vpr

Summary

Gene Symbol: vpr
Description: p15
Alias: p15, Vpr
Species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Products:     vpr

Top Publications

  1. Li G, Park H, Liang D, Zhao R. Cell cycle G2/M arrest through an S phase-dependent mechanism by HIV-1 viral protein R. Retrovirology. 2010;7:59 pubmed publisher
    Cell cycle G2 arrest induced by HIV-1 Vpr is thought to benefit viral proliferation by providing an optimized cellular environment for viral replication and by skipping host immune responses...
  2. Zhao R, Bukrinsky M, Elder R. HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) & host cellular responses. Indian J Med Res. 2005;121:270-86 pubmed
    ..Among the many viral offensive strategies, viral protein R (Vpr) plays a particularly active role...
  3. Kitayama H, Miura Y, Ando Y, Hoshino S, Ishizaka Y, Koyanagi Y. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr inhibits axonal outgrowth through induction of mitochondrial dysfunction. J Virol. 2008;82:2528-42 pubmed
    ..produce factors that impair the development of neuronal precursor cells and that soluble viral protein R (Vpr) is one of the factors that has the ability to suppress axonal growth...
  4. Zhang X, Aida Y. HIV-1 Vpr: a novel role in regulating RNA splicing. Curr HIV Res. 2009;7:163-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we focus on a novel function of HIV-1 Vpr, which selectively inhibits cellular and viral pre-mRNA splicing via interactions with components of the ..
  5. Snyder A, Alsauskas Z, Gong P, Rosenstiel P, Klotman M, Klotman P, et al. FAT10: a novel mediator of Vpr-induced apoptosis in human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy. J Virol. 2009;83:11983-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vpr-induced cell cycle dysregulation and apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells are important components of the ..
  6. Barnitz R, Wan F, Tripuraneni V, Bolton D, Lenardo M. Protein kinase A phosphorylation activates Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2010;84:6410-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell cycle arrest caused by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr is strongly correlated with virus-induced cell death, and phosphorylation of Vpr serine 79 (S79) is required to ..
  7. Ayyavoo V, Mahboubi A, Mahalingam S, Ramalingam R, Kudchodkar S, Williams W, et al. HIV-1 Vpr suppresses immune activation and apoptosis through regulation of nuclear factor kappa B. Nat Med. 1997;3:1117-23 pubmed
    The HIV-1 accessory gene product Vpr can influence viral pathogenesis by affecting viral replication as well as host cell transcription and proliferation...
  8. Stewart S, Poon B, Song J, Chen I. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpr induces apoptosis through caspase activation. J Virol. 2000;74:3105-11 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr is a 96-amino-acid protein that is found associated with the HIV-1 virion. Vpr induces cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle, and this arrest is followed by apoptosis...
  9. Muthumani K, Hwang D, Choo A, Mayilvahanan S, Dayes N, Thieu K, et al. HIV-1 Vpr inhibits the maturation and activation of macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro. Int Immunol. 2005;17:103-16 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) Vpr encodes a 14 kDa protein that has been implicated in viral pathogenesis through in vitro modulation of several host cell functions...
  10. Zaitseva L, Myers R, Fassati A. tRNAs promote nuclear import of HIV-1 intracellular reverse transcription complexes. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e332 pubmed
    ..Here we provide evidence that at least some tRNA species can be imported into the nucleus of human cells and promote HIV-1 nuclear import. ..

Detail Information

Publications110 found, 100 shown here

  1. Li G, Park H, Liang D, Zhao R. Cell cycle G2/M arrest through an S phase-dependent mechanism by HIV-1 viral protein R. Retrovirology. 2010;7:59 pubmed publisher
    Cell cycle G2 arrest induced by HIV-1 Vpr is thought to benefit viral proliferation by providing an optimized cellular environment for viral replication and by skipping host immune responses...
  2. Zhao R, Bukrinsky M, Elder R. HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) & host cellular responses. Indian J Med Res. 2005;121:270-86 pubmed
    ..Among the many viral offensive strategies, viral protein R (Vpr) plays a particularly active role...
  3. Kitayama H, Miura Y, Ando Y, Hoshino S, Ishizaka Y, Koyanagi Y. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr inhibits axonal outgrowth through induction of mitochondrial dysfunction. J Virol. 2008;82:2528-42 pubmed
    ..produce factors that impair the development of neuronal precursor cells and that soluble viral protein R (Vpr) is one of the factors that has the ability to suppress axonal growth...
  4. Zhang X, Aida Y. HIV-1 Vpr: a novel role in regulating RNA splicing. Curr HIV Res. 2009;7:163-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we focus on a novel function of HIV-1 Vpr, which selectively inhibits cellular and viral pre-mRNA splicing via interactions with components of the ..
  5. Snyder A, Alsauskas Z, Gong P, Rosenstiel P, Klotman M, Klotman P, et al. FAT10: a novel mediator of Vpr-induced apoptosis in human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy. J Virol. 2009;83:11983-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vpr-induced cell cycle dysregulation and apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells are important components of the ..
  6. Barnitz R, Wan F, Tripuraneni V, Bolton D, Lenardo M. Protein kinase A phosphorylation activates Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2010;84:6410-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell cycle arrest caused by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr is strongly correlated with virus-induced cell death, and phosphorylation of Vpr serine 79 (S79) is required to ..
  7. Ayyavoo V, Mahboubi A, Mahalingam S, Ramalingam R, Kudchodkar S, Williams W, et al. HIV-1 Vpr suppresses immune activation and apoptosis through regulation of nuclear factor kappa B. Nat Med. 1997;3:1117-23 pubmed
    The HIV-1 accessory gene product Vpr can influence viral pathogenesis by affecting viral replication as well as host cell transcription and proliferation...
  8. Stewart S, Poon B, Song J, Chen I. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpr induces apoptosis through caspase activation. J Virol. 2000;74:3105-11 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr is a 96-amino-acid protein that is found associated with the HIV-1 virion. Vpr induces cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle, and this arrest is followed by apoptosis...
  9. Muthumani K, Hwang D, Choo A, Mayilvahanan S, Dayes N, Thieu K, et al. HIV-1 Vpr inhibits the maturation and activation of macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro. Int Immunol. 2005;17:103-16 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) Vpr encodes a 14 kDa protein that has been implicated in viral pathogenesis through in vitro modulation of several host cell functions...
  10. Zaitseva L, Myers R, Fassati A. tRNAs promote nuclear import of HIV-1 intracellular reverse transcription complexes. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e332 pubmed
    ..Here we provide evidence that at least some tRNA species can be imported into the nucleus of human cells and promote HIV-1 nuclear import. ..
  11. Noorbakhsh F, Ramachandran R, Barsby N, Ellestad K, LeBlanc A, Dickie P, et al. MicroRNA profiling reveals new aspects of HIV neurodegeneration: caspase-6 regulates astrocyte survival. FASEB J. 2010;24:1799-812 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure of cultured human primary astrocytes to HIV viral protein R (Vpr) induced p53 up-regulation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase-6 activation followed by cell ..
  12. Gaynor E, Chen I. Analysis of apoptosis induced by HIV-1 Vpr and examination of the possible role of the hHR23A protein. Exp Cell Res. 2001;267:243-57 pubmed
    The HIV-1 Vpr protein induces apoptosis of cells, the mechanism of which is unknown...
  13. Richard J, Sindhu S, Pham T, Belzile J, Cohen E. HIV-1 Vpr up-regulates expression of ligands for the activating NKG2D receptor and promotes NK cell-mediated killing. Blood. 2010;115:1354-63 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the viral factor(s) involved in NKG2D ligand expression still remains undefined. HIV-1 Vpr activates the DNA damage/stress-sensing ATR kinase and promotes G(2) cell-cycle arrest, conditions known to up-..
  14. Norman J, Mashiba M, McNamara L, Onafuwa Nuga A, Chiari Fort E, Shen W, et al. The antiviral factor APOBEC3G enhances the recognition of HIV-infected primary T cells by natural killer cells. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:975-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that viral protein R (Vpr), which interacts with a uracil glycosylase, also counteracted A3G by diminishing the incorporation of uridine...
  15. Laguette N, Brégnard C, Hue P, Basbous J, Yatim A, Larroque M, et al. Premature activation of the SLX4 complex by Vpr promotes G2/M arrest and escape from innate immune sensing. Cell. 2014;156:134-45 pubmed publisher
    The HIV auxiliary protein Vpr potently blocks the cell cycle at the G2/M transition...
  16. Muthumani K, Hwang D, Desai B, Zhang D, Dayes N, Green D, et al. HIV-1 Vpr induces apoptosis through caspase 9 in T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:37820-31 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), vpr gene encodes a 14-kDa virion-associated protein, which exhibits significant effects on human cells. One important property of Vpr is its ability to induce apoptosis during infection...
  17. Fassati A, Gorlich D, Harrison I, Zaytseva L, Mingot J. Nuclear import of HIV-1 intracellular reverse transcription complexes is mediated by importin 7. EMBO J. 2003;22:3675-85 pubmed
    ..These results provide a new insight into the molecular mechanism for HIV-1 nuclear import and reveal potential targets for therapeutic intervention. ..
  18. Suzuki Y, Craigie R. The road to chromatin - nuclear entry of retroviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007;5:187-96 pubmed
    ..Before integration into the host genome can occur, this complex must be transported to the nucleus and must cross the nuclear envelope. This Review summarizes our current knowledge of how this journey is accomplished. ..
  19. Le Rouzic E, Belaïdouni N, Estrabaud E, Morel M, Rain J, Transy C, et al. HIV1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle by recruiting DCAF1/VprBP, a receptor of the Cul4-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase. Cell Cycle. 2007;6:182-8 pubmed
    How the HIV1 Vpr protein initiates the host cell response leading to cell cycle arrest in G(2) has remained unknown...
  20. Liang D, Benko Z, Agbottah E, Bukrinsky M, Zhao R. Anti-vpr activities of heat shock protein 27. Mol Med. 2007;13:229-39 pubmed
    HIV-1 Vpr plays a pivotal role in viral pathogenesis and is preferentially targeted by the host immune system...
  21. Hoshino S, Konishi M, Mori M, Shimura M, Nishitani C, Kuroki Y, et al. HIV-1 Vpr induces TLR4/MyD88-mediated IL-6 production and reactivates viral production from latency. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;87:1133-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Vpr, a HIV-1 accessory protein, was believed to be present in the plasma of HIV-1-positive patients, and our previous work demonstrated the presence of plasma Vpr in 20 out of 52 patients...
  22. Bouhamdan M, Benichou S, Rey F, Navarro J, Agostini I, Spire B, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr protein binds to the uracil DNA glycosylase DNA repair enzyme. J Virol. 1996;70:697-704 pubmed
    The role of the accessory gene product Vpr during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection remains unclear...
  23. Bell C, Connell B, Capovilla A, Venter W, Stevens W, Papathanasopoulos M. Molecular characterization of the HIV type 1 subtype C accessory genes vif, vpr, and vpu. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007;23:322-30 pubmed
    HIV-1 Vif, Vpr, and Vpu proteins have a profound effect on efficient viral replication and pathogenesis...
  24. Huard S, Elder R, Liang D, Li G, Zhao R. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr induces cell cycle G2 arrest through Srk1/MK2-mediated phosphorylation of Cdc25. J Virol. 2008;82:2904-17 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr induces cell cycle G(2) arrest in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and mammalian cells, suggesting the cellular pathway(s) targeted by Vpr is conserved among eukaryotes...
  25. Thieu K, Morrow M, Shedlock D, Schoenly K, Mallilankaraman K, Choo A, et al. HIV-1 Vpr: regulator of viral survival. Curr HIV Res. 2009;7:153-62 pubmed
    The HIV-1 Vpr protein is a viral accessory protein that plays a number of important roles during HIV infection...
  26. Shimura M, Toyoda Y, Iijima K, Kinomoto M, Tokunaga K, Yoda K, et al. Epigenetic displacement of HP1 from heterochromatin by HIV-1 Vpr causes premature sister chromatid separation. J Cell Biol. 2011;194:721-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Dissecting the function of HIV-1-encoded Vpr, we unraveled important properties of heterochromatin during chromosome segregation...
  27. Kino T, Gragerov A, Slobodskaya O, Tsopanomichalou M, Chrousos G, Pavlakis G. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Vpr induces transcription of the HIV-1 and glucocorticoid-responsive promoters by binding directly to p300/CBP coactivators. J Virol. 2002;76:9724-34 pubmed
    The accessory Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a promiscuous activator of viral and cellular promoters...
  28. Brenner C, Kroemer G. The mitochondriotoxic domain of Vpr determines HIV-1 virulence. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:1455-7 pubmed
  29. Sabbah E, Roques B. Critical implication of the (70-96) domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr protein in apoptosis of primary rat cortical and striatal neurons. J Neurovirol. 2005;11:489-502 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 regulatory protein Vpr has been detected in the serum of HIV-seropositive individuals and in the cerebrospinal fluid of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients suffering from ..
  30. Dehart J, Zimmerman E, Ardon O, Monteiro Filho C, Argañaraz E, Planelles V. HIV-1 Vpr activates the G2 checkpoint through manipulation of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Virol J. 2007;4:57 pubmed
    HIV-1 Vpr is a viral accessory protein that activates ATR through the induction of DNA replication stress. ATR activation results in cell cycle arrest in G2 and induction of apoptosis...
  31. Deshmane S, Mukerjee R, Fan S, Del Valle L, Michiels C, Sweet T, et al. Activation of the oxidative stress pathway by HIV-1 Vpr leads to induction of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:11364-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of HIF-1 can also be mediated by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr. In addition, cellular components, including reactive oxygen species, contribute to the induction of HIF-1alpha...
  32. Yuan H, Xie Y, Chen I. Depletion of Wee-1 kinase is necessary for both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr- and gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis. J Virol. 2003;77:2063-70 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protein R (Vpr) induces G2 arrest, and prolonged G2 arrest leads to apoptosis...
  33. Chen R, Le Rouzic E, Kearney J, Mansky L, Benichou S. Vpr-mediated incorporation of UNG2 into HIV-1 particles is required to modulate the virus mutation rate and for replication in macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:28419-25 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is able to infect nondividing cells, such as macrophages, and the viral Vpr protein has been shown to participate in this process...
  34. Yuan H, Kamata M, Xie Y, Chen I. Increased levels of Wee-1 kinase in G(2) are necessary for Vpr- and gamma irradiation-induced G(2) arrest. J Virol. 2004;78:8183-90 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr induces cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M transition and subsequently apoptosis. Here we examined the potential involvement of Wee-1 in Vpr-induced G(2) arrest...
  35. Varin A, Decrion A, Sabbah E, Quivy V, Sire J, Van Lint C, et al. Synthetic Vpr protein activates activator protein-1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and NF-kappaB and stimulates HIV-1 transcription in promonocytic cells and primary macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42557-67 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Vpr protein plays a critical role in AIDS pathogenesis, especially by allowing viral replication within nondividing cells such as mononuclear phagocytes...
  36. Zelivianski S, Liang D, Chen M, Mirkin B, Zhao R. Suppressive effect of elongation factor 2 on apoptosis induced by HIV-1 viral protein R. Apoptosis. 2006;11:377-88 pubmed
    ..HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) induces apoptosis and is believed to contribute to CD4+ lymphocyte depletion...
  37. Belzile J, Duisit G, Rougeau N, Mercier J, Finzi A, Cohen E. HIV-1 Vpr-mediated G2 arrest involves the DDB1-CUL4AVPRBP E3 ubiquitin ligase. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e85 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) has been shown to cause G2 cell cycle arrest in human cells by inducing ATR-mediated inactivation of p34cdc2, but factors directly engaged in this process remain unknown...
  38. Godet A, Guergnon J, Croset A, Cayla X, Falanga P, Colle J, et al. PP2A1 binding, cell transducing and apoptotic properties of Vpr(77-92): a new functional domain of HIV-1 Vpr proteins. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13760 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) is a major pro-apoptotic gene product...
  39. Schwefel D, Groom H, Boucherit V, Christodoulou E, Walker P, Stoye J, et al. Structural basis of lentiviral subversion of a cellular protein degradation pathway. Nature. 2014;505:234-8 pubmed publisher
    ..SAMHD1 restriction is overcome by the action of viral accessory protein x (Vpx) or the related viral protein r (Vpr) that target and recruit SAMHD1 for proteasomal degradation...
  40. Gerard F, Yang R, Romani B, Poisson A, Belzile J, Rougeau N, et al. Defining the interactions and role of DCAF1/VPRBP in the DDB1-cullin4A E3 ubiquitin ligase complex engaged by HIV-1 Vpr to induce a G2 cell cycle arrest. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e89195 pubmed publisher
    HIV viral protein R (Vpr) induces a cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase by activating the ATR DNA damage/replication stress signalling pathway through engagement of the DDB1-CUL4A-DCAF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase via a direct binding to the ..
  41. Re F, Braaten D, Franke E, Luban J. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle in G2 by inhibiting the activation of p34cdc2-cyclin B. J Virol. 1995;69:6859-64 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpr inhibits the replication of tumor cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
  42. Bouhamdan M, Xue Y, Baudat Y, Hu B, Sire J, Pomerantz R, et al. Diversity of HIV-1 Vpr interactions involves usage of the WXXF motif of host cell proteins. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:8009-16 pubmed
    ..One such retroviral-incorporated protein is Vpr, which is present in all primate lentiviruses...
  43. Hrimech M, Yao X, Branton P, Cohen E. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr-mediated G(2) cell cycle arrest: Vpr interferes with cell cycle signaling cascades by interacting with the B subunit of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A. EMBO J. 2002;21:3918 pubmed
  44. Thotala D, Schafer E, Tungaturthi P, Majumder B, Janket M, Wagner M, et al. Structure-functional analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr: role of leucine residues on Vpr-mediated transactivation and virus replication. Virology. 2004;328:89-100 pubmed
    HIV-1 Vpr has been shown to transactivate LTR-directed expression through its interaction with several proteins of cellular origin including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
  45. Deniaud A, Brenner C, Kroemer G. Mitochondrial membrane permeabilization by HIV-1 Vpr. Mitochondrion. 2004;4:223-33 pubmed
    The mitochondrion is a privileged target for apoptosis-modulatory proteins of viral origin. Thus, viral protein R (Vpr) can target mitochondria and induce apoptosis via a specific interaction with the permeability transition pore complex ..
  46. Muthumani K, Choo A, Hwang D, Ugen K, Weiner D. HIV-1 Vpr: enhancing sensitivity of tumors to apoptosis. Curr Drug Deliv. 2004;1:335-44 pubmed
    ..Analysis of HIV-1 Vpr's apoptotic and anti-proliferative activity have revealed potentially important implications for cancer therapy...
  47. Maudet C, Sourisce A, Dragin L, Lahouassa H, Rain J, Bouaziz S, et al. HIV-1 Vpr induces the degradation of ZIP and sZIP, adaptors of the NuRD chromatin remodeling complex, by hijacking DCAF1/VprBP. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77320 pubmed publisher
    The Vpr protein from type 1 and type 2 Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) is thought to inactivate several host proteins through the hijacking of the DCAF1 adaptor of the Cul4A ubiquitin ligase...
  48. Sherman M, de Noronha C, Pearce D, Greene W. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr contains two leucine-rich helices that mediate glucocorticoid receptor coactivation independently of its effects on G(2) cell cycle arrest. J Virol. 2000;74:8159-65 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr participates in nuclear targeting of the viral preintegration complex in nondividing cells and induces G(2) cell cycle arrest in proliferating cells, which creates an intracellular milieu ..
  49. Hogan T, Nonnemacher M, Krebs F, Henderson A, Wigdahl B. HIV-1 Vpr binding to HIV-1 LTR C/EBP cis-acting elements and adjacent regions is sequence-specific. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003;57:41-8 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) is a 14 kDa virion-associated protein that transactivates the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) as well as other eukaryotic promoters...
  50. Wen X, Duus K, Friedrich T, de Noronha C. The HIV1 protein Vpr acts to promote G2 cell cycle arrest by engaging a DDB1 and Cullin4A-containing ubiquitin ligase complex using VprBP/DCAF1 as an adaptor. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:27046-57 pubmed
    The roles of the HIV1 protein Vpr in virus replication and pathogenesis remain unclear. Expression of Vpr in dividing cells causes cell cycle arrest in G(2)...
  51. Morellet N, Roques B, Bouaziz S. Structure-function relationship of Vpr: biological implications. Curr HIV Res. 2009;7:184-210 pubmed
    b>Vpr, incorporated into the HIV-1 virion, shows multiple activities including nuclear transport of the preintegration complex to the nucleus, activation of the transcription, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M transition and induction of ..
  52. Erkelenz S, Poschmann G, Theiss S, Stefanski A, Hillebrand F, Otte M, et al. Tra2-mediated recognition of HIV-1 5' splice site D3 as a key factor in the processing of vpr mRNA. J Virol. 2013;87:2721-34 pubmed publisher
    ..While 3' splice site (3'ss) A2 needs to be activated for vpr mRNA formation, the location of the vpr start codon within downstream intron 3 requires silencing of splicing at 5'..
  53. Jenkins Y, McEntee M, Weis K, Greene W. Characterization of HIV-1 vpr nuclear import: analysis of signals and pathways. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:875-85 pubmed
    While the Vpr protein of HIV-1 has been implicated in import of the viral preintegration complex across the nuclear pore complex (NPC) of nondividing cellular hosts, the mechanism by which Vpr enters the nucleus remains unknown...
  54. Patel C, Mukhtar M, Pomerantz R. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr induces apoptosis in human neuronal cells. J Virol. 2000;74:9717-26 pubmed
    ..Of note, a higher level of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr has been detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patients with neurological disorders...
  55. Roshal M, Kim B, Zhu Y, Nghiem P, Planelles V. Activation of the ATR-mediated DNA damage response by the HIV-1 viral protein R. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25879-86 pubmed
    ..The HIV-1 accessory gene vpr encodes a conserved 96-amino acid protein (Vpr) that is necessary and sufficient for the HIV-1-induced block of ..
  56. Bolton D, Barnitz R, Sakai K, Lenardo M. 14-3-3 theta binding to cell cycle regulatory factors is enhanced by HIV-1 Vpr. Biol Direct. 2008;3:17 pubmed publisher
    ..The HIV-1 Vpr accessory protein causes cell death, likely through a mechanism related to its ability to arrest cells in the G2,M ..
  57. Di Marzio P, Choe S, Ebright M, Knoblauch R, Landau N. Mutational analysis of cell cycle arrest, nuclear localization and virion packaging of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr. J Virol. 1995;69:7909-16 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr is a virion-associated, regulatory protein that is required for efficient viral replication in monocytes/macrophages...
  58. Stewart S, Poon B, Jowett J, Chen I. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr induces apoptosis following cell cycle arrest. J Virol. 1997;71:5579-92 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpr gene encodes a protein which induces arrest of cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle...
  59. Sherman M, de Noronha C, Eckstein L, Hataye J, Mundt P, Williams S, et al. Nuclear export of Vpr is required for efficient replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in tissue macrophages. J Virol. 2003;77:7582-9 pubmed
    ..The HIV-1 PIC contains three nucleophilic proteins, matrix, integrase, and Vpr, all of which have been implicated in nuclear targeting...
  60. Andersen J, Le Rouzic E, Planelles V. HIV-1 Vpr: mechanisms of G2 arrest and apoptosis. Exp Mol Pathol. 2008;85:2-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Considerable attention has been paid to four small HIV-1 open reading frames, vif, vpr, vpu and nef...
  61. Deshmane S, Amini S, Sen S, Khalili K, Sawaya B. Regulation of the HIV-1 promoter by HIF-1? and Vpr proteins. Virol J. 2011;8:477 pubmed publisher
    We previously demonstrated the ability of HIV-1 Vpr protein to activate the oxidative stress pathway, thus leading to the induction of the hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1?)...
  62. Poon B, Chen I. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr enhances expression from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA. J Virol. 2003;77:3962-72 pubmed
    ..HIV-1 Vpr is a virion-associated accessory protein that is critical for HIV-1 replication in nondividing cells and induces ..
  63. Le Rouzic E, Morel M, Ayinde D, Belaïdouni N, Letienne J, Transy C, et al. Assembly with the Cul4A-DDB1DCAF1 ubiquitin ligase protects HIV-1 Vpr from proteasomal degradation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:21686-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently documented such a mechanism for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr protein, which promotes cell cycle arrest by recruiting the DCAF1 adaptor of the Cul4A-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase, a ..
  64. Rosenstiel P, Gruosso T, Letourneau A, Chan J, LeBlanc A, Husain M, et al. HIV-1 Vpr inhibits cytokinesis in human proximal tubule cells. Kidney Int. 2008;74:1049-58 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 vpr plays an important role in the glomerulosclerosis of HIVAN, especially when it is associated with nef expression in ..
  65. Belzile J, Richard J, Rougeau N, Xiao Y, Cohen E. HIV-1 Vpr induces the K48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of target cellular proteins to activate ATR and promote G2 arrest. J Virol. 2010;84:3320-30 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) induces cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase by a mechanism involving the activation of the DNA damage sensor ATR...
  66. Casey Klockow L, Sharifi H, Wen X, Flagg M, Furuya A, Nekorchuk M, et al. The HIV-1 protein Vpr targets the endoribonuclease Dicer for proteasomal degradation to boost macrophage infection. Virology. 2013;444:191-202 pubmed publisher
    The HIV-1 protein Vpr enhances macrophage infection, triggers G2 cell cycle arrest, and targets cells for NK-cell killing. Vpr acts through the CRL4(DCAF1) ubiquitin ligase complex to cause G2 arrest and trigger expression of NK ligands...
  67. He J, Choe S, Walker R, Di Marzio P, Morgan D, Landau N. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R (Vpr) arrests cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle by inhibiting p34cdc2 activity. J Virol. 1995;69:6705-11 pubmed
    The Vpr accessory gene product of human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus is believed to play a role in permitting entry of the viral core into the nucleus of nondividing cells...
  68. Willetts K, Rey F, Agostini I, Navarro J, Baudat Y, Vigne R, et al. DNA repair enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase is specifically incorporated into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral particles through a Vpr-independent mechanism. J Virol. 1999;73:1682-8 pubmed
    The Vpr protein, encoded by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome, is one of the nonstructural proteins packaged in large amounts into viral particles...
  69. Kamata M, Nitahara Kasahara Y, Miyamoto Y, Yoneda Y, Aida Y. Importin-alpha promotes passage through the nuclear pore complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr. J Virol. 2005;79:3557-64 pubmed
    Viral protein R (Vpr) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 has potent karyophilic properties, but details of the mechanism by which it enters the nucleus remain to be clarified...
  70. Schröfelbauer B, Hakata Y, Landau N. HIV-1 Vpr function is mediated by interaction with the damage-specific DNA-binding protein DDB1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:4130-5 pubmed
    The Vpr accessory protein of HIV-1 induces a response similar to that of DNA damage. In cells expressing Vpr, the DNA damage sensing kinase, ATR, is activated, resulting in G(2) arrest and apoptosis...
  71. Taneichi D, Iijima K, Doi A, Koyama T, Minemoto Y, Tokunaga K, et al. Identification of SNF2h, a chromatin-remodeling factor, as a novel binding protein of Vpr of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2011;6:177-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Vpr, an accessory gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, encodes a virion-associated nuclear protein that plays an important role in the primary viral infection of resting macrophages...
  72. Sabbah E, Druillennec S, Morellet N, Bouaziz S, Kroemer G, Roques B. Interaction between the HIV-1 protein Vpr and the adenine nucleotide translocator. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2006;67:145-54 pubmed
    The HIV-1 protein Vpr circulates in the serum of seropositive individuals and in the cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patients with neurological disorders...
  73. Barrero C, Datta P, Sen S, Deshmane S, Amini S, Khalili K, et al. HIV-1 Vpr modulates macrophage metabolic pathways: a SILAC-based quantitative analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68376 pubmed publisher
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 encoded viral protein Vpr is essential for infection of macrophages by HIV-1. Furthermore, these macrophages are resistant to cell death and are viral reservoir...
  74. Vodicka M, Koepp D, Silver P, Emerman M. HIV-1 Vpr interacts with the nuclear transport pathway to promote macrophage infection. Genes Dev. 1998;12:175-85 pubmed
    HIV-1 Vpr promotes nuclear entry of viral nucleic acids in nondividing macrophages and also causes a G2 cell-cycle arrest...
  75. Fouchier R, Meyer B, Simon J, Fischer U, Albright A, Gonzalez Scarano F, et al. Interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr protein with the nuclear pore complex. J Virol. 1998;72:6004-13 pubmed
    The Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) performs a number of functions that are associated with the nucleus...
  76. Jacquot G, Le Rouzic E, Maidou Peindara P, Maizy M, Lefrere J, Daneluzzi V, et al. Characterization of the molecular determinants of primary HIV-1 Vpr proteins: impact of the Q65R and R77Q substitutions on Vpr functions. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7514 pubmed publisher
    Although HIV-1 Vpr displays several functions in vitro, limited information exists concerning their relevance during infection. Here, we characterized Vpr variants isolated from a rapid and a long-term non-progressor (LTNP)...
  77. Lyonnais S, Gorelick R, Heniche Boukhalfa F, Bouaziz S, Parissi V, Mouscadet J, et al. A protein ballet around the viral genome orchestrated by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase leads to an architectural switch: from nucleocapsid-condensed RNA to Vpr-bridged DNA. Virus Res. 2013;171:287-303 pubmed publisher
    ..contains at least two HIV-1 proteins initially from the virion core, namely integrase (IN) and the viral protein r (Vpr)...
  78. Dehart J, Planelles V. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr links proteasomal degradation and checkpoint activation. J Virol. 2008;82:1066-72 pubmed
  79. Romani B, Engelbrecht S. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr: functions and molecular interactions. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1795-805 pubmed publisher
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) is an accessory protein that interacts with a number of cellular and viral proteins...
  80. Solis M, Nakhaei P, Jalalirad M, Lacoste J, Douville R, Arguello M, et al. RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling is inhibited in HIV-1 infection by a protease-mediated sequestration of RIG-I. J Virol. 2011;85:1224-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals a novel PR-dependent mechanism employed by HIV-1 to counteract the early IFN response to viral RNA in infected cells. ..
  81. Sawaya B, Khalili K, Mercer W, Denisova L, Amini S. Cooperative actions of HIV-1 Vpr and p53 modulate viral gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:20052-7 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have examined the capacity of the viral auxiliary protein, Vpr, to modulate transcriptional activity of the HIV-1 promoter sequence located within the long terminal repeat (LTR)...
  82. Ramanathan M, Curley E, Su M, Chambers J, Weiner D. Carboxyl terminus of hVIP/mov34 is critical for HIV-1-Vpr interaction and glucocorticoid-mediated signaling. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:47854-60 pubmed
    Human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) vpr is a highly conserved gene among lentiviruses. The diverse functions of Vpr support interactions of this HIV accessory protein with host cell partners of important pathways...
  83. Tan L, Ehrlich E, Yu X. DDB1 and Cul4A are required for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr-induced G2 arrest. J Virol. 2007;81:10822-30 pubmed
    b>Vpr-mediated induction of G2 cell cycle arrest has been postulated to be important for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication, but the precise role of Vpr in this cell cycle arrest is unclear...
  84. Matsuda M, Arai A, Nakamura Y, Fujisawa R, Masuda M. Host cell-specific effects of lentiviral accessory proteins on the eukaryotic cell cycle progression. Microbes Infect. 2009;11:646-53 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, Vpr of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) induces the cell cycle G2 arrest in a host cell-specific manner...
  85. Aida Y, Matsuda G. Role of Vpr in HIV-1 nuclear import: therapeutic implications. Curr HIV Res. 2009;7:136-43 pubmed
    ..b>Vpr, one of the accessory gene products of HIV-1, plays a key regulatory role in PIC nuclear import in macrophages, ..
  86. Ayinde D, Maudet C, Transy C, Margottin Goguet F. Limelight on two HIV/SIV accessory proteins in macrophage infection: is Vpx overshadowing Vpr?. Retrovirology. 2010;7:35 pubmed publisher
    ..focuses on two HIV accessory proteins whose functions might be more specifically related to macrophage infection: Vpr, which is conserved across primate lentiviruses including HIV-1 and HIV-2, and Vpx, a protein genetically related ..
  87. Wei W, Guo H, Han X, Liu X, Zhou X, Zhang W, et al. A novel DCAF1-binding motif required for Vpx-mediated degradation of nuclear SAMHD1 and Vpr-induced G2 arrest. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:1745-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify a highly conserved motif (Wx4?x2?x3A?xH) that is present in diverse Vpx and Vpr proteins of primate lentiviruses...
  88. Withers Ward E, Jowett J, Stewart S, Xie Y, Garfinkel A, Shibagaki Y, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr interacts with HHR23A, a cellular protein implicated in nucleotide excision DNA repair. J Virol. 1997;71:9732-42 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpr gene is an evolutionarily conserved gene among the primate lentiviruses HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency viruses...
  89. Le Rouzic E, Benichou S. The Vpr protein from HIV-1: distinct roles along the viral life cycle. Retrovirology. 2005;2:11 pubmed
    ..the gag, pol and env genes and contain at least six supplementary open reading frames termed tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, vpx and vpu...
  90. Chen C, Kremer C, Henklein P, Schubert U, Fink R, Fischer W. Modulating the activity of the channel-forming segment of Vpr protein from HIV-1. Eur Biophys J. 2010;39:1089-95 pubmed publisher
    Viral protein of regulation (Vpr) encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a short auxiliary protein that is 96 amino acids in length...
  91. Janoo A, Morrow P, Tung H. Activation of protein phosphatase-2A1 by HIV-1 Vpr cell death causing peptide in intact CD(4+) T cells and in vitro. J Cell Biochem. 2005;94:816-25 pubmed
    HIV-1, the etiologic agent of human AIDS, causes cell death in host and non-host cells via HIV-1 Vpr, one of its auxiliary gene product. HIV-1 Vpr can also cause cell cycle arrest in several cell types...
  92. Majumder B, Janket M, Schafer E, Schaubert K, Huang X, Kan Mitchell J, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr impairs dendritic cell maturation and T-cell activation: implications for viral immune escape. J Virol. 2005;79:7990-8003 pubmed
    ..In this study, we determined the effects of HIV-1 Vpr on one of the initial target of the virus, dendritic cells (DC), by investigating DC maturation, cytokine profiling,..
  93. Caly L, Saksena N, Piller S, Jans D. Impaired nuclear import and viral incorporation of Vpr derived from a HIV long-term non-progressor. Retrovirology. 2008;5:67 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of patient-derived vpr sequences from each of the three cohort members in mammalian cells tagged with GFP revealed a significant reduction ..
  94. Poon B, Jowett J, Stewart S, Armstrong R, Rishton G, Chen I. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpr gene induces phenotypic effects similar to those of the DNA alkylating agent, nitrogen mustard. J Virol. 1997;71:3961-71 pubmed
    The product of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpr gene induces cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle and is characterized by an accumulation of the hyperphosphorylated form of cdc2 kinase...
  95. Li G, Bukrinsky M, Zhao R. HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) and its interactions with host cell. Curr HIV Res. 2009;7:178-83 pubmed
    ..Recent findings suggest that HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) interacts with some of the host innate antiviral factors, such as heat shock proteins, and plays an active role as ..
  96. Ward J, Davis Z, DeHart J, Zimmerman E, Bosque A, Brunetta E, et al. HIV-1 Vpr triggers natural killer cell-mediated lysis of infected cells through activation of the ATR-mediated DNA damage response. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000613 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies reveal that expression of vpr is necessary and sufficient to elicit the expression of NKG2D ligands in the context of HIV-1 infection...
  97. Planelles V, Barker E. Roles of Vpr and Vpx in modulating the virus-host cell relationship. Mol Aspects Med. 2010;31:398-406 pubmed publisher
    The human and simian immunodeficiency viruses contain small open reading frames known as vpr and vpx. These genes encode proteins that are highly related both at the amino acid level and functionally, although key differences do exist...
  98. Pomerantz R. Effects of HIV-1 Vpr on neuroinvasion and neuropathogenesis. DNA Cell Biol. 2004;23:227-38 pubmed
    ..One of these proteins, the accessory HIV-1 protein Vpr, is a critical moiety in these studies, and will be discussed in this article.