least two mechanisms
    M Kamata
    RIKEN Tsukuba Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 0074, Japan
    J Virol 74:7179-86. 2000
    To identify the domains of Vpr that are involved nuclear localization, we transfected HeLa cells with a panel of expression vectors that encode mutant Vpr protein with deletions or substitutions within putative domains...
  68. ncbi The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr transactivator: cooperation with promoter-bound activator domains and binding to TFIIB
    I Agostini
    INSERM U372, Pathogénie des infections à lentivirus BP 178, Marseille, France
    J Mol Biol 261:599-606. 1996
    Since the first report documenting that HIV-1 Vpr was involved in the stimulation of transactivation of several unrelated promoters, little additional information has been reported...
  69. pmc Nuclear import, virion incorporation, and cell cycle arrest/differentiation are mediated by distinct functional domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr
    S Mahalingam
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    J Virol 71:6339-47. 1997
    The vpr gene product of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a virion-associated protein that is essential for efficient viral replication in monocytes/macrophages...
  70. pmc HIV-1 Vpr deregulates calcium secretion in neural cells
    Inna Rom
    Department of Neuroscience and Center for Neurovirology, Temple University School of Medicine, 1900 North 12th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
    Brain Res 1275:81-6. 2009
    ..Among HIV-1 proteins, Vpr has been shown to deregulate expression of various important cytokines and inflammatory proteins in infected and ..
  71. ncbi Structure-function relationship of Vpr: biological implications
    Nelly Morellet
    INSERM, U640, Paris, France
    Curr HIV Res 7:184-210. 2009
    b>Vpr, incorporated into the HIV-1 virion, shows multiple activities including nuclear transport of the preintegration complex to the nucleus, activation of the transcription, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M transition and induction of ..
  72. ncbi Structure-functional analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr: role of leucine residues on Vpr-mediated transactivation and virus replication
    Dineshkumar Thotala
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Virology 328:89-100. 2004
    HIV-1 Vpr has been shown to transactivate LTR-directed expression through its interaction with several proteins of cellular origin including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
  73. pmc HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) and its interactions with host cell
    Ge Li
    Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Curr HIV Res 7:178-83. 2009
    ..Recent findings suggest that HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) interacts with some of the host innate antiviral factors, such as heat shock proteins, and plays an active role as ..
  74. ncbi Pro-apoptotic activity of HIV-1 auxiliary regulatory protein Vpr is subtype-dependent and potently enhanced by nonconservative changes of the leucine residue at position 64
    Heng Jian
    Institute for Molecular Virology, St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:44326-30. 2003
    ..The HIV-1 auxiliary regulatory protein Vpr has been shown to harbor a pro-apoptotic activity that may contribute to cellular and tissue damage during AIDS ..
  75. pmc HIV-1 Vpr induces the K48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of target cellular proteins to activate ATR and promote G2 arrest
    Jean Philippe Belzile
    Laboratory of Human Retrovirology, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, 110, avenue des Pins Ouest, Montreal, Quebec H2W 1R7, Canada
    J Virol 84:3320-30. 2010
    HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) induces cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase by a mechanism involving the activation of the DNA damage sensor ATR...
  76. pmc Infection with Vpr-positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 impairs NK cell function indirectly through cytokine dysregulation of infected target cells
    Biswanath Majumder
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Virol 82:7189-200. 2008
    ..Here, we evaluated the effect of HIV-1 Vpr on NK cell cytolytic function and cytokine (gamma interferon [IFN-gamma]) production in the context of infection ..
  77. ncbi Interaction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr with the HHR23A DNA repair protein does not correlate with multiple biological functions of Vpr
    L M Mansky
    Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus 43210, USA
    Virology 282:176-85. 2001
    The virion-associated Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) alters cell cycle progression from the G2 phase, influences the virus in vivo mutation rate, and participates in the nuclear translocation of viral DNA...
  78. pmc Proline 35 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr regulates the integrity of the N-terminal helix and the incorporation of Vpr into virus particles and supports the replication of R5-tropic HIV-1 in human lymphoid tissue ex vivo
    Jörg Votteler
    Institute of Virology, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
    J Virol 81:9572-6. 2007
    Mutational analysis of the four conserved proline residues in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr reveals that only Pro-35 is required for efficient replication of R5-tropic, but not of X4-tropic, viruses in human lymphoid ..
  79. pmc Vpr cytopathicity independent of G2/M cell cycle arrest in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected CD4+ T cells
    Diane L Bolton
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10, Rm 11N311, 10 Center Dr, Bethesda, MD 20892 1892, USA
    J Virol 81:8878-90. 2007
    ..The HIV-1 Vpr accessory protein causes cell death and arrests cells in the G(2)/M phase; however, the molecular mechanism ..
  80. ncbi Analysis of apoptosis induced by HIV-1 Vpr and examination of the possible role of the hHR23A protein
    E M Gaynor
    UCLA AIDS Institute, University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095 1678, USA
    Exp Cell Res 267:243-57. 2001
    The HIV-1 Vpr protein induces apoptosis of cells, the mechanism of which is unknown...
  81. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr-mediated G2 arrest requires Rad17 and Hus1 and induces nuclear BRCA1 and gamma-H2AX focus formation
    Erik S Zimmerman
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Utah, 30 N 1900 East, SOM 5C210, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 24:9286-94. 2004
    ..We recently demonstrated that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene product viral protein R (Vpr) arrests infected cells in the G(2) phase via the activation of ATR...
  82. pmc The HIV-1 viral protein R induces apoptosis via a direct effect on the mitochondrial permeability transition pore
    E Jacotot
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F 94801 Villejuif, France
    J Exp Med 191:33-46. 2000
    Viral protein R (Vpr) encoded by HIV-1 is a facultative inducer of apoptosis...
  83. pmc HIV-1 Vpr induces defects in mitosis, cytokinesis, nuclear structure, and centrosomes
    Fred Chang
    Department of Microbiology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 15:1793-801. 2004
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr is a 15-kDa accessory protein that contributes to several steps in the viral replication cycle and promotes virus-associated pathology...
  84. ncbi Differential regulation of host cellular genes by HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr): cDNA microarray analysis using isogenic virus
    Michelle L Janket
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 314:1126-32. 2004
    HIV-1 Vpr is a protein with multiple functions...
  85. pmc Activation of transcription factors NF-kappaB and NF-IL-6 by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein R (Vpr) induces interleukin-8 expression
    P Roux
    Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Ste Justine Hospital Research Center, Canada
    J Virol 74:4658-65. 2000
    ..We report here that virion-derived HIV type 1 (HIV-1) protein R (Vpr) increased IL-8 expression in primary T cells and macrophages, as well as in the T-cell line Jurkat, the monocytic ..
  86. ncbi Human homologue of yeast Rad23 protein A interacts with p300/cyclic AMP-responsive element binding (CREB)-binding protein to down-regulate transcriptional activity of p53
    Q Zhu
    Department of Radiology Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA
    Cancer Res 61:64-70. 2001
    ..of p300, CBP, and p300 segments harboring C/H1 domain and neutralized by the coexpression of HIV accessory protein Vpr, which binds COOH terminus of hHR23A/B...
  87. pmc Vpr R77Q is associated with long-term nonprogressive HIV infection and impaired induction of apoptosis
    Julian J Lum
    Ottawa Health Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Invest 111:1547-54. 2003
    ..The (H[F/S]RIG)(2) domain of viral protein R (Vpr) induces apoptosis and may contribute to HIV-induced T cell depletion...
  88. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr enhances expression from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA
    Betty Poon
    Department of Microbiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, UCLA AIDS Institute and Jonsson Comprehensive CAncer Center, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Virol 77:3962-72. 2003
    ..HIV-1 Vpr is a virion-associated accessory protein that is critical for HIV-1 replication in nondividing cells and induces ..
  89. pmc Depletion of Wee-1 kinase is necessary for both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr- and gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis
    Huidong Yuan
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Virol 77:2063-70. 2003
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protein R (Vpr) induces G2 arrest, and prolonged G2 arrest leads to apoptosis...
  90. ncbi Adenovirus encoding HIV-1 Vpr activates caspase 9 and induces apoptotic cell death in both p53 positive and negative human tumor cell lines
    Karuppiah Muthumani
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, PA 19104, USA
    Oncogene 21:4613-25. 2002
    ..The vpr gene product of HIV-1 has been reported to interfere with cell growth and induce apoptosis, but the mechanism of ..
  91. ncbi The role of Vpr in HIV-1 pathogenesis
    Joshua L Andersen
    Division of Cellular Biology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Curr HIV Res 3:43-51. 2005
    The HIV-1 vpr gene is conserved among the human (HIV-1, HIV-2) and simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV). HIV-1 vpr encodes a 96-amino acid, 14 kDa protein (Vpr)...
  92. ncbi ATR and GADD45alpha mediate HIV-1 Vpr-induced apoptosis
    J L Andersen
    Department of Pathology, Division of Cellular Biology and Immunology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Cell Death Differ 12:326-34. 2005
    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) accessory gene vpr encodes a conserved 96-amino-acid protein that is necessary and sufficient for the HIV-1-induced block of cellular proliferation...
  93. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr protein binds to the uracil DNA glycosylase DNA repair enzyme
    M Bouhamdan
    INSERM U372, 13276 Marseille, France
    J Virol 70:697-704. 1996
    The role of the accessory gene product Vpr during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection remains unclear...
  94. pmc Characterization of HIV-1 vpr nuclear import: analysis of signals and pathways
    Y Jenkins
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94141 9100, USA
    J Cell Biol 143:875-85. 1998
    While the Vpr protein of HIV-1 has been implicated in import of the viral preintegration complex across the nuclear pore complex (NPC) of nondividing cellular hosts, the mechanism by which Vpr enters the nucleus remains unknown...
  95. pmc HIV-1 Vpr-induced apoptosis is cell cycle dependent and requires Bax but not ANT
    Joshua L Andersen
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 2:e127. 2006
    The HIV-1 accessory protein viral protein R (Vpr) causes G2 arrest and apoptosis in infected cells. We previously identified the DNA damage-signaling protein ATR as the cellular factor that mediates Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis...
  96. ncbi HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) & host cellular responses
    Richard Yuqi Zhao
    Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 South Pine Street, MSTF 600, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Indian J Med Res 121:270-86. 2005
    ..Among the many viral offensive strategies, viral protein R (Vpr) plays a particularly active role...
  97. pmc The Vpr protein from HIV-1: distinct roles along the viral life cycle
    Erwann Le Rouzic
    Institut Cochin, Department of Infectious Diseases, INSERM U567, CNRS UMR8104, Universite Paris 5, Paris, France
    Retrovirology 2:11. 2005
    ..the gag, pol and env genes and contain at least six supplementary open reading frames termed tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, vpx and vpu...
  98. ncbi Structural characterization of the HIV-1 Vpr N terminus: evidence of cis/trans-proline isomerism
    Karsten Bruns
    Department of Structural Biology, Gesellschaft fur Biotechnologische Forschung, D 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
    J Biol Chem 278:43188-201. 2003
    The 96-residue human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accessory protein Vpr serves manifold functions in the retroviral life cycle including augmentation of viral replication in non-dividing host cells, induction of G2 cell cycle arrest, and ..
  99. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpr gene induces phenotypic effects similar to those of the DNA alkylating agent, nitrogen mustard
    B Poon
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Virol 71:3961-71. 1997
    The product of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpr gene induces cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle and is characterized by an accumulation of the hyperphosphorylated form of cdc2 kinase...
  100. ncbi The role of Vpr in the regulation of HIV-1 gene expression
    Jianqi Cui
    Department of Neuroscience and Center for Neurovirology, Temple University School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122, USA
    Cell Cycle 5:2626-38. 2006
    Expression of the viral protein R, Vpr, of HIV-1 affects many biological events in host cells including cell cycle progression, and modulates HIV-1 gene transcription...
  101. ncbi Interaction of virion protein Vpr of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with cellular transcription factor Sp1 and trans-activation of viral long terminal repeat
    L Wang
    Marion Merrell Dow Foundation, Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City 66160 7424, USA
    J Biol Chem 270:25564-9. 1995
    ..However, most of these cells in vivo are immunologically quiescent, a condition restricting HIV-1 replication. Vpr is an HIV-1 virion protein suspected to enhance HIV-1 replication in vivo...

Research Grants77

  1. Effect of HIV-1 Vpr on Basic Cellular Functions (II)
    Richard Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2006
    HIV-1 Vpr plays a pivotal role in viral pathogenesis, as its functions are being linked to nuclear transport of viral pre-integration complex, viral replication and suppression of human immune function...
  2. Effect of HIV-1 Vpr on Basic Cellular Functions (II)
    Richard Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2007
    HIV-1 Vpr plays a pivotal role in viral pathogenesis, as its functions are being linked to nuclear transport of viral pre-integration complex, viral replication and suppression of human immune function...
  3. Cell Cycle G2/M Pathway Modulated by Viral Protein R
    Richard Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The viral protein R (Vpr) of HIV-1 induces G2 arrest in cells from distantly related eukaryotes, including fission yeast and human...
  4. Effect of HIV-1 Vpr on Basic Cellular Functions (II)
    Richard Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2003
    HIV-1 Vpr plays a pivotal role in viral pathogenesis, as its functions are being linked to nuclear transport of viral pre-integration complex, viral replication and suppression of human immune function...
  5. LENTIVIRUS-INDUCED NEUROPATHY: VIRAL DIVERSITY AND HOST*
    Christopher Power; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..From these studies, we expect to gain insights into this common neurological complication in terms of lentivirus-induced neurovirulence and pathogenic host responses. ..
  6. NEUROTOXIC MECHANISMS MEDIATED BY LENTIVIRUS-INDUCED PROTEOLYSIS
    Christopher Power; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The information derived from this proposal will be applicable to the prevention and treatment of HIV-associated brain disease. ..
  7. PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY IN LENTIVIRUS INFECTIONS: EARLY VIRAL AND HOST DETERMINANTS
    Christopher Power; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Many of the scientific techniques and models to be employed in the experiments described herein are unique to the laboratories of this team of investigators who have worked together for many years. ..
  8. VPR-INDUCED ENDOTHELIAL CYTOSKELETAL/FUNCTIONAL CHANGES
    Ling Jun Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2002
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the applicant's description) Our long-term goal is to understand the function of HIV-1 Vpr during viral replication and pathogenesis...
  9. Alcohol's Effects on HIV-1 and the Blood: Brain Barrier
    Roger Pomerantz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We have demonstrated that various viral proteins, especially HIV-1 Vpr, has profound effects on CNS-based cells leading to apoptotic death...
  10. Effects of HIV -1 Proteins on the Blood/ Brain Barrier
    Roger Pomerantz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In addition, we have demonstrated recently that the HIV- I regulatory protein, Vpr, has significant effects on inducing apoptosis in human neuronal cells, as well as activating bone marrow-derived ..
  11. INDUCTION OF APOPTOSIS BY HIV-1 VPR
    Vicente Planelles; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The VPR gene from HIV-1 encodes a 96 amino acid protein that induces apoptosis in infected lymphocytes...
  12. HIV/AIDS Intravirion Reverse Transcription and Virucides
    Roger Pomerantz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These studies are also designed to move analysis of intravirion reverse transcription from the bench towards clinical utility in altering sexual transmission of human lentiviruses. ..
  13. Gene Therapy of AIDS Dementia
    Roger Pomerantz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. Leukocyte recruitment by cyclophilinc-CD147 interaction
    Michael Bukrinsky; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This exploratory proposal is fully consistent with the goals of this PA as it extends our previous discovery toward new directions related to regulation of inflammatory responses. ..
  15. Mechanisms of virus-induced impairment of reverse cholesterol transport
    Dmitri Sviridov; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, the proposed studies will define the mechanisms regulating physiological turnover of ABCA1 and thus may contribute to development of new therapeutic agents to treat atherosclerosis. ..
  16. Oxadaizols: Rationally designed compounds targeting HIV nuclear importation
    Michael Bukrinsky; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies are highly relevant to public health as they are expected to expand the repertoire of available anti-HIV drugs, thus providing an opportunity to fight drug resistance often seen in HIV-infected patients. ..
  17. HIV Impairs Reverse Cholesterol Transport
    Michael Bukrinsky; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies are expected to yield sufficient information upon which to base a well-planned and rigorous series of further investigations. ..
  18. INDUCTION OF APOPTOSIS BY HIV-1 VPR
    Vicente Planelles; Fiscal Year: 2007
    The HIV-1 accessory gene Vpr encodes a conserved 96-amino acid protein that induces block of the cell cycle at the 62 phase. Expression of Vpr in CD4+ lymphocytes also induces apoptosis...
  19. The Role of Vpr in HIV-1 Nuclear Translocation
    Michael Bukrinsky; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..One of the main regulators of this interaction is viral protein R (Vpr). However, molecular details of Vpr's activity are not understood...
  20. CD4+ memory T cell recruitment by cyclophilin
    Michael Bukrinsky; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Therefore, the R03 mechanism appears highly appropriate. If proven, this hypothesis will serve as a foundation for a new research program, which might suggest novel approaches to treatment of HIV-1 infection. ..
  21. HIV Disease and Impairement of High Density Lipoprotein Metabolism
    Dmitri Sviridov; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, mechanisms connecting HIV infection and anti-HIV treatment with development of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, making proposed study highly significant both for basic science and clinical research. ..
  22. NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATION OF HIV 1 GENOME AS A DRUG TARGET
    Michael Bukrinsky; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Studies by our and other groups demonstrated the important role of Vpr in HIV-I nuclear import and replication in macrophages...
  23. NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATION OF HIV1 GENOME AS A DRUG TARGET
    Michael Bukrinsky; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Mutations in the NLS, when combined with defects in another HIV-1 protein, Vpr, resulted in the inability of the virus to deliver its genome into the nucleus of macrophages, thus effectively ..
  24. Activation of a DNA damage pathway by HIV-1 vpr
    Vicente Planelles; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The vpr gene encodes a 96-amino acid protein (Vpr) that causes cell cycle arrest in G2 and apoptosis in the infected ..
  25. Retroviral Vectors for Gene Therapy of HIV-1 Infection
    Roger Pomerantz; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. Mechanisms of virus-induced impairment of reverse cholesterol transport
    Michael Bukrinsky; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In addition, the proposed studies will define the mechanisms regulating physiological turnover of ABCA1 and thus may contribute to development of new therapeutic agents to treat atherosclerosis. ..
  27. Imaging Technology for HIV Nuclear Import Inhibitors
    Michael Bukrinsky; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..of the fluorescent reporter molecule, green fluorescent protein (GFP), fused to the HIV-1 accessory protein, Vpr, into virion particles; and incorporation of fluorescent labeled nucleotides into the viral cDNA during reverse ..